Kent KCC Area Energy and emissions information. Energy Performance Certificates and Domestic Energy Rating (SAP) 2009/10

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1 Kent County Council Energy and emissions information Kent KCC Area Energy and emissions information Energy Performance Certificates and Domestic Energy Rating (SAP) 2009/10 Published January 2011 Research & Intelligence Kent County Council Analysis and Information Team 1

2 Kent County Council Energy and emissions information This bulletin is one of a series of bulletins on energy consumption and carbon emissions. Other bulletins will include road transport energy consumption, Gas and Electricity energy usage, Industrial & Commercial business energy use, carbon emissions and energy conservation. Other bulletins in this series are: Domestic Gas and Electricity consumption and CO 2 Carbon Emissions. Contents Page Kent County Council Policy 2 Introduction 3 Summary of Statistics 3 Tables 4-5 Measuring and Monitoring emissions 6 Energy Performance Certificates 7-8 Energy Efficiency Ratings 9 Kent County Council energy and emissions policy is as follows: "The County Council through it's community vision and strategy documents has recognised the need to create a coherent policy framework which can help maintain secure and affordable energy supplies for Kent, reduce carbon emissions and support climate change management. Through this policy framework the County Council supports the need to reduce energy use, maximise energy efficiency and increase the proportion of energy generated from renewable sources. These are key areas where the County Council is now promoting action. Reducing energy use in new buildings through quality design and retrofitting existing buildings can help to reduce consumption and bring down costs for Kent residents and businesses." 2

3 Introduction Businesses, individuals, organisations and interest groups are currently faced with increasing pressure from customers and regulators to improve environmental performance. Climate change has become a high profile issue with the UK Government setting a framework for CO 2 reduction up to 2050 through the Climate Change Bill. Generally people are aware of greenhouse gases and that they are found naturally in air. They include carbon dioxide (approx 80% of the total greenhouse gasses), methane (10%), nitrous oxide (6%) and fluorocarbons (5%). These gases trap heat in the atmosphere and keep the earth's surface much warmer than it would be if there was no atmosphere. This warming is known as the greenhouse effect. In the last 200 years, the amount of greenhouse gases in the air has been increasing. The biggest contribution to global warming is carbon dioxide. The way we use energy in homes and buildings causes emissions of carbon. The energy we use for heating, lighting and power in homes produces over 25% of the nation s carbon dioxide emissions, other buildings produce a further one-sixth (17%). However, energy conservation and efficiency isn t just about saving the planet s resources and climate change. It is also about saving money. As a result, energy efficiency in the home is one of the Government s main areas of focus for action on climate change. Summary of statistics The Department of Communities and Local Government Housing Strategy Statistical Appendix (HSSA data) shows the average Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP rating - energy efficiency) of private sector housing. In Kent districts at 1 st April 2010 SAP ratings ranged from 61 (Dartford) to 50 (Tunbridge Wells). The majority of Kent districts have shown some level of improvement since However, although Kent districts are above the national average there is still room to continue the improvement in the upward trend of ratings for home insulation. Using the SAP ratings (detailed earlier in this summary) a rating of 100 would be very efficient, (Table 1). The average SAP rating for England is about 50. This ranges from 70 for Braintree district to 37 in West Devon. HSSA data also estimates the percentage of private sector housing stock in each local authority with a SAP rating of less than 35 (ie Bands F and G, which are not energy efficient homes). In Kent for 2010 this measure indicated that 20% of homes in Gravesham had a low SAP rating of below 35. In contrast only 1% of the homes in Dartford fell into this category. (Table 2) Nationally, using this measure, figures ranged from Maldon where 44% of the homes had a SAP rating of less than 35, to 0% for homes in Tameside, Haringey and Swindon. 3

