Densified Veneer Wood for Notched Joints in Timber Concrete Composite Structures

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Densified Veneer Wood for Notched Joints in Timber Concrete Composite Structures"

Transcription

1 Densified Veneer Wood for Notched Joints in Timber Concrete Composite Structures 1 Summary Dias, A.M.P.G. Assistant Professor University of Coimbra Coimbra-Portugal Kuilen, J.W.G., Associate Professor Delft University of Technology, Delft-The Netherland Helena Cruz Senior Research Officer LNEC Lisbon-Portugal Sérgio Lopes Associate Professor University of Coimbra Coimbra-Portugal At Delft University of Technology in cooperation with University of Coimbra a new type of joint was tested using a special type of notch. Instead of cutting timber to obtain the notches, wood based blocks were glued in the top surface of the main timber member. These blocks were first produced from a special type of plywood with a high density ( kg/m3), a high strength and stiffness (dvw). As a comparison and a possibly cheaper option, the same type of notched joint was also produced with hardwood. This paper presents a complete description of the joints, as well as the shear tests that were performed with three joint configurations, whose results are presented and discussed. 2 Introduction In timber concrete composite structures the strength and stiffness of the joints are essential to transfer the shear loads between the two materials and thus to obtain an efficient solution. One of the most efficient methods to transfer these shear loads is through direct contact. Usually this contact is obtained by cutting notches in the timber member or gluing timber blocks on the top of the main timber members (usually referred to as notched joints) creating holes that are afterwards poured with concrete. Many times, however, the structural timber members are produced from softwood timber, leading to significant embedding deformations in the timber contact area which results in a reduction of the joints stiffness. In order to avoid that, a new type of notch was tested. It consists of a special type of plywood (densified veneer wood dvw), glued to the top of the main timber members. Lower deformations and higher strengths were obtained due to the higher stiffness and strength of the timber used in the blocks when compared with the softwood timber used in the main timber members. Nevertheless the

2 final cost of the joint was high due to the high cost of the dvw. For that reason, a cheaper alternative was also tested, in which Holm oak hardwood was used instead of dvw to form the block. Timber concrete solutions are many times used in the renovation of old timber floors where the floorboards act as an interlayer. Therefore it was also decided to test an alternative suitable to be used in these situations. The timber blocks forming the notches were, thicker than before so that they pass through the interlayer floor boards transmitting the loads directly from the concrete layer to the main beam members. In order to evaluate the mechanical behavior of these joint configurations, an experimental test program, comprising 3 test configurations was established: - densified veneer notches - dvwn, - densified veneer notches and a 20mm thick interlayer, dvwni, - Holm oak (quercus rotundifolia Lam.) notches, ON. 3 Test specimens properties Generally the test specimens consisted of a central concrete member connected to two side timber members by means of one connector by shear plane. The dimensions of the test specimens are presented in Figure 1. Top view boards concrete glue line timber dvw/oak notch dvwni dvwn ON Side view Figure 1. Configuration and dimensions (mm) of the test specimens Timber The timber used for the main timber members was glue laminated Spruce with a mean density value of 445 kg/m 3. The specimens were stored at climate conditions 20/65 (temperature of 20ºC and air humidity of 65%), leading to a timber moisture content of around 12% in timber.

