Nutritional Evaluation of Graded Levels of Aspergillus-tre~ted Rice Husk on the Performance of Pregnant West African Dw~rIfGoats

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1 @SAAT, FUTO 2003 lilt. J. Agric. Rural Dev., 2 Nutritional Evaluation of Graded Levels of Aspergillus-tre~ted Rice Husk on the Performance of Pregnant West African Dw~rIfGoats *M.A. Belewu, M.B. Yousuf and E.O. Afolabi Ruminant Nutrition and Biotechnology Laboratory Department of Animal Production University of liorin liorin, Nigeria *Corresponding author Abstract Nine pregnant West African dwarf (WAD) goats were fed untreated antral diet A with 30% inclusion level) and Aspergillus treated diet, B (10%) and' t C (20%) in total mixed rations. The effect of treatment was. evaluated on feed intake, digestibility, BW and growth rate. Fungus-treated rice husk appea d to be we". accepted by goats even. when included in rations at 20% of total. Mean OM intake averaged 595, 611 and 623gld for goats fed diets A, B and respectively. The crude protein intake was greatest (P<0.05) for diet C, greater ( 0.05) for diet B than for diet A (control). Body weight change average 0.19, 0.22 d 0.34kg/wk from 0-20 wks of experiment for goats fed the untreated and treat fungus rice husk respectively. Dry matter digestibility was similar among trea ent groups, averaging 48, 49 and 47 percentages for goats fed untreated and tre ed rice husk. The digestibilityof crude proteinand crude fibre were increas by fungus treatment. The increased crude protein and crude fibre digestibi' yare briefly discussed. The conclusions are that fungus treatment of rice husk mi ics the effect of pre:"digestion of :ungus on the rice husk and as the feedi experiment demonstrated, is likely to be a useful method of processing wa residues for rumen microbialattack.. agricultural Keywords: Rice husk, Aspergillus niger, pregnant goat, II performance characteristics. Introduction The West African dwarf (WAD) goat is a household livestock owned by most rural 'families in the Southern part of Nigeria. The animal is noted for the ability to convert poor quality fibrous feed to useful animal products.. The animal has been found to eat up the bark of trees and growing aromatic leguminous plant. Hence, they are referred to as inquisitive feeders with a wide feed range. Waste agricultural residues (Sorghum stover, rice husk and corn cobs) whish are rich ira lignocellulose materials have a c')mplex of three polymers, thus: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The three components constitute a complex that is poor nutritionally but because of the enormous quantities available it nevertheless represents a potentially valuable material for future biotechnological exploita i n (Eggeling,. 1983). The challenges t refore are to develop microbial sys m that will improve th~ digestibility f the waste agricultural residue b wholly or. partially degrading the I gnocellulose, mostly the recalc t ant lignin component. However, considerable research have shown at chemical, physical or mechanica methods of processing various wa agricultural residues will only bre k the bond without actually removin it (Reynolds et al., 1978). Resear is lacking, however, with the Asper lius treatment of rice husk for WAD go s. If rice husk is ever to become a c mercial feed for ruminant animals m e research is needed to know the effe rice husk and to evalua of fungus on the amount that can be fed or optimum performance. Hence, th thrust of this. study was. to evaluate he effects of

