Thomas Malthus Economist in the late 1700s-early 1800s felt Europeans will not be able to eat if population increased

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1 European Population doubled ( ) Thomas Malthus Economist in the late 1700s-early 1800s felt Europeans will not be able to eat if population increased After World War II, Europeans and other industrial societies lowered fertility rates Third World promoted large families (until extreme poverty conditions and despair of 1970s and 1980s people today (2000s) in these areas are just as poor or as poorer than in 1960 Result: governments trying to end pronatal policies 20 th Century world population exploded Most of population growth poor nations Reason: Increased fertility rates; decrease in mortality rates Industrialized Nations: Western Europe and Japan: Increased female education and increased employment opportunities Increased consumer goods Contraception and abortion lower fertility rates Increased life expectancy Increased number of retired people relied on small number of workers to pay for social services Russia current birthrates lower than death rate = Decrease in life expectancy Developing Nations: 21 st Century 95% of future population growth = developing nations -Especially in Africa and Moslem countries Asia: China and India Increasing population both governments are trying to reduce family size -Fertility rates in developing world decreased Result: Better education and better employment opportunities -Not clear yet if Asia, Africa, and Latin America will see as dramatic of a population reduction as Industrialized Nations

2 Overall: Birthrate reductions are due to: Education Consumer Culture Contraception Female employment Different Generations: Developed Nations: -Aging populations -Rely on immigration and technology in order to maintain levels of industry and agriculture in order to support the high quality standard of living and generous social welfare programs Developing Nations: Young and rapid growth in population Major Issues such as education and jobs Shortages of investment capital Poor transportation Poor communication networks Unequal Development and Migrations: Growing Inequality Global Economy productivity increasing at a very high rate fastest rate than ever before = material abundance Industrial societies of Northern Hemisphere large share of wealth than 100 years ago Majority of the world lives in poverty Regional inequalities within nations growing in both industrial and developing countries Migration from rural to urban areas developing world Population increased 3x ( ) Even after 1950 migration increasing at a high rate #1 Reason = increased income Increase in standard of living

3 But since more people were migrating to the cities this led to less opportunities since there was a strain on resources Result: Slums Shantytowns Increase in crime Global Migration: Developing world to developed world = increased migration dramatically after 1960 Led to increase in ethnic and racial tensions Immigrants brought same benefits as when Europeans came to United States 100 years before Immigrant Communities in Europe and United States -Young adults higher fertility rates than hosting country s population Long term effects: Increasing Moslem population in Europe Increasing Asian and Latin American populations in United States Result: Cultural conflicts issues of citizenship and nationality Technology: World War II new technology = increased production decreased labor requirements increased communication Reason: More demand for consumer goods United States did not use as much robotics as Europe and Japan because labor costs were lower in the United States 1950s and 1960s improvements in existing technology Example: Computer transformed office work and factories Transnational corporations (Multinational corporations) major reason for changes in technology Post World War II multinational corporations were very powerful ownership in these companies threatened countries that they would leave a country and go elsewhere if their needs were not met Multinational Corporations businesses that have operations or investments in many countries. Examples: Exxon Mobil, Toyota, Mitsubishi, General Motors. 37,000 multinational corporations in world. Control about 1/3 of private wealth. Many multinationals make more revenue than many countries GDP (Gross Domestic Product). Multinationals have manufacturing plants, offices, and stores across the

4 globe. Look for cheaper labor and cheap raw materials. 1960s Environmental Awareness increased Issues: Population growth Industrialization Agriculture in marginal lands Environmental degradation in developing and developed countries especially in Soviet Union Industrialized nations debate environmental protections vs. Maintaining high economic growth consumption of goods and resources Developing world population growth extreme environmental pressure on forests marginal lands were developed for food = erosion and water pollution United States Japan European Community s initiatives to help environment Grassroots: media and politics Strict antipollution laws: United States smog levels down 1/3 since 1970s Massive recycling campaign need economic resources to recycle Significant results But in developing world increasing population and weak governments major obstacles to effective environmental policies Conclusion: End of Cold War reason economic stress and political changes in Soviet Union Post World War II recovery Japan, the Asian Tigers, and China led to worldwide growth (Asian Tigers = Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan became economic powers in 1970s and 1980s -modernized and industrialized Postwar Inequality Capitalist west and few Asian nations increased their economies but most of the world remains poor Population growth developing nations hurt nations desire for economic growth

5 People began migrating more to industrial nations valuable labor for factories and farms Global Concerns: Growing inequality Population Growth International Problems

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