Solutions & Colloids

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Solutions & Colloids"

Transcription

1 Chemistry 100 Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell Ninth Edition Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 6 Solutions & Colloids

2 Solutions Components of a Solution Solvent: The substance that is the dissolving medium, usually present in largest quantity, has the same phase as the solution. Solute: The substance or substances dissolved in the solvent to make the solution, usually present in smaller quantity than solvent, may have a phase different from the solution before dissolution. Examples: Liquid: Salt in water; sugar in water; alcohol in water; oxygen in water. Gas: Oxygen in nitrogen. Solid: Copper in zinc.

3 Characteristics of Gas & Liquid Solutions The distribution of particles is uniform. The components do not separate on standing. The components cannot be separated by filtration. For many solvent/solute combinations, solute concentrations may vary widely. Solutions are transparent. Solutions can be separated into pure components; the separation is a physical change, not a chemical change.

4 Solubility Solubility: the maximum amount of a solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature. Solubility is a physical constant, each solid has a different solubility in every liquid; those with low solubility are said to be insoluble, those with higher solubility are said to be soluble. Some liquids are insoluble in each other, as for example gasoline in water. Other liquids have limited solubility in each other, as for example ether in water (6 g/100 g H 2 O). Still other liquids are miscible, i.e. completely soluble in each other, for example ethanol and water.

5 Solutions Saturated solution: A solution that contains the maximum amount of a solute that can be dissolved at equilibrium at a given temperature. Unsaturated solution: A solution that contains less than the maximum amount of a solute that can be dissolved at a given temperature. Supersaturated solution: A solution that contains more than the maximum amount of a solute that can be dissolved under equilibrium conditions at a given temperature. When a supersaturated solution is disturbed in any way, the excess solute will separate and the equilibrium solubility is restored.

6 Solubility Rules Like Dissolves Like Polar Solvents dissolve Polar and Ionic Solutes! Water sugar, alcohol or salt Nonpolar Solvents dissolve Nonpolar Solutes! Kerosene Oil or tar

7 How Water Dissolves Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds are a regular array of positive and negative ions. Water is a polar molecule, a dipole with positive and negative ends. The negative ions attract the positive end of the water dipole, the positive ions attract the negative end of the water dipole. Each ion, depending on its size, attracts four to eight molecules of water. Ions dissolved in water are said to be hydrated, i.e. they are surrounded by water molecules. Water of hydration: the attraction between ions and water is so strong that water molecules are a part of the crystal structure of many solids

8 How Water Dissolves Polar Compounds In a few cases, molecular compounds dissolve in water because they react with water. For example HCl (g). HCl (g) + H 2 O H 3 O + + Cl - (l) (aq) (aq) Non-polar covalent molecules do not dissolve in water. Polar covalent molecules dissolve because they are solvated by hydrogen bonding, e.g. CH 3 CH 2 OH. When the non-polar part of an organic molecule is considerably larger than the polar part, the molecule no longer dissolves in water. When an organic molecule is strongly polar on one end and non-polar on the other it is a detergent or soap.

9 Temperature Effects Increasing Temperature: Solid or Liquid solutes: usually increase in solubility, converse is also true. Gaseous solutes: decrease in solubility, converse is also true.

10 Pressure Effects Pressure has little effect on the solubility of liquid or solid solutes. Gas Solubility is proportional to the Partial Pressure of the gas in equilibrium with the solution. This is called Henry s Law.

11 Concentrations of Solutes Percent composition can be expressed three ways. Each is unique and must be specified. Weight of solute per volume of solution (w/v): A solution of 10 g of table sugar in 100 ml of solution, for example, has a concentration of 10 percent w/v. Weight of solute per weight of solution (w/w): A solution of 10 g of table sugar in 100 g of solution, for example, has a concentration of 10 percent w/w. Volume of solute per volume of solution (v/v): A solution of 40 ml of ethanol in 100 ml of aqueous solution is 40 percent v/v.

12 Concentrations of Solutes Molarity, M : Moles of solute per liter of solution. Delivering a fraction of a liter of the solution will deliver that same fraction of the number of moles of solute in a liter. A way to deliver moles of solute by volume of solution. M 1 V 1 = moles Dilution of Solutions: If we dilute a solution, the number of moles of solute remains the same after dilution as before dilution. We can then use this relationship: M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 to calculate the new molarity.

13 Concentrations of Solutes Blood serum is approximately 0.14 M NaCl, how much salt does a pint ( 473 ml) of blood contain?

14 Dilution of Solutions Make ml of a solution of 0.12 molar acetic acid from a stock solution of 6.00 M stock solution.

15 Concentrations of Very Dilute Solutions For very dilute solutions, we sometimes express concentration in parts per million (ppm), or even parts per billion (ppb). Parts per million: May be either w/w or v/v; which ever quantities are used, the units in which each is reported must be the same: For example, 1 mg of lead ions per 1 kg of water is equivalent to 1 mg of lead per 1,000,000 mg of water; the concentration of lead is 1 ppm. Parts per billion is calculated the same way.