3 The notches were produced with densified veneer wood (dvw) blocks with a density of around 1200kg/m 3 and with Holm oak hardwood with a density around 900kg/m 3. The dimensions of the notches were always mm and the thickness was 15mm in the specimens without interlayer and 35mm in the specimens with interlayer. The floor boards composing the interlayer were made of timber planks with 20mm thickness and variable widths. Each one of the boards was connected to the timber beams by two nails as commonly found in existing floors. Concrete The concrete used was selected to represent a concrete type currently used in these situations. The mean values of its compression strength (in the day of the test) were: 50, 47 and 54 MPa for dvwn, dvwni and ON respectively. In practice, the small thickness of the concrete slab added to the small thickness of the notch might cause problems, such as: discontinuity in the concrete introduced by big aggregate size or high variations in the dimensions of the member. These aspects require additional cautions in the selection of the materials. Therefore, it was decided to have a fluid concrete and a small maximal size of the aggregate (12.7mm) which corresponds to the recommended procedure at the building site. Preparation of the test specimens The preparation of the test specimens began by gluing the notches to the timber beams using a water based adhesive for timber. They were first adjusted to the right position by screws and then clamped during the first 72 hours to ensure a higher contact pressure during the hardening process of the adhesive. This was followed by the application of a protection around the timber to avoid water take up and reduce the timber-concrete friction that would occur during the tests. During the entire process, the timber specimens were stored at a climate 20/65 and were placed in the formwork immediately before the casting. In each casting, all the shear test specimens were prepared, 10 for dvwn and dvwin and 21 for ON test series. 4 Test set up The transducers (LVDT, and plates) necessary to measure the displacements were assembled by means of screwing on timber and gluing on concrete. The load was measured at the point of application, on the top of the concrete member, while the relative displacement between timber and concrete was measured at half height of the test specimens in the two shear planes at the front and at the back. In test specimens with interlayer, the relative displacement between timber and floor boards was also measured at the same location, as can be seen in Figure 2.

4 Figure 2 Test set up used in the tests. In order to distribute the forces applied in the top of the concrete element and in the bottom of the timber members, thick steel plates were used for the entire area. During the whole test, both timber members had the horizontal displacements restrained. Restraining the horizontal displacement avoids the formation of a gap between timber and concrete but may lead to a small overestimation of the ultimate load and slip modulus. On the other hand, without this restriction it would be impossible to test the specimens with notched joints, unless an extra fastener was used to avoid the formation of a gap between timber and concrete that could lead to a premature end of the test. In the tests, all the procedures given in EN (1991) were followed. The estimated load F est was based on the results of preliminary tests [2]. The measurements were recorded every second by the data acquisition equipment. 5 Test results The test specimens showed a very brittle behavior in line with what was observed in the preliminary tests [2]. The failure occurred due to shear failure of the timber next to the glue line (Figure 3). In the dvwn and dvwni test series, visual cracks appeared at the top of the concrete member in one test specimen. On the load-slip curve of this test, softening is to be observed, probably caused by the cracking. This conclusion is supported by the facts that neither cracks were visible nor softening was found in the other tests. After testing, a number of test specimens were disassembled (separating timber from concrete). All the test specimens showed the same damage and no indications of movement/damage could be found in the dvw.

5 Figure 3 Crack pattern for the Holm oak series. In the test series with Holm oak, the failure mode was slightly different. It started with diagonal cracks on the concrete member, as indicated in Figure 3, and only after a large slip (>5mm) the failure occurred in the glue line of the notch. Nevertheless, the ultimate cause of the collapse of the test specimens was always failure of the glue line. These damages did not cause the test failure directly. However, they probably influenced since the load-slip behavior after the cracking was significantly different. There was a much more pronounced plastic behavior, with a significant increase in the slip with almost no increases in the load (Figure 4). Nevertheless, the test proceeded up to the failure of the test specimen due to failure of the glue line between the oak notch and the timber member. The mean values and the coefficient of variation of the most important parameters measured or calculated from the tests are presented in Table 1. Table 1 Mean and cov. values of measured parameters ON dvwn dvwni Strength Stiffness properties of the joints F max δ i δ e δ 06,mod δ 08,mod K i K s kn mm mm mm mm kn/mm kn/mm mean cov mean cov mean cov In Figure 4 load-slip curves are given corresponding to the test with the ultimate load closest to the mean value of the ultimate load, as well as the load-slip curves corresponding to the tests with the minimum and the maximum ultimate load for each one of the three test series.

6 Force (kn) dvwn dvwni 60 ON 30 Slip (mm) Figure 4 Load-slip curves obtained in the shear tests. The load-slip curves obtained in the tests clearly show the linear behavior of the joints up to de failure, which occurred in a brittle way for relative low deformations. Assuming a uniform distribution of the force in both shear planes of the test specimen and a uniform distribution of the stress in the whole shear area, it is possible to estimate the shear failure strength in each test (Table 2). Table 2 Mean values of the maximum shear stress in the notched joints F max f v,max cov. (kn) (MPa) ON dvwn dvwni The failure shear stresses obtained in the tests are lower than the average shear strength usually found for Spruce timber [3]. This indicates that the shear strength of the joint is likely to be governed by the strength of the glue line. 6 Discussion Holm oak versus dvw notch The test series with Holm oak showed worse performances than the ones made with dvw (Figure 5). The differences found for the value of slip modulus and ultimate load were around 40% and 60%, respectively.

