Impacts of foreign agricultural investments in developing countries & PRINCIPLES FOR RESPONSIBLE AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENT

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1 Food Security and Hunger in the Post-2015 Development Agenda Prague 24 June Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Impacts of foreign agricultural investments in developing countries & PRINCIPLES FOR RESPONSIBLE AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENT Jesper Karlsson Trade and Markets Division Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

2 Agricultural investment in developing countries AMONG THE MOST EFFICIENT WAYS TO REDUCE PORVERTY AND HUNGER* Hunger and poverty most prevalent in South Asia and sub-saharan Africa Both regions have low levels of agricultural investments Farm capital per worker has remained stagnant for decades Mixed picture: Many countries that have invested in agriculture are on the track to fulfil the MDG hunger target POLITICAL COMMITMENT & MORE INVESTMENT NEEDED *SOFA 2012

3 Agricultural investment in developing countries FARMERS AT THE CENTRE As the largest investors in primary agriculture in developing countries, farmers must be central to agricultural investment strategies* Their investments must be stimulated and complemented by public investments in key public goods (both agri specific & general) Domestic & foreign private investments also needed along the entire value chain But benefits cannot be expected to arise automatically, and some forms of investment carry risks *SOFA 2012

4 New FAO report TRENDS AND IMPACTS OF FOREIGN INVESTMENTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRY AGRICULTURE Goals Better knowledge of trends & impacts on host countries Identify good practices & provide guidance Scope Foreign investment in primary production Land acquisitions & alternative models Case studies in 9 countries

5 Million USD percent (%) Findings WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT TRENDS IN AGRICULTURAL FDI TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES? Figure 7: Share of Agriculture in Total FDI Flows Difficult to quantify Substantial increase in recent years Share of total FDI doubled but still < 5% > 90% to downstream activities Primary production < 10% More diversified and more downstream to medium income countries Less diversified and more to primary production in LDCs Asia is the 1 st destination before Latin America and Africa Intra-regional FDI flows dominates except for Africa Figure 8b: FDI Flows to Primary and Secondary Agriculture, Secondary Primary

6 Findings WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT IMPACTS OF AGRICULTURAL FDI IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES? Case studies caution in interpretation Impacts varies Positive impacts of inclusive business models when farmers keep control over land and are involved early: job creation, value addition, higher incomes, higher productivity of smallholders But effects takes time to emerge due to high transaction cost, asymmetry investors/local farmers, learning needs Strong external support therefore important

7 Findings BUT WHATABOUT LARGE-SCALE LAND ACQUISITIONS? In the case of large-scale land acquisitions, the disadvantages often outweigh the few benefits, which seems to be limited to job creation Jobs are often short-term, low paid & sometimes not given to local populations & fewer/of less quality than previous modes of income/subsistence generating activities Risks are particularly high where land rights are unclear & governance is weak: loss of access to resources & livelihoods, displacement, environmental degradation, conflicts... Even for corporate investors, large-scale land acquisition is unlikely to be the best model (large plantations often not the most economically viable option + risks of conflicts, reputational damage )

8 Findings Domestic laws & institutions key, but not sufficient No ideal business model for all contexts: big or small, be responsible Impacts also depend on many other factors: contract terms & negotiations, location, social & economic conditions, capacity of local institutions & organizations, aim and attitude of financier, policy & legal framework Domestic laws & institutions governing investments are key, but often inconsistent, fragmented & uncoordinated No individual government or entity can address this issue alone transnational cooperation & international standards needed

9 Examples of voluntary international standards Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (VGGT) Principles for responsible agricultural investment that respects rights, livelihoods and resources (PRAI) CFS consultations to develop & ensure broad ownership principles for responsible agricultural investment in the context of food security & nutrition (rai)

10 Andrew Hilton Voluntary Guidelines on the Governance of Tenure AN UNPRECEDENTED INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENT Endorsed by CFS May 2012 More than 1000 people in over 130 countries took part in the consultation process Implementation encouraged by G20, Rio+20 Francophone Parliamentary Assembly and UN General Assembly Addresses tenure aspects of investments

11 Principles for Responsible Agricultural Investment THAT RESPECT RIGHTS, LIVELIHOODS AND RESOURCES (PRAI) Key elements 1. Land and natural resource rights of existing land users are respected 2. Investments do not jeopardize food security rather strengthen it 3. Policy framework ensures transparency & accountability 4. Agreements based on extensive consultations with all potentially affected communities 5. Investors respect human rights and other best practices 6. Investments generate broad social benefits for all surrounding communities 7. Investments are environmentally sustainable