16 Ions in Solution Conduct Electricity Ions in water can migrate throughout a solution, they maintain their charge as they migrate. If electrodes are present: Cations migrate to the negative electrode (the cathode). Anions migrate to the positive electrode (the anode). The movement of ions constitutes an electric current. An electrolyte is a substance that conducts electric current when dissolved in water; a substance that does not conduct electricity is called a non-electrolyte. A strong electrolyte is a compound that dissociates completely to ions in an aqueous solution. A weak electrolyte is a compound that only partially dissociates to ions in an aqueous solution.

17 Colloids In a true solution, the maximum diameter of a solute particle is about 1 nm. Colloid: A suspension in solvent in which the solute particle diameter is between 1 nm and 1000 nm. Colloid particles have very large surface areas, which causes colloidal systems to have two properties: They scatter light (Tyndall Effect) and, therefore, appear turbid, cloudy, or milky, not transparent. They form stable dispersions; that is, they do not settle out. Colloids are intermediate between homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures.

18 Properties of Colloids Tyndall effect: a characteristic of colloids in which light passing through the colloid scatters. When we see the beam of a flashlight through smoke, dust or fog we are observing the Tyndall effect. Brownian motion: the random motion of colloid-size particles. An example of Brownian motion is the motion of dust particles in the air; what we see is not the dust particles themselves but the flashes of scattered light passing through the colloid due to the Tyndall effect.

19 Properties of Colloids Why do colloidal particles remain in solution despite all the collisions due to Brownian motion? In liquids, most colloidal particles are surrounded by a large solvation layer; if the solvent is water, as in the case of protein molecules in the blood, the large number of surrounding water molecules prevents colloidal molecules from touching and sticking together. In gases and liquids, because of their large surface area, colloidal particles acquire static charges; for example, they all may become negatively charged. When a charged colloidal particle encounters another particle of the same charge, they repel each other.

20 Colligative Properties Colligative property: any property of a solution that depends only on the number of solute particles, and not on the nature of the particles. These include: Freezing-point depression One mole of particles dissolved in a kilogram of water lowers the freezing point by 1.86 EC. Boiling Point Elevation - One mole of particles dissolved in a kilogram of water raises the boiling point by 0.52 EC. Vapor Pressure Lowering Lowered to degree solute particles replace water molecules in the solution. Osmosis Most important biologically.

21 Colligative Properties Freezing-point depression One mole of particles dissolved in a kilogram of water lowers the freezing point by 1.86 EC. CH2 OHCH 2 OH (l) H 2 O (l) H 2 O (l) CH 2 OHCH 2 OH NaCl (s) Na + (aq) + Cl - H 2 O (l) (aq) K 2 SO 4(s) 2 K SO 4 (aq) (aq) (aq) one mole = one mole one mole = two moles particles one mole = three moles particles Ethylene glycol is commonly use in antifreeze in car radiators. Salts are commonly used to melt ice on roads and sidewalks. The solutions they form freeze much lower than the pure water in ice.

22 Osmotic Pressure Semipermeable membrane: A membrane with tiny pores that are big enough to allow solvent molecules to pass through them, but not big enough to allow the passage of large solute molecules. Example: a cell wall! Osmosis: the movement of solvent particles through a semipermeable membrane from a region of lower solute concentration (higher solvent concentration) to a region of higher solute concentration (lower solvent concentration). Osmotic pressure: the pressure necessary to prevent osmosis. Osmolarity (Osmol): the molarity multiplied by the number of particles produced by each formula unit of solute.

23 Osmotic Pressure Isotonic solutions: solutions with the same osmolarity. Isotonic solution: a term used primarily in the health sciences to refer to a solution with the same osmolarity as blood plasma and red blood cells. Hypotonic solution: a solution with lower osmolarity than blood plasma and red blood cells Hemolysis: the swelling and bursting of red blood cells because they cannot resist the increase in osmotic pressure when put into a hypotonic solution. Hypertonic solution: a solution with higher osmolarity than red blood cells.

Chemistry B11 Chapter 6 Solutions and Colloids

Chemistry B11 Chapter 6 Solutions and Colloids Chemistry B11 Chapter 6 Solutions and Colloids Solutions: solutions have some properties: 1. The distribution of particles in a solution is uniform. Every part of the solution has exactly the same composition

More information

Chemistry: The Central Science. Chapter 13: Properties of Solutions

Chemistry: The Central Science. Chapter 13: Properties of Solutions Chemistry: The Central Science Chapter 13: Properties of Solutions Homogeneous mixture is called a solution o Can be solid, liquid, or gas Each of the substances in a solution is called a component of

More information

Chapter 7 Solutions 1

Chapter 7 Solutions 1 1 Chapter 7 Solutions Solutions: Solute and Solvent Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances form when there is sufficient attraction between solute and solvent molecules have two components:

More information

Chapter 14 Solutions

Chapter 14 Solutions Chapter 14 Solutions 1 14.1 General properties of solutions solution a system in which one or more substances are homogeneously mixed or dissolved in another substance two components in a solution: solute

More information

Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions. Classification of Matter

Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions. Classification of Matter Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions Learning goals and key skills: Describe how enthalpy and entropy changes affect solution formation Describe the relationship between intermolecular forces and solubility,

More information

Chemistry 51 Chapter 8 TYPES OF SOLUTIONS. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent.