7 Force (kn) dvwn ON 30 0 Slip (mm) Figure 5 Load-slip curves for the test series with dvw and Holm oak. These differences were probably caused by a number of reasons: the early cracking of the concrete member as described earlier, the different densities between the two materials (1200kg/m 3 for dvw and 900kg/m 3 for Holm oak), different behavior of plywood and solid timber or even the different surface finish between dvw and Holm oak. These phenomena probably contributed not only to decrease the ultimate load, but also to decrease the stiffness of the category with Holm oak. Interlayer The comparison between the results of dvwn and dvwni test series shows that the decrease in load carrying capacity for the configuration with interlayer is around 16%, while for the slip modulus it is around 34%. The larger thickness of the dvw block( 35mm instead of 15mm), could induce higher normal stresses in the glue line, leading to failure due to shear stresses associated with tension stresses. The decrease in the slip modulus has probably the same cause, since thicker notches probably cause higher shear deformations. Force (kn) dvwn dvwni 30 0 Slip (mm) Figure 6 Load-slip curves for the test series with and without interlayer.

8 These decreases are also clear from the load-slip curves presented in Figure 5. Similar tests were performed with dowel type fasteners [2], with and without interlayer in that case a similar decrease for the slip modulus of the joint with interlayer, but the decrease obtained for the ultimate load is only around half of the one obtained here. The comparison of these results with the results obtained with similar joints systems in other studies [2,4,5] shows that the notched joint presented here actually have similar or higher load carrying capacities and stiffness. These values may even increase if a dowel is added to prevent the uplifting, as was done by most of the researchers to the other notched joints. 7 Conclusions The notched joints presented here proved to have an excellent performance with respect to load carrying capacity and stiffness. For these reasons, they can be used to obtain very high levels of composite actions. On the other hand, they should be used with care when the required load capacity is close from their actual strength, because their failure is brittle and could lead to the failure of the whole composite structure also in a very brittle way. Generally, the whole load-slip behavior of the notched joints can be assumed as linear elastic. From the results of the notched joints it is concluded that, for a good mechanical performance, a proper glue line between timber and notch is essential. Regarding initial deformations, the timber or wood based materials used for the notch appeared to have significant influence; stiffer materials will result in stiffer joints. A possible influence of various concretes on joints with notches was not experimentally tested but is probably small, not only because no damage was found on the concrete near the notch, but also due to the higher deformability of timber when compared to concrete. The interlayer showed to reduce the stiffness by more than 34% and the strength by more than 8%. These figures are in line with results obtained in other research works for other types of joints with interlayer ([5],[6],[7]). 8 Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the support provided by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), through the research project POCI/ECM/60089/ References [1] EN (1991) Timber structures - Joints made with mechanical fasteners General principles for the determination of strength and deformation characteristics. CEN. [2] A.M.P.G. Dias, Mechanical behaviour of timber-concrete joints. Ph.D. thesis, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, [3] Wood Handbook, Wood Handbook Wood as an engineering material. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, [4] Ballerini, M., Crocetti R., and Piazza, M. (2002) An experimental investigation on notched connections for timber-concrete composite structures. Proc. of 7th WCTE, Malaysia. [5] Van der Linden, M.L.R. (1999) Timber-concrete composite floor systems. Ph.D. thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft. [6] Dias, A. (1999) Estruturas Mistas Madeira Betão. MSc Thesis, University of Coimbra, Portugal. [7] Gelfi, P., Giuriani, E., and Marini, A. (2002) Stud shear connection design for composite concrete slab and wood beams. Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 128, Nr.12, pp

Punching shear behavior of steel-concrete composite decks with different shear connectors

Punching shear behavior of steel-concrete composite decks with different shear connectors Punching shear behavior of steel-concrete composite decks with different shear connectors *Xiao-Qing Xu 1) and Yu-Qing Liu 2) 1), 2) Department of Bridge Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092,