4 Table 1 Energy efficiency condition of private sector* housing. Average SAP** rating at 1st April Source: DCLG HSSA return # = not known or unavailable Ashford # 50 # Canterbury # Dartford # Dover # Gravesham # 51 # Maidstone # # # Medway UA # Sevenoaks # Shepway # Swale # # Thanet # Tonbridge & Malling # Tunbridge Wells # * Owner occupier stock includes private rented but excludes RSLstock ** The Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) also known as 'Energy ratings' are rated from being very inefficient and 100 being highly efficient. A typical SAP for an average house in England is about 50. A SAP rating built to current Part L building regulations would be closer to 80 or more. SAP ratings equate to the A-G scale of energy efficiency. SAP rating 1-20 (Rated scale G), (F), (E), (D), (C), (B), 92 or more (A) Kent: Average SAP rating 2010 SAP rating Ashford Canterbury Dartford Dover Gravesham Maidstone Medway UA Sevenoaks Shepway Swale Thanet Tonbridge & Malling Tunbridge Wells 4

5 Table 2 Energy efficiency condition of private sector* housing. Estimated % of stock with average SAP** rating of <35 at 1st April Source: DCLG HSSA return # = not known or unavailable ^ 2005^ 2004^ 2003^ 2002^ 2001^ Ashford not available Canterbury not available Dartford not available Dover not available Gravesham 20 # # not available Maidstone # not available Medway UA 6 6 # not available Sevenoaks not available Shepway not available Swale not available Thanet not available Tonbridge & Malling 8 8 # not available Tunbridge Wells not available * Owner occupier stock includes private rented but excludes RSLstock ** The Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) also known as 'Energy ratings' are rated from being very inefficient and 100 being highly efficient. A typical SAP for an average house in England is about 50. A SAP rating built to current Part L building regulations would be closer to 80 or more. ^ SAP rating of 30 or less SAP ratings equate to the A-G scale of energy efficiency. SAP rating 1-20 (Rated scale G), (F), (E), (D), (C), (B), 92 or more (A) Kent % of private sector homes with SAP rating less than 35 at 2010 % of homes < SAP Ashford Canterbury Dartford Dover Gravesham Maidstone Medway UA Sevenoaks Shepway Swale Thanet Tonbridge & Malling Tunbridge Wells 5

6 Measuring and monitoring emissions Measuring, monitoring and comparing energy, carbon emissions and home insulation is relatively new. Statistics at local authority level which provide a time series and enable comparisons between local authorities have, in some instances, particularly for the gas and electricity industries, only recently been published. Any information should be used only as a guide as some of the early information is estimated or of an experimental nature, albeit in the most scientific manner. The Department of Communities and Local Government Housing Strategy Statistical Appendix (HSSA) data The Government s annual Housing Strategy Statistical Appendix (HSSA) survey contains three pieces of information on home energy efficiency. The condition of private sector housing section in the HSSA provides information at local authority level on: a) Average SAP rating of private sector (non Registered Social Landlord) dwellings. b) Percentage of private sector (non RSL) dwellings, compared with all private sector dwellings, with a SAP rating below 35. c) Lowest quartile SAP rating of the private sector (non RSL). KCC has information from 2001 on a and b above. National Environmental Technology Centre (Netcen) data In 2005 Defra commissioned Netcen (National Environmental Technology Centre) to produce a set of experimental statistics of carbon dioxide emissions and gas/electricity energy use for all local authority areas. This was done in order to monitor progress against domestic and international targets such as the Kyoto protocol. These estimates are not perfect and stretch information to the limit to provide estimates for each local authority. Environmental statistics are evolving and are still being developed. Therefore they should be treated with an element of caution. However the quality of the data is improving all the time and revised data is not uncommon. Unfortunately the earlier pre 2005 estimates for CO 2 emissions and the utilities energy use are not comparable with later revised results. Sources: Department for the Environment Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) Department of Communities and Local Government (DCLG) National Environmental Technology Centre (Netcen) Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC) The Carbon Trust Useful / interesting websites: 6