Chemistry 51 Chapter 8 TYPES OF SOLUTIONS. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. TYPES OF SOLUTIONS A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. Solute: substance being dissolved; present in lesser amount. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving; present

More information

Solutions. Chapter 13. Properties of Solutions. Lecture Presentation

Solutions. Chapter 13. Properties of Solutions. Lecture Presentation Lecture Presentation Chapter 13 Properties of Yonsei University homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances: may be gases, liquids, or solids In a solution, the solute is dispersed uniformly throughout

More information

Chapter 12: Solutions

Chapter 12: Solutions Chapter 12: Solutions Problems: 3, 5, 8, 12, 14, 16, 22, 29, 32, 41-58, 61-68, 71-74 solution: homogeneous mixture of a solute dissolved in a solvent solute: solvent: component present in smaller amount

More information

Chapter 14 The Chemistry of Solutes and Solutions. Solute-Solvent Interactions. Solute-Solvent Interactions. Solute-Solvent Interactions

Chapter 14 The Chemistry of Solutes and Solutions. Solute-Solvent Interactions. Solute-Solvent Interactions. Solute-Solvent Interactions John W. Moore Conrad L. Stanitski Peter C. Jurs Solubility & Intermolecular Forces Solution = homogeneous mixture of substances. It consists of: http://academic.cengage.com/chemistry/moore solvent - component

More information

David A. Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College

David A. Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College Solutions David A. Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College A solution is a HOMOGENEOUS mixture of 2 or more substances in a single phase. One constituent t is usually regarded as the SOLVENT

More information

Honors Unit 10 Notes Solutions

Honors Unit 10 Notes Solutions Name: Honors Unit 10 Notes Solutions [Chapter 10] Objectives: 1. Students will be able to calculate solution concentration using molarity, molality, and mass percent. 2. Students will be able to interpret

More information

Solutions. How Solutions Form

Solutions. How Solutions Form Solutions How Solutions Form Solvent substance doing the dissolving, present in greater amount Definitions Solution - homogeneous mixture Solute substance being dissolved Definitions Solute - KMnO 4 Solvent

More information

Solute and Solvent 7.1. Solutions. Examples of Solutions. Nature of Solutes in Solutions. Learning Check. Solution. Solutions

Solute and Solvent 7.1. Solutions. Examples of Solutions. Nature of Solutes in Solutions. Learning Check. Solution. Solutions Chapter 7 s 7.1 s Solute and Solvent s are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances. consist of a solvent and one or more solutes. 1 2 Nature of Solutes in s Examples of s Solutes spread evenly throughout

More information

CHEMISTRY The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change

CHEMISTRY The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change CHEMISTRY The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change Third Edition Chapter 13 The Properties of Mixtures: Solutions and Colloids Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction

More information

Chapter 13. Properties of Solutions

Chapter 13. Properties of Solutions 13.4 Ways of Expressing Concentration All methods involve quantifying the amount of solute per amount of solvent (or solution). Concentration may be expressed qualitatively or quantitatively. The terms

More information

Colligative Properties

Colligative Properties Colligative Properties Vapor pressures have been defined as the pressure over a liquid in dynamic equilibrium between the liquid and gas phase in a closed system. The vapor pressure of a solution is different

More information

Chapter 14. Mixtures

Chapter 14. Mixtures Chapter 14 Mixtures Warm Up What is the difference between a heterogeneous and homogeneous mixture? Give 1 example of a heterogeneous mixture and 1 example of a homogeneous mixture. Today s Agenda QOTD:

More information

Chapter 13: Properties of Solutions

Chapter 13: Properties of Solutions Chapter 13: Properties of Solutions Problems: 9-10, 13-17, 21-42, 44, 49-60, 71-72, 73 (a,c), 77-79, 84(a-c), 91 solution: homogeneous mixture of a solute dissolved in a solvent solute: solvent: component(s)

More information

Chapter 11 Properties of Solutions

Chapter 11 Properties of Solutions Chapter 11 Properties of Solutions 11.1 Solution Composition A. Molarity moles solute 1. Molarity ( M ) = liters of solution B. Mass Percent mass of solute 1. Mass percent = 1 mass of solution C. Mole

More information

Chapter 13: Physical Properties of Solutions

Chapter 13: Physical Properties of Solutions Chapter 13: Physical Properties of Solutions Key topics: Molecular Picture (interactions, enthalpy, entropy) Concentration Units Colligative Properties terminology: Solution: a homogeneous mixture Solute:

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) All of the following statements describing solutions are true except A) Solutions are homogeneous.