12 Principles for Responsible Agricultural Investment THAT RESPECT RIGHTS, LIVELIHOODS AND RESOURCES (PRAI) Proposed by FAO, IFAD, UNCTAD and the World Bank after a side event at UN General Assembly 2009 A response to the challenges of large-scale land acquisitions & need for increased agricultural investment Endorsed by G20, G8 Can help governments develop laws & regulations Can be used as checklist when assessing projects A living document to be updated with the results of ongoing research and field-testing

13 CFS consultations on rai PRINCIPLES FOR RESPONSIBLE AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF FOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITION Initiated in 2012 to develop and ensure broad ownership of principles for responsible agricultural investment Broad scope: all types of investment in agricultural value chains and food systems Will be based on and take into account existing internationally agreed instruments including the Right to Food guidelines, the VGGT & PRAI Planned to be endorsed by the CFS in October 2014

14 Conclusions & recommendations Investing in agriculture is a long-term commitment and can have both direct and indirect impacts use longer time frame & examine various scales Domestic private investment will remain the most important source of investment, but other forms of investments including public & foreign corporate private can have transformative effects Public & corporate private investment along the value chain are needed & should complement, but cannot replace, farmers own investments in primary agriculture Policies, laws and regulations related to investments and tenure must be strengthened (more consistent & supportive, reduce loopholes, clarify & protect rights, notably tenure rights of poor and marginalized groups including women, youth, landless ) Governance most be improved in general (transparency, accountability, rule of law, participation)

15 Conclusions & recommendations Developing country governments & institutions should be supported in all policy areas relevant to agricultural investment Inclusive and representative local organizations, especially farmer groups, should be supported Local organizations can articulate the interests and strengthen the bargaining power of the rural poor & they can lower the transaction costs and make it economically viable for outside investors to engage in responsible business models Investors should be aware of the land tenure issues on the ground and be sensitized about the benefits of good investment practices Voluntary principles for responsible agricultural investment can help if they are translated into actions for investors, governments, donors, CSOs & international agencies & implemented at different levels

16 Thank you!

17 Inclusive business models in agriculture THREE EXAMPLES A nucleus estate with outgrower scheme for certified organic mangos in Ghana A partnership between small-scale outgrowers and a food processing company in Senegal A joint venture in jatropha with potentials for improved food and fuel security in Mali

18 A nucleus estate with outgrower scheme for certified organic mangos in Ghana The Integrated Tamale Fruit Company operates a nucleus estate with outgrower scheme (NES) for certified organic mangos in Ghana % for export, % for domestic market 155 hectares acquired for Nucleus Estate with 85 workers, 486 ha customary land used by outgrowers, 250 staff for nursery, extension services and storage activities Mix of foreign and domestic shareholders: The Ghanian-Dutch Wienco (50%) and Dutch Comma (30%) and local investors (20%) Project enabled by support from the Gov t, NGOs, UNDP, African Development Foundation, the World Bank etc. The Organic Mango Outgrower Association organizes & gives voice to farmers Strong local support, good national reputation, improved livelihoods, large production potential with organic farming techniques & a mixed business model

19 A partnership between small-scale outgrowers and a food processing company in Senegal Contract farming arrangement between SOCAS, a food processing company with French origins, and 12,000 small-scale farmers Farmers allocates hectares of their own land for the scheme Most of them also grow other crops for self-consumption or market SOCAS buy the output from the smallholders, the state & the company provide advice and inputs, the national agriculture credit fund provides credits channeled through the farmers associations The relative success has been enabled by a participatory and industrywide decision making committee that involves all stakeholders (farmers organization, SOCAS, the government, service providers, consumer representatives) Improved purchasing power, and thereby food access, of involved farmers and fulfillment of large domestic demand for processed tomato products

20 A joint venture in jatropha with potentials for improved food and fuel security in Mali MBSA operates a Jatropha outgrower scheme involving smallholder farmers in Mali and Burkina Faso on ha of land which is held by the farmers themselves The project is funded by private institutional investors and the Dutch government The farmers are represented at the company board through their cooperative association, ULSPP, which also own 20 percent of the company The management encourages farmers to intercrop jathropha with food at a percent ratio. It is calculated that improved soil fertility from the use of residues from processing will make up for the decrease of land allocated to food Potential to produce sustainable and profitable biodiesel, increase farmers income and contribute to poverty alleviation

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