2 88 Belewu at al. graded levels of Aspergillus-treated rice husk in complete ration for pregnant West African dwarf (WAD) goat on feed intake, digestibility growth rate and weight gain. Materials and Methods. Fungus Used The inoculum (Aspergillus niger) was isolated from soil sampl~ collected from the cowpea plot of the. Teaching and Research Farm of the University of liorin, Nigeria and maintained on potato dextrose agar (PDA). Substrate Used Rice husk was obtained from the ricemilling center at Kule~de, liorin, Nigeria. It was sun-dried to a moisture content of between 6 and 7%; later packed in polypropoythene bags in readiness for autoclaving at 121 e and 15psi for 15 minutes. The substrate was later cooled down for possibl.e? inoculation and incubation with the inoculum. Inoculation and Incubation The spores of Aspergillus niger were harvested with Tween 80 solution and adjusted to spores per ml with sterile water.. Each bag (25g) of sterilized substrate was inoculated with 5ml of the spore suspension containing 107 spo'res per ml. The. inoculated substrates were later incubated at ambient temperature and in about 7 days the fungus had covered the substrates. The' fungus treated substrates were later oven-dried in a forced draught laboratory oven at 700e in preparation for inclusion in the experimental diets (Table 1)., Animals and Managemen't Nine female WAD goats were procured from the market and treated against' both ecto and endoparasites. The ages ranged between 2 and 4 years old and body weight of between 10 and 12kg. The age was estimated by dentition. The goats were randomly allocated to the three groups so that different age groups were' represented in each group. One group (A) consisted of three animals serving as a C. group. The other two groups ea h consisting of ' three animals were ra domly allocated to two different gr~ ps Band e respectively. Oestrus synchronizatio All animals were sy hronized using' Janova tablets for in ucing ovulatory oestrus. Two tablets ere given orally once daily for two nsecutive days and it was repeated fter 10 days in case no oestrus or eak oestrus is I observed. Each ca ule contained Pippali 50mg, Sunthi 5 mg, Indravarun, 5Qmg, Marich 50mg, Vasectomised and a xcipients 9.5g. ermatic bucks were introduced for t determination of the onset of oestrus nd detection of females in oestrus. I animals were hand-mated by takin' the females in oestrus to males w i e mated does were monitored for ret n to oestrus days with the aid f'liasectomised bucks. Those does fo nd returning to oestrus Were again tablets and later mated. given Janova Experimental Diets Treatments consisted of three diets containing untreated ri e husk (control diet A with 30% inclusi n level). 10 and 20% fungus treated ri husk (diets B and e respectively) su stituted for rice. husk. Other ingredient (Table 1) were of fixed amount in t experimental diets. Feed was provid d ad libitum on an individual basis r a 20-week period. Feed refusals were weighed prior to morning feed g and growth study was monitored weighing the animals at the start 0 the experiment and at weekly inte Is; while the digestibility study was onitored during the last 10 days of the.periment. Chemical Analysis The proximate compo ' ion of the feed and faeces were det mined by the method of A.o.A.e. (1~~ 0). Statistical Analysis All data collected we analysis of variance randomized design m it subjected to a completely el (Steel and

3 Performance of pregnant-west African Dwarf goats Aspergillus-treated ri 89 Table 1. Inaredients and Droximate comdositiori of the experimental.di Treatments B Ingredients (%) ( ) Cassava waste Rice husk Smghum dried iooo.00 brewers grain Palm kernel cake ' Vitamin mineral froo.00 premix Salt Iro Proximate com osition % ' Dry matter Crude protein Crude fibre Ether extract Nitrogen free extract Ash Total Torrie, 1960) while treatment means were separated using Duncan (1955) multiple range test.. Results and Discussion' The inclusion of fungus treated rice husk in diets Band C slightly incre.ased the crude protein content (Table 1). The control diet contained 13.34% crude protein and each incremental addition of the fungus treated rice husk increased the crude protein by approximately 2.61 percentage unit. At the highest level of the fungus treated rice husk inclusion (30%), dietary crude protein was 19.30%. These values were somewhat higher than expected. The increment in the fungus treated diets could be due to the addition of fungal protein during the process of degradation andi solubilization (Jacqueline et al., 1996,' Abu et al., 1999; Belewu and Banjo, 1999). The crude fibre content of the diets reduced from 22.8% (A' to 17.5% (C). The reduction could be attributed to the synergistic enzymic act!vities in which the enzymes secreted and the fungi are acting together on the substrate (Turner et al., 1975; Belewu, Data on feed intak (Table 2) shows that fungus treatm t resulted in substantial crude protein nd nitrogen free extract intake ( 0.05). For example, crude protein intake was' increased by 22.7% diet and NFE by 51%. The low intake of cr de fibre and ether extract of diets B a C could be due to the lower content EE and CF in these diets (Table 1).. The apparent digestibility coefficients and digestibl nutrients for the three experimental di s are shown in Table 3. Digestibility c efficients for both crude protein and cr e fibre were marked by considerab variations among animals on differe diets, which may account for' th significant differences. The averag digestibility coefficients for dry matte and NFE of the diets containing fun s treatment was slightly higher (P>O.O ) than that of the control diet (untreate ample). The digestibility coefficients f CP and CF are comparable to thos reported by Belewu (2001), and elewu and Ademilola (2001).