More information

12.3 Colligative Properties

12.3 Colligative Properties 12.3 Colligative Properties Changes in solvent properties due to impurities Colloidal suspensions or dispersions scatter light, a phenomenon known as the Tyndall effect. (a) Dust in the air scatters the

More information

Chapter 13 - Solutions

Chapter 13 - Solutions Chapter 13 - Solutions 13-1 Types of Mixtures I. Solutions A. Soluble 1. Capable of being dissolved B. Solution 1. A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase C. Solvent 1. The dissolving

More information

Intermolecular forces, acids, bases, electrolytes, net ionic equations, solubility, and molarity of Ions in solution:

Intermolecular forces, acids, bases, electrolytes, net ionic equations, solubility, and molarity of Ions in solution: Intermolecular forces, acids, bases, electrolytes, net ionic equations, solubility, and molarity of Ions in solution: 1. What are the different types of Intermolecular forces? Define the following terms:

More information

Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions

Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions 13.1 The Solution Process - Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances. - In a solution, the solute is dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent.

More information

Chapter Thirteen. Physical Properties Of Solutions

Chapter Thirteen. Physical Properties Of Solutions Chapter Thirteen Physical Properties Of Solutions 1 Solvent: Solute: Solution: Solubility: Types of Solutions Larger portion of a solution Smaller portion of a solution A homogeneous mixture of 2 or more

More information

Types of Solutions. Chapter 17 Properties of Solutions. Types of Solutions. Types of Solutions. Types of Solutions. Types of Solutions

Types of Solutions. Chapter 17 Properties of Solutions. Types of Solutions. Types of Solutions. Types of Solutions. Types of Solutions Big Idea: Liquids will mix together if both liquids are polar or both are nonpolar. The presence of a solute changes the physical properties of the system. For nonvolatile solutes the vapor pressure, boiling

More information

Chapter 7, Reactions and Solutions

Chapter 7, Reactions and Solutions 1. Classify the following reaction as precipitation, acid-base or oxidation-reduction: Ce4+(aq) + Fe2+(aq) Ce3+(aq) + Fe3+(aq) Ans. oxidation-reduction 2. Classify the following reaction as precipitation,

More information

Unit 6 Water and Its Properties

Unit 6 Water and Its Properties Unit 6 Water and Its Properties 15.1 Water and Its Properties I. Liquid Water A. Surface Tension 1. Surface Tension a. A force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid's surface together, thereby

More information

The Solution Process CHEMISTRY. Properties of Solutions. The Central Science. Prof. Demi Levendis Room GH807 Gate House

The Solution Process CHEMISTRY. Properties of Solutions. The Central Science. Prof. Demi Levendis Room GH807 Gate House CHEMISTRY The Central Science Properties of Solutions The Solution Process Solutions: Air; brass; body fluids; sea water When a solution forms some questions we can ask are: What happens on a molecular

More information

Two Ways to Form Solutions. Role of Disorder in Solutions 2/27/2012. Types of Reactions

Two Ways to Form Solutions. Role of Disorder in Solutions 2/27/2012. Types of Reactions Role of Disorder in Solutions Disorder (Entropy) is a factor Solutions mix to form maximum disorder Two Ways to Form Solutions 1. Physical Dissolving (Solvation) NaCl(s) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) C 12 H 22

More information

Solutions. ... the components of a mixture are uniformly intermingled (the mixture is homogeneous). Solution Composition. Mass percentageof solute=

Solutions. ... the components of a mixture are uniformly intermingled (the mixture is homogeneous). Solution Composition. Mass percentageof solute= Solutions Properties of Solutions... the components of a mixture are uniformly intermingled (the mixture is homogeneous). Solution Composition 1. Molarity (M) = 4. Molality (m) = moles of solute liters

More information

Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions

Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 13 Properties of are homogeneous mixtures of two or more pure substances. In a solution,

More information

A. Types of Mixtures:

A. Types of Mixtures: I. MIXTURES: SOLUTIONS 1) mixture = a blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own identity and properties a) homogeneous mixture = a mixture that is uniform in composition throughout

More information

1/27/2014. Chapter 12. Solutions. Thirsty Seawater. Seawater. Seawater. Homogeneous Mixtures. Seawater. Lecture Presentation

1/27/2014. Chapter 12. Solutions. Thirsty Seawater. Seawater. Seawater. Homogeneous Mixtures. Seawater. Lecture Presentation Lecture Presentation Chapter 12 Solutions Sherril Soman, Grand Valley State University Thirsty Seawater Drinking seawater can cause dehydration. Seawater Is a homogeneous mixture of salts with water Contains

More information

CHAPTER 13: SOLUTIONS

CHAPTER 13: SOLUTIONS CHAPTER 13: SOLUTIONS Problems: 1-8, 11-15, 20-30, 37-88, 107-110, 131-132 13.2 SOLUTIONS: HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES solution: homogeneous mixture of substances present as atoms, ions, and/or molecules solute:

More information

Unit 13 Practice Test

Unit 13 Practice Test Name: Class: Date: Unit 13 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The dissolution of water in octane (C 8 H 18 ) is prevented by.

