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1 QUIZ ;^ ONLINE! iwww.schalastic.com * /aciionmag Ê - -^"^J!i These chilclren concentration ca like niany of Ferei Schatz'5 relatives Vocabulary concentration camps: camps where Jews and others were sent during World War II as Nazi prisoners, and where many were murdered Nazis: members of a racist group that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945 and invaded other European countries the underground: a secret group that worked against the Nazis ghetto: an area in which Jews were forced to live Holocaust: the killing of millions of people, mostly Jews, by the Nazis during World War II / i 'Septeml»«^ ivflfo \i

2 The Holocaust: A Story of Survival Ferenc Schatz escaped from the Nazis, but that wasn't all. This heroic teen went on to save many others. It was a chilly October morning in World War II was raging. Eighteenyear-old Ferenc Schatz lay hiding in a cornfield near Budapest, Hungary. Planes dropped bombs all around him. His body shook with each explosion. Soon the planes were gone. "Come back to work!" shouted the guards. They were in charge of 200 Jewish prisoners, including Ferenc. The prisoners were forced to do backbreaking work building a railroad. The other Jewish men returned to work. But Ferenc stayed hidden in the field. There's no turning back, he told himself. It's time to run. i Miracle Meeting I Ferenc managed to get a away from the guards. But I the danger had just begun. s Every person had to carry I identification papers to prove his or her religion. I Ferenc didn't have any. I Without papers, he could be s arrested or even shot. Ferenc reached the busy city of Budapest. He had no plan. Then, suddenly, he heard a familiar voice call his name. There stood Bêla, his sister's husband. "It's a miracle that we bumped into each other!" Bêla whispered. Ferenc wondered what had become of his family. He worried that they might have been caught and sent to concentration camps. "Have you heard from our family?" Ferenc asked. SPAIN "Not a word," said Bêla, his voice cracking with sadness. "I don't have a good feeling about their chances." Bêla took Ferenc's arm. "Come," he said. "I'll take you to a safe house where you can rest." Saving Innocents Bêla had also escaped fi"om a labor camp. He was living in Budapest, helping other Jews escape the Nazis. "I want you to work with me in the underground," GREAT NETHERLANDS BRITAIN } relgium GERMANY POLAND FRANCE J LUX. EUROPE, 1944 CZECHOSLOVAKIA Budapest SOVIET UNION September 17,

3 Everyone in Hungary had to carry ID papers like this one. Bêla said. "We give innocent people fake IDs, money, and shelter. Of course, it's really dangerous work." "It can't be any more dangerous than what I've been through already," Ferenc said. Soon, Ferenc had fake ID papers that said he was a Christian. He worked hard to get fake papers to as many Jews as he could. Together, the members of the underground saved hundreds of lives. Whenever Ferenc was stopped by police, he acted relaxed so they would not suspect he was Jewish. It worked. That gave Ferenc an idea. Ferenc got a job working in a Nazi bomb factory. He guessed that the Nazis would never think that a Jew would be that brave. He was right ^they never suspected him. And every chance he got, Ferenc pulled wires out of the bombs so that they wouldn't work. A Life of Danger One day, Ferenc went to a safe house that was holding Jewish children. He saw five armed soldiers at the door. "We're taking the children to the ghetto," they told him. Ferenc knew the children would be sent to a concentration camp. He had to act fast. "You can't take them," he declared. "This house is under the protection ofthe Red Cross." Ferenc took out a fake ID that said he was a Red Cross officer. If the soldiers didn't believe him, they would shoot him. Ferenc held his breath while they looked at the card. The leader spit on the sidewalk. "Let's go," he said. The soldiers stormed off. In the underground, danger was as much a part of Ferenc's life as eating and sleeping. At any moment, he could be caught, tortured, and killed. But each life he saved was worth the risks. The war is almost over, thought Ferenc. / am going to survive. But I must keep going. There is more work to do. More Jews to save. After the War In 1945, World War II ended. Ferenc learned that many of his loved ones had been sent to concentration camps and murdered. In 1958, he immigrated to the United States. He often gave speeches to teach others about the Holocaust. "I owe something to the world because I was saved so many times by miracles," said Ferenc. "I am just attempting to pay that debt." 8 Scholastic Action September 17, 2012

4 PAIRED TEXT What Was the Holocaust? The Nazis killed millions of people during World Wor II. The Holocaust was the murder of millions of people, mostly Jews, during World War II. In the 1930s, a man named Adolf Hitler rose to power in Germany. He was the leader of the Nazis, a racist political party. At the time, there were many problems in Germany. There were not enough jobs to go around, and Germans were struggling. Hitler found a group of people to blame: the Jews. Hitler made speeches attacking Europe's Jewish people. He said they were less than human. Hitler claimed that Germany's problems would be over if the country got rid of the Jews. Soon, many Germans turned against their Jewish neighbors. Synagogues were destroyed. Jewish-owned businesses were burned. German troops invaded Poland, France, and other countries. They forced Jews to move to areas called ghettos. These were small parts of cities blocked off by brick walls or barbed-wire fences. The Nazis often sent people from the ghettos to concentration camps. At these camps, Jews were shot, tortured, beaten, starved, and worked to death. Hundreds of people at a time were murdered in buildings called gas chambers. Jewish people went into hiding when they could. Some non-jews risked their lives to help. They hid Jews in their homes, smuggled them to safety, and gave them fake ID papers so the Nazis wouldn't know they were Jewish. World War II ended in Hitler was defeated. Any Jewish people who were still alive were set free. But by that time, 6 million Jewish men, women, and children were dead. Compare and Contrast Use this page and the article "The Holocaust: A Story of Survival" to answer the questions. 1 Look for words on this page that relate to the Holocaust. Find three words that are also mentioned in the longer article. Circle the matching words in both texts. I Ï 2. What do these two texts have in common? How are they different? Write your answer on a separate piece of paper. Include examples from both texts. Adolf Hitler was the leader of the Nazis. September 17,

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