More information

GLUED TIMBER-CONCRETE BEAMS ANALYTICAL AND NUMERICAL MODELS FOR ASSESSMENT OF COMPOSITE ACTION

GLUED TIMBER-CONCRETE BEAMS ANALYTICAL AND NUMERICAL MODELS FOR ASSESSMENT OF COMPOSITE ACTION Engineering Review Vol. Issue -9. GLUED TIMBER-CONCRETE BEAMS ANALYTICAL AND NUMERICAL MODELS FOR ASSESSMENT OF COMPOSITE ACTION L. Škec A. Bjelanović * G. Jelenić Faculty of Civil Engineering University

More information

LOAD-CARRYING CAPACITY OF AXIALLY LOADED RODS GLUED-IN PERPENDICULAR TO THE GRAIN

LOAD-CARRYING CAPACITY OF AXIALLY LOADED RODS GLUED-IN PERPENDICULAR TO THE GRAIN LOAD-CARRYING CAPACITY OF AXIALLY LOADED RODS GLUED-IN PERPENDICULAR TO TE GRAIN Prof. Dr.-Ing..J. Blaß, Dipl.-Ing. B. Laskewitz Universität Karlsruhe (T), Germany Abstract Glued-in rods have been used

More information

DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF TENSILE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE BLOCKS

DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF TENSILE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE BLOCKS 1 th Canadian Masonry Symposium Vancouver, British Columbia, June -5, 013 DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF TENSILE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE BLOCKS Vladimir G. Haach 1, Graça Vasconcelos and Paulo

More information

FLOORS REINFORCEMENT Shear Stud Connector for steel- concrete composite structures cold applied by pins

FLOORS REINFORCEMENT Shear Stud Connector for steel- concrete composite structures cold applied by pins www.tecnaria.com FLOORS REINFORCEMENT Shear Stud Connector for steel concrete composite structures cold applied by pins HIGHPERFORMANCE FLOORS COMPOSITE STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES: STATIC AND ECONOMIC

More information

Numerical modelling of shear connection between concrete slab and sheeting deck

Numerical modelling of shear connection between concrete slab and sheeting deck 7th fib International PhD Symposium in Civil Engineering 2008 September 10-13, Universität Stuttgart, Germany Numerical modelling of shear connection between concrete slab and sheeting deck Noémi Seres

More information

Flexural Strength of Concrete (The Modulus of Rupture Test)

Flexural Strength of Concrete (The Modulus of Rupture Test) Revised 09-06-3, WKS Datasheet No. 7.6a & 7.6b MOHAWK COLLEGE OF APPLIED ARTS AND TECHNOLOGY BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION SCIENCES DEPARTMENT Flexural Strength of Concrete (The Modulus of Rupture Test) INTRODUCTION

More information

European Technical Assessment ETA-10/0153 of 10/06/2015

European Technical Assessment ETA-10/0153 of 10/06/2015 ETA-Danmark A/S Göteborg Plads 1 DK-2150 Nordhavn Tel. +45 72 24 59 00 Fax +45 72 24 59 04 Internet ww.etadanmark.dk Authorised and notified according to Article 29 of the Regulation (EU) No 305/2011 of

More information

Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures

Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures Arnold Page, BSc, BD, MIWSc. Structural timber engineering consultant Introduction BS EN 1995 consists of three parts: Part 1-1: General. Common rules and rules

More information

Structural fire design Eurocode 5-1.2 Timber structures

Structural fire design Eurocode 5-1.2 Timber structures Background and Applications Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 1 Structural fire design Eurocode 5-1.2 Timber structures Jochen Fornather Austrian Standards Institute jochen.fornather@on-norm.at

More information

Optimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge

Optimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge Journal of Civil Engineering (IEB), 34 (1) (26) 1-14 Optimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge Tanvir Manzur and Alamgir Habib Department of Civil Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering

More information

Figure 1. One-way slab design (dimensions are in mm) Figure 2. Two-way slab design (dimensions are in mm)

Figure 1. One-way slab design (dimensions are in mm) Figure 2. Two-way slab design (dimensions are in mm) BEHAVIOUR OF INNOVATIVE FIBRE COMPOSITE SANDWICH PANELS UNDER POINT LOADING M.M. Islam 1, T. Aravinthan 1 and G. Van Erp 2 1 Centre of Excellence in Engineered Fibre Composites, Faculty of Engineering