More information

Sample Exercise 13.1 Predicting Solubility Patterns

Sample Exercise 13.1 Predicting Solubility Patterns Sample Exercise 13.1 Predicting Solubility Patterns Predict whether each of the following substances is more likely to dissolve in the nonpolar solvent carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) or in water: C 7 H

More information

Chapter 6. Solution, Acids and Bases

Chapter 6. Solution, Acids and Bases Chapter 6 Solution, Acids and Bases Mixtures Two or more substances Heterogeneous- different from place to place Types of heterogeneous mixtures Suspensions- Large particles that eventually settle out

More information

Chapter 12. Solutions. Lecture Presentation

Chapter 12. Solutions. Lecture Presentation 12.1 Thirsty Solutions: Why You Shouldn t Drink Seawater 544 12.2 Types of Solutions and Solubility 546 12.3 Energetics of Solution Formation 551 12.4 Solution Equilibrium and Factors Affecting Solubility

More information

Sample Test 1 SAMPLE TEST 1. CHAPTER 12

Sample Test 1 SAMPLE TEST 1. CHAPTER 12 13 Sample Test 1 SAMPLE TEST 1. CHAPTER 12 1. The molality of a solution is defined as a. moles of solute per liter of solution. b. grams of solute per liter of solution. c. moles of solute per kilogram

More information

COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES:

COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES: COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES: A colligative property is a property that depends only on the number of solute particles present, not their identity. The properties we will look at are: lowering of vapor pressure;

More information

Lecture 6: Lec4a Chemical Reactions in solutions

Lecture 6: Lec4a Chemical Reactions in solutions Lecture 6: Lec4a Chemical Reactions in solutions Zumdahl 6 th Ed, Chapter 4 Sections 1-6. 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent 4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes 4.3 The Composition

More information

Solution concentration = how much solute dissolved in solvent

Solution concentration = how much solute dissolved in solvent Solutions 1 Solutions Concentration Solution concentration = how much solute dissolved in solvent Coffee crystal = solute Water = solvent Liquid Coffee = solution so a solute is dissolved in solvent to

More information

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 9 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 9.1 a. δ O δ + δ + H H In a water molecule, the oxygen has a partial negative charge and the hydrogens have partial positive charges. b. δ δ + O H δ + δ + δ H H

More information

SOLUTE - SOLVENT SYSTEM

SOLUTE - SOLVENT SYSTEM SOLUTIONS: SOLUTE - SOLVENT SYSTEM SCH4U_08 09 Solubility The term solubility is commonly used in two senses qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitatively, solubility is often used in a relative way

More information

1. Define the term colligative property and list those physical properties of a solution that can be classified as colligative properties.

1. Define the term colligative property and list those physical properties of a solution that can be classified as colligative properties. Solutions Colligative Properties DCI Name Section 1. Define the term colligative property and list those physical properties of a solution that can be classified as colligative properties. Colligative

More information

2 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

2 Copyright Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. 16.3 Colligative of Solutions > 16.3 Colligative of Solutions > CHEMISTRY & YOU Chapter 16 Solutions 16.1 of Solutions 16.2 Concentrations of Solutions 16.3 Colligative of Solutions 16.4 Calculations Involving

More information

EXPERIMENT # 3 ELECTROLYTES AND NON-ELECTROLYTES

EXPERIMENT # 3 ELECTROLYTES AND NON-ELECTROLYTES EXPERIMENT # 3 ELECTROLYTES AND NON-ELECTROLYTES Purpose: 1. To investigate the phenomenon of solution conductance. 2. To distinguish between compounds that form conducting solutions and compounds that

More information

CHAPTER 14 Solutions

CHAPTER 14 Solutions CHAPTER 14 Solutions The Dissolution Process 1. Effect of Temperature on Solubility 2. Molality and Mole Fraction Colligative Properties of Solutions 3. Lowering of Vapor Pressure and Raoult s Law 4. Fractional

More information

Name Date Class. SECTION 16.1 PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS (pages 471 477)

Name Date Class. SECTION 16.1 PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS (pages 471 477) 16 SOLUTIONS SECTION 16.1 PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS (pages 471 477) This section identifies the factors that affect the solubility of a substance and determine the rate at which a solute dissolves. Solution

More information

Experiment #10: Liquids, Liquid Mixtures and Solutions

Experiment #10: Liquids, Liquid Mixtures and Solutions Experiment #10: Liquids, Liquid Mixtures and Solutions Objectives: This experiment is a broad survey of the physical properties of liquids. We will investigate solvent/solute mixtures. We will study and

More information

Chapter 13: Solutions

Chapter 13: Solutions Ch 13 Page 1 Chapter 13: Solutions SOLUTION: A homogeneousmixture of two or more substances Composition can vary from one sample to another Appears to be one substance, though really contains multiple

More information

Chapter 8. Solution Chemistry

Chapter 8. Solution Chemistry Chapter 8 Solution Chemistry By Julie Klare, Fortis College, Smyrna, GA. Modified by Dr. Daniela Radu Outline 8.1 Solutions Are Mixtures 8.2 Formation of Solutions 8.3 Chemical Equations for Solution Formation