4 90 Belewu et al. Table 2. Feed intake and weight gain of WAD goats fed the exderi, Treatments Parameters (g/d) ABC Dry matter ' Crude protein Crude fibre 135: b Ether extract NFE b Weight gain (kg/wk) b 0rowth rate (%) 1.548, b Feed/gain Mean followed by different superscripts are significantly dim ntal diets :i:sem * 10.59* * 0.04* 0.32* ent (P<0.05) Table 3. Digestibility coefficients and digestible nutrient intake of W~D goats fed on the exderimentaldiets Treatment Parameters A B :tsem Digestible dry matter (g/d) * Dry matter digestibility (%) , NS Digestible crude protein intake (g/d) b 82. 8c 4.57 Crude protein digestibility (%) b 68. 2c 6.92* DIgestible ether extract intake (g/d) NS Ether extract Digestibility (%) NS Digestible crude fibre intake (g/d) b 66. 5b 5.82* Crude fibre digestibility'(%) b 60. 5c 14.54* Digestible nitrogen free extract (g/d) b * NFE di estibilit % NS a, b, c = Means followed by different superscripts are significantly di erent (p<0.05) The digestible dry matter intake was a product of grams of dry matter cons'umed and the dry matter digestion coefficient determined in the digestion trials. Treating the hl:skwith the fungus resulted in improved digestible crude protein, crude fibre and dry matter but nitrogen free extract was depressed (P<0.05). In addition, there was considerable improvement over untreated "rice husk due probably to the solubilization and degradation of the fibre content which could have enhanced' the digesta passage rate thereby allowing the host enzymes the chance of entry enclosed nutrient. and' digesting ' the Goats fed the fungus treated diets (Table 2) had higher (P<0.05) average daily weight gain and growth rate than,that of goats fed the control diet (A). Although average daily gain and growth rate of the fungus treated fed goats (10%) tended to be hig er than that of goats fed untreated die (A); there was no significant differenc. The ratio of feed/gain was in favo of goats fed diet C. However, go fed diet B consumed amounts of eed equal to those fed diet C; the' f d/gain was in favour of the former d t. The higher performance of animals ed the fungus treated diets may be d in part to the pre-digestion of the fib' content and the improvement of the rotein content of the diet by the fung used prior to incorporatiqn into the di ts. The similar, performance of goats f such diets is well documented in lit ture (Belewu and Adeniyi, 2001; Bel u, 2002). On the basis of feeding st ies, it seems that fungus treatment 0 rice husk may be a feasible means of rocessing and converting rice husk ita palatable and viable nutritious fee for ruminants. In addition to improvi the nutrient

5 Performance <?fpregnant West African Dwarf goats Aspergillus-treat rice 91. composition, this method provides a means of stretching feed availability and increasing animal' production in Nigeria. References Abu, O. A., Losel, D.M., Onifade, AA and Tewe, O. O. (1999). Suitability of screened fungi, for solid state fermentation. Trop. Invest. 2:1-4. Anim. Prod. AO.AC. (1990). Association of Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analyses. 15th Edn. Washington D.C. I. Belewu, M.A (2001). Effect of fungus (Volvarella volvalese) treated cotton waste as a replacement for cotton seed cake and meal by WAD goats. Trop. J. Anim. Sci. 4(1): Belewu, M.A and Ademilola, AA (2001). Digestibility response of WAD goats to mushroom (Volvariella volvaceae) treated cotton waste. Moor J. Agric. Res. (In Press). Belewu, M.A. and Adeniyi, AO. (2001). Apparent digestibility of solid state fermentation of cotton waste with fungus (Pleurotus saior caiu) using WAD goat NISEB Journal 1(2): Belewu, M.A and Banjo, N.O. (1999)..Biodelignification of rice husk and sorghum stover by edible mushroom Pleuretus sajor caiu. Trop. J. Anim. Sci. 1(1): Belewu, M.A (2002). Conversion of Mansonia sawdust and cotton plant by-product into feed by white rot fungus (Pleurotus saior caiu). J. Sci. Agric. Feed Techn. & Environ. Vol. 1, NO.2. (In press). Duncan, D.B. (1955). IMultiple range and multiple F-te ~. A Biometrics Approach 1: Eggeling, I. (1983). i exceptional biopoly resource? Trends i 1: Lignin - an er - and a rich Biotechnology. Jacqueline, E.W. Br rse and Bert Visser (1996). ssessing the Potential in Biotech ology: Building on Farmers' Knowl dge, Edited by Joske-Bunders B us Haverkort and Wimm Hiem tra. Macmillan Edu. Ltd., London d Basingstoke. Reynolds, P.J., Dinius,.k, Lyon, C.K. and Kohler,.0. (1978). Performance of La bs fed rations containing treat dehydrated Alfalfa meal. J. Aim. Sci. 46(3): Steel, R.D.G. and Tor e, J.H. (1960). Principles and rocedures of Statistics. McGra Hill Book Co. NY. pp Turner, E.M., Wright, M., Ward, D.,, Osborne, D.J. and elf, R. (1975). Production of eth I ne and other volatiles and chan es in cellulose and laccase activiti during the life cycle of the cultiv ted mushroom Agaricus bisporus.. Gen. Microb. 91:

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