More information

ispan, A Light Steel Floor System

ispan, A Light Steel Floor System ispan, A Light Steel Floor System D.M. Fox 1, R.M. Schuster 2, and M.R. Strickland 3 Abstract Described in this paper is a cold-formed steel floor system called ispan. The system is comprised of multi-functional

More information

Chapter 4 FLOOR CONSTRUCTION

Chapter 4 FLOOR CONSTRUCTION Chapter 4 FLOOR CONSTRUCTION Woodframe floor systems and concrete slab-on-grade floors are discussed in this chapter. Although cold-formed steel framing for floor systems also is permitted by the IRC,

More information

EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM RETROFITTED WITH FERROCEMENT

EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM RETROFITTED WITH FERROCEMENT Int. J. Struct. & Civil Engg. Res. 2013 Y V Ladi and P M Mohite, 2013 Research Paper EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM RETROFITTED WITH FERROCEMENT Y V Ladi 1 * and P M Mohite 2 *Corresponding

More information

DIRECT SHEAR TEST SOIL MECHANICS SOIL MECHANICS LABORATORY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF MORATUWA SRI LANKA

DIRECT SHEAR TEST SOIL MECHANICS SOIL MECHANICS LABORATORY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF MORATUWA SRI LANKA DIRECT SHEAR TEST SOIL MECHANICS SOIL MECHANICS LABORATORY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF MORATUWA SRI LANKA DIRECT SHEAR TEST OBJEVTIVES To determine the shear strength parameters for a

More information

Optimising plate girder design

Optimising plate girder design Optimising plate girder design NSCC29 R. Abspoel 1 1 Division of structural engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands ABSTRACT: In the design of steel plate girders a high degree

More information

Seismic analysis of a 2-storey log house Jorge M. Branco a, Paulo B. Lourenço b, Chrysl A. Aranha c

Seismic analysis of a 2-storey log house Jorge M. Branco a, Paulo B. Lourenço b, Chrysl A. Aranha c Seismic analysis of a 2-storey log house Jorge M. Branco a, Paulo B. Lourenço b, Chrysl A. Aranha c ISISE, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minho, Guimarães, Portugal a jbranco@civil.uminho.pt,

More information

FLEXURAL PERFORMANCE OF RC BEAMS STRENGTHENED WITH PRESTRESSED CFRP SHEETS

FLEXURAL PERFORMANCE OF RC BEAMS STRENGTHENED WITH PRESTRESSED CFRP SHEETS FLEXURAL PERFORMANCE OF RC BEAMS STRENGTHENED WITH PRESTRESSED CFRP SHEETS Piyong Yu, Pedro F. Silva, Antonio Nanni Center for Infrastructure and Engineering Studies Department of Civil, Architectural,

More information

MANUAL ON THE DELFT WIRE LACING TOOL

MANUAL ON THE DELFT WIRE LACING TOOL 1 MANUAL ON THE DELFT WIRE LACING TOOL By Dr. Pieter Huybers May, 1999 Building Technology Group Faculty of Civil Engineering Delft University of Technology 1, Stevinweg 2628 CN DELFT, The Netherlands

More information

The Material Properties of Cement Paste with Fly Ash Exposed to High Temperatures

The Material Properties of Cement Paste with Fly Ash Exposed to High Temperatures The Material Properties of Cement Paste with Fly Ash Exposed to High s PAVEL PADEVĚT, ROMANA LOVICHOVÁ Department of Mechanics Czech Technical University in Prague Thákurova 7, 166 29, Prague 6 CZECH REPUBLIC

More information

ANALYSIS OF A LAP JOINT FRICTION CONNECTION USING HIGH STRENGTH BOLTS

ANALYSIS OF A LAP JOINT FRICTION CONNECTION USING HIGH STRENGTH BOLTS Nordic Steel Construction Conference 212 Hotel Bristol, Oslo, Norway 5-7 September 212 ANALYSIS OF A LAP JOINT FRICTION CONNECTION USING HIGH STRENGTH BOLTS Marouene Limam a, Christine Heistermann a and

