# ELECTRICITYt. Electromagnetism

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1 ELECTRICITYt Electromagnetism Subject area : Physics Topic focus : magnetic properties, magnetic field, the Earth s magnetic field, magnetic field of an electric wire. Learning Aims : Polarity of bar magnets ( they have two poles : like poles repel, opposite poles attract each other. Magnetic field (How to detect a magnetic field - experiments ) The origin of the Earth s magnetic field. What electromagnetism is. The origin of the electromagnetism Oersted s experiment (Laboratory report). Skills : Reading : decoding information; scanning for specific information, interpreting visuals. Speaking: defining and describing. Listening : listening to CD-ROM. Writing : fill a schedule. Method :solve problems, interpret phenomena, ask questions, tests. Role play. Assessment: CLIL assessment, assessment grid for an oral presentation, assessment rubric to evaluate communicative skills, assessment rubric for experimental studies. 1-Magnetic properties These activities are meant to make students aware of the concrete application of abstract concepts. Have students try out little experiments on magnetism.the assignment should be given the day before the lesson. 1. Use two bar magnets and do a few little experiments so you can answer the following questions. 1.Do the magnets attract all objects? a. List 10 objects that are affected by the magnets. Do they have anything in common?

2 b. List 10 objects that are not affected by the magnets. Do these objects have anything in common? 2. Can you turn an object into magnet itself? 3. Touch one of the bars with a paper clip then whether the clip can attract other clips. 4. Once you remove it from the magnet, does the clip still display magnetic properties? For how long? 5.Look around your house for some other magnets and repeat the experiments. Do these magnets display the same characteristics as the ones above? 2-After you ve done this project involving experiments try to decide which statements are true (T) and which ones are false (F). T F 1 Iron, nichel, and steel are attracted by magnets. 2 Gold is attracted by magnets. 3 Magnets exert a force at a distance. 4 Magnets can make another object become magnetic. 5 There are temporary and permanent magnets. 5 The refrigerator is not a magnet. 3-After reading the text they can now understand the explanation of an abstract concept, with the help of visual elements provided. Now let s find out why the phenomena you ve just observed occur. Read the text and fill in the labels on the picture that illustrates the process.a magnetized bar is characterized 1- N.S 2-N.N

3 A magnetized bar is characterized by two opposite poles, one at each extremity. These are known as its north (N) and south (S) poles, because if the bar is hung by its middle from a string, its N extremity tends to point northwards and its S end southwards. The N and S poles will both repel similar poles of another magnet, so N will repel N and S will repel S, but N and S will attract each other. The region where this is observed is called magnetic field. Either pole can also attract objects such as pins and paper clips. That is because under the influence of a nearby magnet, each pin or paper becomes temporary magnet itself, with its poles arranged in such a way as to cause a magnetic attraction. 2.Magnetic fields Make sure you have prepared the necessary materials for the experiment (magnet bar, iron filings. and sheet of paper).the outcome of the experiment should look like the picture below. 2.1-Brainstorming Look at this picture and describe what you see 2.2 Read the text and underline the most important information. TEXT 1 A magnet is an object made of certain materials which create a magnetic field. Every magnet has at least one north pole and one south pole. By convention, we say that the magnetic field lines leave the North end of a magnet and enter the South end of a magnet. This is an example of a magnetic dipole ("di" means two, thus two poles). If you take a bar magnet and break it into two pieces, each piece will again have a North pole and a South pole. If you take one of those pieces and break it into two, each of the smaller pieces will have a North pole and a South pole. No matter how small the pieces of the magnet become, each piece will have a North pole and a South pole. It has not been shown to be possible to end up with a single North pole or a single

4 South pole which is a monopole ("mono" means one or single, thus one pole). The Earth is like a giant magnet! The nickel iron core of the earth gives the earth a magnetic field much like a bar magnet. 2.3-Answer the following questions. a) 1-What is magnetism? b) 2-What is a magnet? c) 3-What is a dipole? d) 4- What is a monopole? e) Has Earth a magnetic field? 2.4 Little experiment! You can look at a bar magnet s magnetic field, using iron filings. Put a light dusting of filings on a sheet of paper and place the paper over the magnet. Tap the paper lightly and the filings will align with the magnetic field, letting you see its shape. 2.5 Describe the picture in activity 2.4 by focusing on the following aspects: The rotation of the filings and where the lines start and finish. Where the filings are concentrated. 3 Earth s Magnetic Field. In the space there is no magnetic iron, yet magnetism is widespread. Scientists believe the magnetic field is generated deep inside the Earth, were the heat of planet s solid inner core causes movement in the liquid outer core of iron and nickel. The solid inner core is thought to be a mass of iron about the size of the moon that has a temperature of several thousand degrees Fahrenheit. The heat of this inner core radiates outwards and upwards until it reaches the boundary with Earth s liquid outer core, causing the fluid there to expand. As it expands, it becomes a little less dense, so it starts

5 to rise. That s called convection, which generates an electric current and, as result, a magnetic field. The Earth s magnetic field is similar to that of a bar magnet. The north pole of a compass needle is a magnetic north pole. It is attracted to the geographic North Pole, which is a magnetic south pole (opposite magnetic poles attract).

