Chapter 19 Section 3 The Holocaust. Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.

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1 Chapter 19 Section 3 The Holocaust Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.

2 Chapter Objectives Section 3: The Holocaust Describe Nazi prejudices against Jews and early persecution of German Jews. Explain the methods Hitler used to try to exterminate Europe s Jewish population. Space Bar to display the information.

3 Guide to Reading Main Idea The Nazis believed Jews to be subhuman. They steadily increased their persecution of Jews and eventually set up death camps and tried to kill all the Jews in Europe. Key Terms and Names Holocaust Shoah Nuremberg Laws Wannsee Conference concentration camp extermination camp Space Bar to display the information.

4 Nazi Persecution of the Jews The Nazis killed nearly 6 million Jews and millions of other people during the Holocaust. The Hebrew term for the Nazi campaign to exterminate the Jews before and during World War II is Shoah. The Nazis persecuted anyone who opposed them, as well as the disabled, Gypsies, homosexuals, and Slavic peoples. The Nazis strongest hatred was aimed at all Jews. (pages ) Space Bar to display the information.

5 Nazi Persecution of the Jews (cont.) In September 1935, the Nuremberg Laws took citizenship away from Jewish Germans and banned marriage between Jews and other Germans. German Jews were deprived of many rights that citizens of Germany had long held. By 1936 at least half of Germany s Jews were jobless. Space Bar to display the information. (pages )

6 Nazi Persecution of the Jews (cont.) Anti-Jewish violence erupted throughout Germany and Austria on November 9, 1938, known as Kristallnacht, or night of broken glass. Ninety Jews died, hundreds were badly injured, thousands of Jewish businesses were destroyed, and over 180 synagogues were wrecked. Space Bar to display the information. (pages )

7 Nazi Persecution of the Jews (cont.) Between 1933 and the beginning of World War II in 1939, about 350,000 Jews escaped Nazi-controlled Germany. Many of them emigrated to the United States. Millions of Jews remained trapped in Nazi-dominated Europe because they could not get visas to the United States or to other countries. Space Bar to display the information. (pages )

8 Nazi Persecution of the Jews (cont.) What factors limited Jewish immigration to the United States? Nazi orders limited Jews from taking more than four dollars out of Germany. The United States had laws restricting a visa to any one likely to become a public charge, which many assumed the Jews would become because they would have almost no money if they left Germany. Immigration was unpopular in the U.S. because unemployment was high during the 1930s. The U.S. immigration policy allowed only 150,000 immigrants annually. Space Bar to display the answer. (pages )

9 The Final Solution On January 20, 1942, Nazi leaders met at the Wannsee Conference to decide the final solution of the Jews and other undesirables. The plan was to round up Jews and other undesirables from Nazi-controlled Europe and take them to concentration camps detention centers where healthy individuals worked as slave laborers. The elderly, the sick, and young children were sent to extermination camps to be killed in large gas chambers. (pages ) Space Bar to display the information.

10 The Final Solution (cont.) After World War II began, Nazis built concentration camps throughout Europe. Extermination camps were built in many concentration camps, mostly in Poland. Thousands of people were killed each day at these camps. In only a few years, Jewish culture had been virtually obliterated by the Nazis in the lands they conquered. Space Bar to display the information. (pages )

11 The Final Solution (cont.) What factors led to the Holocaust? The German people s sense of injury after World War I; severe economic problems; Hitler s grip on the German nation; the lack of strong tradition of representative government in Germany; German fear of Hitler s secret police; and a long history of anti-jewish prejudice and discrimination in Europe. Space Bar to display the answer. (pages )

12 Checking for Understanding Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. C 1. a camp where prisoners were sent to be executed A 2. name given to the mass slaughter of Jews and other groups by the Nazis during World War II B 3. a camp where persons are detained or confined A. Holocaust B. concentration camp C. extermination camp Space Bar to display the answers.

13 Checking for Understanding (cont.) List the groups of people who were persecuted by the Nazis. Jews, the disabled, Gypsies, homosexuals, and Slavic peoples were persecuted by the Nazis. Space Bar to display the answer.

14 Reviewing Themes Civic Rights and Responsibilities Do you think the German people or other nations could have prevented the Holocaust? Why or why not? Answers will vary. Space Bar to display the answer.

15 Critical Thinking Analyzing What are some factors that attempt to explain the Holocaust? Hitler s dictatorship, European anti- Semitism, propaganda, and fear are some factors that explain the Holocaust. Space Bar to display the answer.

16 Analyzing Visuals Analyzing Photographs Study the photographs of the Final Solution on pages of your textbook. How do the photographs show the systematic destruction of Jewish life? The photographs show stages of Hitler s campaign, from civil discrimination and violence to deportation to camps. Space Bar to display the answer.

17 Reviewing Key Facts (cont.) What were four ways that Nazis persecuted Jews? Nazis took away their civil liberties, seized their property, imprisoned them, and killed them. Space Bar to display the answer.

18 World History In addition to the Jews, millions of others were exterminated by the Nazis. To learn more about how the Poles were treated by the Nazis, read Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles Under German Occupation, , by R. C. Lukas (Lexington, Kentucky, 1986).

19 The Battle of Dunkirk Hitler s invasion of Poland fueled the fears of Americans who preferred not to become involved in Europe s conflict. In contrast, the evacuation from Dunkirk less than a year later generated very different reactions. For example, soon after the evacuation, the New York Times wrote: So long as the English tongue survives, the word Dunkirk will be spoken with reverence. For in that harbor, in such a hell as never blazed on earth before, at the end of a lost battle, the rages and blemishes that have hidden the soul of democracy fell away. There, beaten but unconquered, in shining splendor, she faced the enemy. Indeed, the Battle of Dunkirk would soon help to lift the United States out of its isolationism. Despite the success of the evacuation of Dunkirk, Churchill warned Parliament, Wars are not won by evacuations.

20 Complete Destruction Holocaust means a sacrifice consumed by fire, especially a complete or thorough sacrifice or destruction.

21 Holocaust Stories Objectives After viewing Holocaust Stories, you should: Understand and empathize with the suffering people underwent during the Holocaust. Appreciate the courage of Holocaust survivors as well as that of people bound by their conscience to save others. Accept that it is important for young people to learn the lessons of the Holocaust in order to be on guard against comparable atrocities. Click in the small window above to show a preview of The American Republic Since 1877 video. Space Bar to display the information.

22 Holocaust Stories Discussion Questions Why does Lisa Derman feel it is important to speak out on behalf of those who didn t survive the Holocaust? They weren t just numbers, but people whose lives and dreams were snuffed out by hatred. Space Bar to display the answer.

23 Holocaust Stories Discussion Questions According to Lisa Derman, what is the lesson of the Holocaust? People must dedicate themselves not to be silent bystanders when enormous evils are committed. Space Bar to display the answer.

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