More information

An innovative connector system for fast and safe erection with CLT

An innovative connector system for fast and safe erection with CLT 20. Internationales Holzbau-Forum IHF 2014 An innovative connector system for fast and safe erection with CLT A. Polastri 1 An innovative connector system for fast and safe erection with CLT Ein innovatives

More information

Fire and Concrete Structures

Fire and Concrete Structures Fire and Concrete Structures Authors: David N. Bilow, P.E., S.E., Director, Engineered Structures, Portland Cement Association 5420 Old Orchard Road, Skokie, IL 60077,Phone 847-972-9064, email: dbilow@cement.org

More information

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF GLULAM BEAMS WITHOUT AND WITH GFRP REINFORCEMENT

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF GLULAM BEAMS WITHOUT AND WITH GFRP REINFORCEMENT 10th International Conference on Composite Science and Technology ICCST/10 A.L. Araújo, J.R. Correia, C.M. Mota Soares, et al. (Editors) IDMEC 2015 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF GLULAM BEAMS WITHOUT AND WITH GFRP

More information

Chapter 5: Tool Dynamometers

Chapter 5: Tool Dynamometers Chapter 5: Tool Dynamometers LEARNING OBJECTIVES Different types of transducers used in Dynamometers Design Requirements Types of Dynamometers ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

More information

Perforated Shearwall Design Method 1

Perforated Shearwall Design Method 1 Perforated Shearwall Design Method 1 Philip Line, P.E., Bradford K. Douglas, P.E., American Forest & Paper Association, USA Abstract Wood frame shearwalls are traditionally designed using full-height shearwall

More information

European Technical Approval ETA-10/0153

European Technical Approval ETA-10/0153 ETA-Danmark A/S Kollegievej 6 DK-2920 Charlottenlund Tel. +45 72 24 59 00 Fax +45 72 24 59 04 Internet www.etadanmark.dk Authorised and notified according to Article 10 of the Council Directive 89/106/EEC

More information

Solution for Homework #1

Solution for Homework #1 Solution for Homework #1 Chapter 2: Multiple Choice Questions (2.5, 2.6, 2.8, 2.11) 2.5 Which of the following bond types are classified as primary bonds (more than one)? (a) covalent bonding, (b) hydrogen

More information

DESIGN OF SLABS. 3) Based on support or boundary condition: Simply supported, Cantilever slab,

DESIGN OF SLABS. 3) Based on support or boundary condition: Simply supported, Cantilever slab, DESIGN OF SLABS Dr. G. P. Chandradhara Professor of Civil Engineering S. J. College of Engineering Mysore 1. GENERAL A slab is a flat two dimensional planar structural element having thickness small compared

More information

SINTEF Building and Infrastructure. Contents

SINTEF Building and Infrastructure. Contents Contents Contents... 2 1. Introduction... 3 2. Test Object... 3 3. Test Method... 4 4. Testing... 5 4.1 Hunton Asfalt Vindtett 12 mm... 5 4.2 Hunton Bitroc 15 mm... 5 4.3 Hunton Asfalt Vindtett 25 mm...

More information

Nonlinear Models of Reinforced and Post-tensioned Concrete Beams

Nonlinear Models of Reinforced and Post-tensioned Concrete Beams 111 Nonlinear Models of Reinforced and Post-tensioned Concrete Beams ABSTRACT P. Fanning Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, University College Dublin Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin 2, Ireland. Email:

More information

Objective To conduct Charpy V-notch impact test and determine the ductile-brittle transition temperature of steels.

Objective To conduct Charpy V-notch impact test and determine the ductile-brittle transition temperature of steels. IMPACT TESTING Objective To conduct Charpy V-notch impact test and determine the ductile-brittle transition temperature of steels. Equipment Coolants Standard Charpy V-Notched Test specimens Impact tester

More information

USE OF CFRP LAMINATES FOR STRENGTHENING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE CORBELS

USE OF CFRP LAMINATES FOR STRENGTHENING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE CORBELS International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 6, Issue 11, Nov 2015, pp. 11-20, Article ID: IJCIET_06_11_002 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=6&itype=11

More information

Composite structures are used extensively in aircraft, space vehicles, marine, and automotive