6 The Solenoid (Listen and read to find out) A solenoid is a long coil of wire wrapped in many turns. When a current passes through it, it creates a nearly uniform magnetic field inside. Solenoids can convert electric current to mechanical action, and so are very commonly used as switches. The magnetic field within a solenoid depends upon the current and density of turns. In order to estimate roughly the force with which a solenoid pulls on ferromagnetic rods placed near it, one can use the change in magnetic field energy as the rod is inserted into the solenoid. The force is roughly Force on rod = change in magnetic field energy distance rod moves into solenoid

7 The energy density of the magnetic field depends on the strength of the field, squared, and also upon the magnetic permeability of the material it fills. Iron has a much, much larger permeability than a vacuum. Even small solenoids can exert forces of a few newtons. The intensity of the magnetic field generated by a solenoid is determinate by the amount of current flowing through the wire, the number of coils and the distance from the wire. The unit of intensity of a magnetic field is called the tesla (T). Another unit used is the gauss, where 10 4 (10,000) gauss equals 1 tesla. An example of a very intense magnetic field is that generated by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We can also say that when a magnetic field is generated by a straight wire, the magnetic intensity decreases with distance, that is, it is inversely proportional to the distance. For example, the magnetic force at 2 cm from a wire is half than at 1 cm, and the force at 3 cm is one third the force at 1 cm. Magnetic Field Due to a Solenoid A solenoid is a long coil (shaped like a cylinder) containing a large number of close turns of insulated copper wire.

8 The figure above shows a solenoid SN whose ends are connected to a battery B through a switch X. When a current is passed through a solenoid, it produces a magnetic field around it. The magnetic field is shown in the fig. It is along the axis of the solenoid and is almost constant in magnitude and direction. The magnetic lines of force inside the solenoid are nearly parallel to each other and parallel to the axis of the solenoid. A solenoid when suspended freely, aligns itself in the north-south direction, thus behaving like a bar magnet. One end of the solenoid acts like a north pole and the other end the south pole.

9 The polarity of the solenoid can be changed by reversing the direction of the current. The strength of the magnetic field produced by a current carrying solenoid depends on: The number of turns - larger the number of turns, greater is the magnetism produced. The strength of the current - when current increases, magnetism also increases. Nature of 'core-material' used in making the solenoid - if we use soft-iron as a core for the solenoid, then it produces the strongest magnetism.

10 Magnets and Electromagnets An electromagnet is a magnet that runs on electricity. Unlike a permanent magnet, the strength of an electromagnet can easily be changed by changing the amount of electric current that flows through it. The poles of an electromagnet can even be reversed by reversing the flow of electricity.an electromagnet works because an electric current produces a magnetic field. The magnetic field produced by an electric current forms circles around the electric current, as shown in the diagram below: If a wire carrying an electric current is formed into a series of loops, the magnetic field can be concentrated within the loops. The magnetic field can be strengthened even more by wrapping the wire around a core. The atoms of certain materials, such as iron, nickel and cobalt, each behave like

11 tiny magnets. Normally, the atoms in something like a lump of iron point in random directions and the individual magnetic fields tend to cancel each other out. However, the magnetic field produced by the wire wrapped around the core can force some of the atoms within the core to point in one direction. All of their little magnetic fields add together, creating a stronger magnetic field. As the current flowing around the core increases, the number of aligned atoms increases and the stronger the magnetic field becomes. At least, up to a point. Sooner or later, all of the atoms that can be aligned will be aligned. At this point, the magnet is said to be saturated and increasing the electric current flowing around the core no longer affects the magnetization of the core itself. 1-Do you know what an electromagnet is? An electromagnet is a magnet that is created when electricity flows through a conductor. The magnetic field goes around the conductor. The typical way electromagnets are built is to wrap many coils of wire around a ferromagnetic core (almost always iron). Ferromagnetic materials, such as iron, nickel or cobalt have the property of concentrating magnetic fields through them, making the

12 field strength higher than without the core. When electricity passes through the coils of wire, a magnetic field develops around it, which is caught in the ferromagnetic core. The magnetic field goes through the core, out one end of the core and back in the other end. 2-Which devices use electromagnets? Electromagnets are used everywhere. Electric motors, speakers, and power door locks are some devices that use electromagnets. 3-How do you make an electromagnet? It is fairly easy to build an electromagnet. All you need to do is wrap some insulated copper wire around an iron core. If you attach a battery to the wire, an electric current will begin to flow and the iron core will become magnetized. When the battery is disconnected, the iron core will lose its magnetism. Follow these steps if you would like to build the electromagnet.

13 A Simple electromagnet Can you make a magnet from a nail, some batteries and some wire? If you wrap your wire around a nail 10 times, connect the wire to a battery and bring one end of the nail near the compass, you will find that it has a much greater effect on the compass. In fact, the nail behaves just like a bar magnet. What you have created is an electromagnet! You will find that this magnet is able to pick up small steel things like paper clips, staples and thumb tacks.

14 Answer the following True or False questions about magnets and electromagnets: T/F 1. Heating or hitting a permanent magnet can ruin it. 2. Iron is a good metal to use to make an electromagnet. 3. The north pole of one magnet will attract the north pole of another magnet. 4. Magnets and electromagnets are used in many devices.

15 I think that increasing the voltage will...the electromagnet s strength. (increase, decrease or not change) I think that increasing the wire coils will the electromagnet s strength. Questions to think about: (increase, decrease or not change) 1. What happens to the strength of the electromagnet when more turns of wire are used? 2. What happens to the strength of the electromagnet when more volts are used? 3. Where can you find electromagnets in your home? 4. How can you make a permanent magnet lose its magnetism? 5. How can you measure the intensity of a magnetic field generated by a solenoid?

16 Writing about magnetism [Think about what you know about magnets] Let s apply the formula! A coil with 10 loops produces a magnetic field with an intensity of 2 gauss. Calculate the intensity of a magnetic field produced by a coil with 20 loops.

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