More information

A) HCl C) 52 g KCl in 100 g water at 80ºC A) temperature of the solution increases B) supersaturated D) low temperature and high pressure D) KClO3

A) HCl C) 52 g KCl in 100 g water at 80ºC A) temperature of the solution increases B) supersaturated D) low temperature and high pressure D) KClO3 1. Which compound becomes less soluble in water as the temperature of the solution is increased? A) HCl B) 2. The solubility of O3(s) in water increases as the A) temperature of the solution increases

More information

a. Cherry Garcia ice cream: heterogeneous mixture b. mayonnaise: colloid c, d, e. seltzer water, nail polish remover, and brass: solutions

a. Cherry Garcia ice cream: heterogeneous mixture b. mayonnaise: colloid c, d, e. seltzer water, nail polish remover, and brass: solutions Chapter 8 1 Chapter 8 Solutions Solutions to In-Chapter Problems 8.1 A heterogeneous miture does not have a uniform composition throughout a sample. A solution is a homogeneous miture that contains small

More information

Chem. 1A Final Exam Review Problems From ch. 11, 12 & 13

Chem. 1A Final Exam Review Problems From ch. 11, 12 & 13 Chem. A Final Exam Review Problems From ch., 2 & 3 f Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.. Place the following cations in order from lowest to

More information

Solutions. Occur in all phases. Ways of Measuring. Ways of Measuring. Page 1

Solutions. Occur in all phases. Ways of Measuring. Ways of Measuring. Page 1 Solutions Occur in all phases The solvent does the dissolving. The solute is dissolved. There are examples of all types of solvents dissolving all types of solvent. We will focus on aqueous solutions.

More information

Ch 8.5 Solution Concentration Units % (m/m or w/w) = mass of solute x 100 total mass of solution mass of solution = mass solute + mass solvent

Ch 8.5 Solution Concentration Units % (m/m or w/w) = mass of solute x 100 total mass of solution mass of solution = mass solute + mass solvent 1 Ch 8.5 Solution Concentration Units % (m/m or w/w) = mass of solute x 100 total mass of solution mass of solution = mass solute + mass solvent % (v/v) = volume of solute x 100 volume of solution filled

More information

2. Why does the solubility of alcohols decrease with increased carbon chain length?

2. Why does the solubility of alcohols decrease with increased carbon chain length? Colligative properties 1 1. What does the phrase like dissolves like mean. 2. Why does the solubility of alcohols decrease with increased carbon chain length? Alcohol in water (mol/100g water) Methanol

More information

Colligative Properties Discussion Chem. 1A

Colligative Properties Discussion Chem. 1A Colligative Properties Discussion Chem. 1A The material covered today is found in sections Chapter 12.5 12.7 This material will not be covered in lecture, you will have homework assigned. Chem. 1A Colligative

More information

Solutions. Occur in all phases. Ways of Measuring. Ways of Measuring. Energy of Making Solutions. 1. Break apart Solvent. Page 1

Solutions. Occur in all phases. Ways of Measuring. Ways of Measuring. Energy of Making Solutions. 1. Break apart Solvent. Page 1 s Occur in all phases The solvent does the dissolving. The solute is dissolved. There are examples of all types of solvents dissolving all types of solvent. We will focus on aqueous solutions. Ways of

More information

Osmolality Explained. Definitions

Osmolality Explained. Definitions Osmolality Explained What is osmolality? Simply put, osmolality is a measurement of the total number of solutes in a liquid solution expressed in osmoles of solute particles per kilogram of solvent. When

More information

Chapter 8. Solution Chemistry

Chapter 8. Solution Chemistry Chapter 8 Solution Chemistry By Julie Klare, Fortis College, Smyrna, GA. Modified by Dr. Daniela Radu Outline 8.1 Solutions Are Mixtures 8.2 Formation of Solutions 8.3 Chemical Equations for Solution Formation

More information

Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction

Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction Name: Note: a word marked (?) is a vocabulary word you should know the meaning of. A homogeneous (?) mixture, or, is a mixture in which the individual

More information

What is a Colligative Property?

What is a Colligative Property? What is a Colligative Property? 0 Defined as bulk liquid properties that change when you add a solute to make a solution 0 Colligative properties are based on how much solute is added but NOT the identity

More information

Chemistry Notes for class 12 Chapter 2 Solutions

Chemistry Notes for class 12 Chapter 2 Solutions 1 P a g e Chemistry Notes for class 12 Chapter 2 Solutions Solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in same or different physical phases. The substances forming the solution are called

More information

Colligative properties of biological liquids

Colligative properties of biological liquids Colligative properties of biological liquids Colligative properties are properties of solutions that depend on the number of molecules in a given volume of solvent and not on the properties (e.g. size

More information

The component present in larger proportion is known as solvent.