Composite structures are used extensively in aircraft, space vehicles, marine, and automotive Finite Element Analyses of Composite-to-Steel Adhesive Joints Yu-Ping Yang George W. Ritter David R. Speth Edision Welding Institute Columbus, Ohio Finite element modeling can assist in the design of an

More information

Design of Impact Load Testing Machine for COT

Design of Impact Load Testing Machine for COT Design of Impact Load Testing Machine for COT Sandesh G.Ughade 1, Dr. A.V.Vanalkar 2, Prof P.G.Mehar 2 1 Research Scholar (P.G), Dept of Mechanical Engg, KDK College of Engg, Nagpur, R.T.M, Nagpur university,

More information

Formwork for Concrete

Formwork for Concrete UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON DEPARTMENT OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT CM 420 TEMPORARY STRUCTURES Winter Quarter 2007 Professor Kamran M. Nemati Formwork for Concrete Horizontal Formwork Design and Formwork Design

More information

SEISMIC UPGRADE OF OAK STREET BRIDGE WITH GFRP

SEISMIC UPGRADE OF OAK STREET BRIDGE WITH GFRP 13 th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada August 1-6, 2004 Paper No. 3279 SEISMIC UPGRADE OF OAK STREET BRIDGE WITH GFRP Yuming DING 1, Bruce HAMERSLEY 2 SUMMARY Vancouver

More information

Compression load testing straw bale walls. Peter Walker Dept. Architecture & Civil Engineering University of Bath Bath BA2 7AY.

Compression load testing straw bale walls. Peter Walker Dept. Architecture & Civil Engineering University of Bath Bath BA2 7AY. Compression load testing straw bale walls Peter Walker Dept. Architecture & Civil Engineering University of Bath Bath BA2 7AY May 2004 1. Introduction Over the last 10 years a growing number of loadbearing

More information

FORM DESIGN. easy to work with, and generally available.

FORM DESIGN. easy to work with, and generally available. Forms play a major role in concrete construction. They give the plastic concrete its shape and hold it until it hardens. Forms protect the concrete, assist in curing it, and support any reinforcing rods

More information

Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington

Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington FRC Performance Comparison: Direct Tensile Test, Beam Type Bending Test, and Round Panel Test Shih Ho Chao (Presenting Author) Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington

More information

IMPROVING THE STRUT AND TIE METHOD BY INCLUDING THE CONCRETE SOFTENING EFFECT

IMPROVING THE STRUT AND TIE METHOD BY INCLUDING THE CONCRETE SOFTENING EFFECT International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 2, March-April 2016, pp. 117 127, Article ID: IJCIET_07_02_009 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=2

More information

STRENGTHENING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SLABS USING POST-TENSIONING WITH ANCHORAGES BY BONDING

STRENGTHENING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SLABS USING POST-TENSIONING WITH ANCHORAGES BY BONDING STRENGTHENING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SLABS USING POST-TENSIONING WITH ANCHORAGES BY BONDING Duarte Faria *, Valter Lúcio**, António Ramos*** *PhD Student, Science and Technology Faculty, New University

More information

Hardened Concrete. Lecture No. 14

Hardened Concrete. Lecture No. 14 Hardened Concrete Lecture No. 14 Strength of Concrete Strength of concrete is commonly considered its most valuable property, although in many practical cases, other characteristics, such as durability

More information

Wisconsin Building Products Evaluation

Wisconsin Building Products Evaluation Safety & Buildings Division 201 West Washington Avenue P.O. Box 2658 Madison, WI 53701-2658 Evaluation # 200813-O Wisconsin Building Products Evaluation Material Best Management Standards for Foundation

More information

ANALYSIS FOR BEHAVIOR AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE CORBELS WITH HYBRID REINFORCEMENT

ANALYSIS FOR BEHAVIOR AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE CORBELS WITH HYBRID REINFORCEMENT International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 6, Issue 10, Oct 2015, pp. 25-35 Article ID: IJCIET_06_10_003 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=6&itype=10

More information

Importance of quality assurance of materials for construction work

Importance of quality assurance of materials for construction work Importance of quality assurance of materials for construction work R.Savitha Building Materials Research and Testing Division, National Building Research Organization ABSTRACT: Quality assurance of building