7 Energy Performance Certificates With the above in mind the Government introduced Energy Performance Certificates (EPC) to help improve the energy efficiency of buildings. Anyone buying or selling a home, or building a new one, now needs an energy performance certificate by law. Since October 2008 EPC's have been required whenever a building is built, sold or rented out. The certificate provides 'A' to 'G' ratings for the building, with 'A' being the most energy efficient and 'G' being the least, with the average currently being 'E'. Accredited energy assessors produce EPC s alongside an associated report which suggests improvements to make a building or home more energy efficient. EPCs are measured using the same calculations for all homes, so comparisons in energy efficiency of different properties in different parts of the country can be made. Part of the EPC is a report which will list the potential rating that a home could achieve, if the recommended changes are made. The EPC report lists and includes: Suggested improvements (eg fitting loft or cavity wall insulation); the approximate cost, possible cost savings per year if the improvements are made and how this would change the energy and carbon emission rating of the property. This information can be used to: Cut fuel bills Improve energy performance in the home Help cut carbon emissions Help choose a more energy efficient home to rent or buy 7

8 Example of energy efficiency rating graphs for homes The energy efficiency rating (Above left) is a measure of the overall efficiency of a home. The higher the rating ( A is high) the more energy efficient the home is and the lower the fuel bills will be. The environmental impact rating (Above right) is a measure of a home's impact on the environment in terms of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. The higher the rating ( A is high) the less impact it has on the environment. The rating system The higher the rating (eg A or B ) the more energy efficient the home is and the lower the fuel bills will be. It will also help to protect the environment by using less of the earth s resources. The ratings on the certificate provide a measure of the building s overall energy efficiency and it s environmental impact. The methodology has been calculated to take into account various factors relating to heating and insulation. Individual elements such as walls, roof, floor, windows, heating, heating controls, secondary heating, hot water, and lighting are assessed. Currently the average energy efficiency rating for England and Wales is band E (rating 50). Suggested improvements to the energy efficiency of the building will probably be made. They could be lower cost methods such as cavity wall insulation or low energy lighting or higher cost measures such as hot water thermostats or a condensing boiler. Other measures may include double glazing or solar panels. SAP ratings (Sometimes referred to as EER or Energy Efficiency Ratings) SAP (The Standard Assessment Procedure) ratings allow comparisons of energy efficiency between different dwellings to be made. The SAP rating is expressed on a scale, which normally runs from 1 (very inefficient) to 100, where 100 represents zero energy cost and no carbon emissions. The rating can be greater than 100 for dwellings that are net exporters of energy; however these are extremely rare in the existing dwelling stock. SAP is not affected by the individual characteristics of the 8

9 household occupying the dwelling, or by its geographical location. The calculation is based on a fixed heating pattern of 21 C in the main living area and 18 C elsewhere The Building Regulations require a SAP assessment to be carried out for all new dwellings and conversions. Local authorities, housing associations, and other landlords also use SAP ratings to estimate the energy efficiency of existing housing. The version of SAP used in the survey is currently SAP 2005, which was effective from April 2006 in England and Wales. The SAP rating takes into account a range of factors that contribute to energy efficiency, which include: Thermal insulation of the building fabric; The shape and exposed surfaces of the dwelling; Materials used for construction of the dwelling; Efficiency and control of the heating system; The fuel used for space and water heating, ventilation and lighting; Ventilation and solar gain characteristics of the dwelling; Renewable energy technologies. What makes a difference to the SAP rating? Below are some examples of aspects that can make a difference to a property s SAP rating. Improvement Rating can be improved by Estimated Savings Condensing Boiler *47 SAP points 225+ per year Cavity Insulation *13 SAP points per year Roof Insulation *10 SAP points per year Cylinder Stat & Insulation *8 SAP points per year Double Glazing *4 SAP points per year Low Energy Lighting *2 SAP points per year *Please note these are only estimates, actual figures will vary according to property. Householders do not have to act on the recommendations contained in the EPC report. However, if they decide to do so, then it could make the property more attractive for sale or rent. For further information visit the Governments website at 9

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