The component present in larger proportion is known as solvent. 40 Engineering Chemistry and Environmental Studies 2 SOLUTIONS 2. DEFINITION OF SOLUTION, SOLVENT AND SOLUTE When a small amount of sugar (solute) is mixed with water, sugar uniformally dissolves in water

More information

13.3 Factors Affecting Solubility Solute-Solvent Interactions Pressure Effects Temperature Effects

13.3 Factors Affecting Solubility Solute-Solvent Interactions Pressure Effects Temperature Effects Week 3 Sections 13.3-13.5 13.3 Factors Affecting Solubility Solute-Solvent Interactions Pressure Effects Temperature Effects 13.4 Ways of Expressing Concentration Mass Percentage, ppm, and ppb Mole Fraction,

More information

Review of Basic Concepts, Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions and Beer s Law

Review of Basic Concepts, Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions and Beer s Law Review of Basic Concepts, Molarity, Solutions, Dilutions and Beer s Law Aqueous Solutions In Chemistry, many reactions take place in water. This is also true for Biological processes. Reactions that take

More information

AP* Chemistry PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS

AP* Chemistry PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS AP* Chemistry PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS IMPORTANT TERMS Solution a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase. Does not have to involve liquids. Air is a solution of nitrogen, oxygen,

More information

EXPERIMENT 10: Electrical Conductivity Chem 111

EXPERIMENT 10: Electrical Conductivity Chem 111 EXPERIMENT 10: Electrical Conductivity Chem 111 INTRODUCTION A. Electrical Conductivity A substance can conduct an electrical current if it is made of positively and negatively charged particles that are

More information

From the book (10, 12, 16, 18, 22, 24 52, 54, 56, 58, 62, 64, 66, 68, 74, 76, 78, 80, 82, 86, 88, 90, 92, 106 and 116)

From the book (10, 12, 16, 18, 22, 24 52, 54, 56, 58, 62, 64, 66, 68, 74, 76, 78, 80, 82, 86, 88, 90, 92, 106 and 116) Chem 112 Solutions From the book (10, 12, 16, 18, 22, 24 52, 54, 56, 58, 62, 64, 66, 68, 74, 76, 78, 80, 82, 86, 88, 90, 92, 106 and 116) 1. Which of the following compounds are nonelectrolytes? A. NaF

More information

SAMPLE PROBLEM 8.1. Solutions of Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes SOLUTION STUDY CHECK

SAMPLE PROBLEM 8.1. Solutions of Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes SOLUTION STUDY CHECK Solutions of Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes SAMPLE PROBLEM 8.1 Indicate whether solutions of each of the following contain only ions, only molecules, or mostly molecules and a few ions: a. Na 2 SO 4,

More information

COPYRIGHT FOUNTAINHEAD PRESS

COPYRIGHT FOUNTAINHEAD PRESS Colligative Properties of Solutions Freezing Point Depression Objectives: To investigate the colligative property of freezing point depression; to examine the relationship between freezing point depression

More information

Chapter 13 part 4: Colligative Properties

Chapter 13 part 4: Colligative Properties Chapter 13 part 4: Colligative Properties Read: BLB 13.5-13.6 HW: BLB 13:9, 58, 61, 67, 69, 75 Packet 13:13-18 Know:, Colloids!vapor pressure lowering Raoult s Law: P A = X A P A!boiling point elevation

More information

Names of students present in your group

Names of students present in your group Your name Names of students present in your group Lab & Table Number SCI 265: SOLUTIONS AND ELECTROLYTES IONIC AND COVALENT COMPOUNDS 1. What is an ion? 2. What is a molecule? 3. What is the difference

More information

Solutions Review Questions

Solutions Review Questions Name: Thursday, March 06, 2008 Solutions Review Questions 1. Compared to pure water, an aqueous solution of calcium chloride has a 1. higher boiling point and higher freezing point 3. lower boiling point

More information

SOLUTIONS EXPERIMENT 13

SOLUTIONS EXPERIMENT 13 SOLUTIONS EXPERIMENT 13 OBJECTIVE The objective of this experiment is to demonstrate the concepts of concentrations of solutions and the properties of solution. Colloids will be demonstrated. EQUIPMENT

More information

Chapter 13. Properties of Solutions

Chapter 13. Properties of Solutions Sample Exercise 13.1 (p. 534) By the process illustrated below, water vapor reacts with excess solid sodium sulfate to form the hydrated form of the salt. The chemical reaction is Na 2 SO 4(s) + 10 H 2

More information

Chapter 2: The Nature of Molecules and the Properties of Water

Chapter 2: The Nature of Molecules and the Properties of Water Chapter 2: The Nature of Molecules and the Properties of Water Biology is the study of living things, and it is important to understand their chemical nature. The processes that allow life to exist follow

More information

Introducing Driving Force #3 - Formation of a Solid

Introducing Driving Force #3 - Formation of a Solid Introducing Driving Force #3 - Formation of a Solid In each of the next two types of chemical reactions, the reactants are aqueous solutions Reactants are ionic substances (solutes) dissolved in water

More information

CHAPTER 13: ANSWERS TO ASSIGNED PROBLEMS Hauser- General Chemistry I revised 8/03/08

CHAPTER 13: ANSWERS TO ASSIGNED PROBLEMS Hauser- General Chemistry I revised 8/03/08 CHAPTER 13: ANSWERS TO ASSIGNED PROBLEMS Hauser- General Chemistry I revised 8/03/08 13.21 The solubility of Cr(NO 3 ) 3 9 H 2 O in water is 208 g per 100 g of water at 15 C. A solution of Cr(NO 3 ) 3

More information

Phase diagram of water. Note: for H 2 O melting point decreases with increasing pressure, for CO 2 melting point increases with increasing pressure.

Phase diagram of water. Note: for H 2 O melting point decreases with increasing pressure, for CO 2 melting point increases with increasing pressure. Phase diagram of water Note: for H 2 O melting point decreases with increasing pressure, for CO 2 melting point increases with increasing pressure. WATER Covers ~ 70% of the earth s surface Life on earth

More information

Chapter 14 Solutes and Solvents

Chapter 14 Solutes and Solvents Chapter 14 Solutes and Solvents A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. The relative abundance of the substances in a solution determines which is the solute and which is the solvent.

More information

Experiment 15-Properties of Solutions

Experiment 15-Properties of Solutions A solution is a combination of a solvent (major component) and a solute (minor component. Solutions are heterogeneous mixtures. They may contain more than one solute. Solutes can contain solid, liquid

More information

Solutions Thermodynamics DCI

Solutions Thermodynamics DCI Solutions Thermodynamics DCI Name Section 1. The three attractive interactions which are important in solution formation are; solute-solute interactions, solvent-solvent interactions, and solute-solvent

More information

Chapter 4: Solution Stoichiometry Cont. Aqueous Solutions

Chapter 4: Solution Stoichiometry Cont. Aqueous Solutions Chapter 4: Solution Stoichiometry Cont. 1 Aqueous Solutions Molarity (dilution calculations, solution stoichiometry); Solubility and Solubility Rules Molecular, Ionic and Net Ionic Equations Precipitation

More information

Unit 3: Solubility Equilibrium

Unit 3: Solubility Equilibrium Unit 3: Chem 11 Review Preparation for Chem 11 Review Preparation for It is expected that the student understands the concept of: 1. Strong electrolytes, 2. Weak electrolytes and 3. Nonelectrolytes. CHEM

More information

Calculations involving concentrations, stoichiometry

Calculations involving concentrations, stoichiometry Calculations involving concentrations, stoichiometry MUDr. Jan Pláteník, PhD Mole Unit of amount of substance the amount of substance containing as many particles (atoms, ions, molecules, etc.) as present

More information

Colligative Properties of Nonvolatile Solutes 01. Colligative Properties of Nonvolatile Solutes 02. Colligative Properties of Nonvolatile Solutes 04

Colligative Properties of Nonvolatile Solutes 01. Colligative Properties of Nonvolatile Solutes 02. Colligative Properties of Nonvolatile Solutes 04 Colligative Properties of Nonvolatile Solutes 01 Colligative Properties of Nonvolatile Solutes 02 Colligative Properties: Depend on the amount not on the identity There are four main colligative properties:

More information

48 Practice Problems for Ch. 17 - Chem 1C - Joseph

48 Practice Problems for Ch. 17 - Chem 1C - Joseph 48 Practice Problems for Ch. 17 - Chem 1C - Joseph 1. Which of the following concentration measures will change in value as the temperature of a solution changes? A) mass percent B) mole fraction C) molality

More information

5s Solubility & Conductivity

5s Solubility & Conductivity 5s Solubility & Conductivity OBJECTIVES To explore the relationship between the structures of common household substances and the kinds of solvents in which they dissolve. To demonstrate the ionic nature

More information

Colligative properties CH102 General Chemistry, Spring 2014, Boston University

Colligative properties CH102 General Chemistry, Spring 2014, Boston University Colligative properties CH102 General Chemistry, Spring 2014, Boston University here are four colligative properties. vapor-pressure lowering boiling-point elevation freezing-point depression osmotic pressure

More information

When it comes to Chemical Bonding, I can ANSWERS

When it comes to Chemical Bonding, I can ANSWERS When it comes to Chemical Bonding, I can ANSWERS 1. The 3 types of chemical bonds are IONIC, COVALENT, and METALLIC bonds. 2. When atoms have 8 valence electrons they are most stable. (exception 2 for

More information

Colligative Properties

Colligative Properties Colligative Properties Say Thanks to the Authors Click http://www.ck12.org/saythanks (No sign in required) To access a customizable version of this book, as well as other interactive content, visit www.ck12.org

More information

Chemistry I Study Guideline - Unit 11: Liquids + Solutions

Chemistry I Study Guideline - Unit 11: Liquids + Solutions Chemistry I Study Guideline - Unit 11: Liquids + Solutions By the end of this chapter the skills you should be able to demonstrate are: 1. Explain the properties of the different phases of matter in terms

More information