More information

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction The population growth in the world requires an increase in the demand of residential and housing construction. Dannemann, (1982) introduces low cost house construction

More information

Post and Beam Construction

Post and Beam Construction Post and Beam Construction A Presentation By the Canadian Wood Council Canadian Conseil Wood canadien Council du bois Early settlers introduced the concept of post and beam construction in North America

More information

European Technical Approval ETA-13/0029

European Technical Approval ETA-13/0029 ETA-Danmark A/S Kollegievej 6 DK-2920 Charlottenlund Tel. +45 72 24 59 00 Fax +45 72 24 59 04 Internet www.etadanmark.dk Authorised and notified according to Article 10 of the Council Directive 89/106/EEC

More information

The University of Birmingham (Live System)

The University of Birmingham (Live System) The University of Birmingham (Live System) Behaviour of Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs) under both short-term and long-term loadings Yang, Jian; Rungthonkit, Prathan Document Version Author final version

More information

information sheet Structural Materials

information sheet Structural Materials information sheet Structural Materials Roundwood Applications The information provided below has been taken from the New Zealand Timber Design Guide 2007, published by the Timber Industry Federation and

More information

Timber Decks. Technical Note. March 2007

Timber Decks. Technical Note. March 2007 Timber Decks Technical Note. March 2007 This Technical Note contains general information for residential timber decks and floor frame structures for veranda s, patios etc which are exposed to the weather.

More information

Building Project using Post-Tensioning

Building Project using Post-Tensioning Building Project using Post-Tensioning Paulo Marques 1 Resume Nowadays building flexibility is an aspect to be taken into account at the idealization and project stages. The number of buildings that throughout

More information

Fire safety in timber buildings

Fire safety in timber buildings Fire safety in timber buildings Introduction Fire spread in buildings is a risk to life safety for which the Building Regulations (for England and Wales 1,2, Scotland 3 and Northern Ireland 4 ) aims to

More information

Owner s Guide to Understanding Checks in Glued Laminated Timber

Owner s Guide to Understanding Checks in Glued Laminated Timber Owner s Guide to Understanding Checks in Glued Laminated Timber ENGINEERED WOOD SYSTEMS Checking In Glued Laminated Timber Glued laminated timber (glulam) is an engineered wood product that is used in

More information

3. Test Methods for Evaluation of ESCR of Plastics

3. Test Methods for Evaluation of ESCR of Plastics 3. Test Methods for Evaluation of ESCR of Plastics A common laboratory request for ESC-prone polymers is to check ESCR performance for quality control, competitive product evaluations, and research and

More information

BOLDERAJA OSB SUPERFINISH ECO

BOLDERAJA OSB SUPERFINISH ECO ABOUT COMPANY Mission Provide solutions to enchance customers product value. Vision - To be a leader among wood based panel producers in the region. Values Innovation, integrity and team commitment. BOLDERAJA

More information

Naue GmbH&Co.KG. Quality Control and. Quality Assurance. Manual. For Geomembranes

Naue GmbH&Co.KG. Quality Control and. Quality Assurance. Manual. For Geomembranes Naue GmbH&Co.KG Quality Control and Quality Assurance Manual For Geomembranes July 2004 V.O TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Quality Assurance and Control 2.1 General 2.2 Quality management acc. to

More information

HAMBURG WHEEL-TRACKING TEST

HAMBURG WHEEL-TRACKING TEST Test Procedure for HAMBURG WHEEL-TRACKING TEST TxDOT Designation: Tex-242-F Effective Date: September 2014 1. SCOPE 1.1 This test method determines the premature failure susceptibility of bituminous mixtures

More information

The following sketches show the plans of the two cases of one-way slabs. The spanning direction in each case is shown by the double headed arrow.

The following sketches show the plans of the two cases of one-way slabs. The spanning direction in each case is shown by the double headed arrow. 9.2 One-way Slabs This section covers the following topics. Introduction Analysis and Design 9.2.1 Introduction Slabs are an important structural component where prestressing is applied. With increase

More information

Bending, Forming and Flexing Printed Circuits

Bending, Forming and Flexing Printed Circuits Bending, Forming and Flexing Printed Circuits John Coonrod Rogers Corporation Introduction: In the printed circuit board industry there are generally two main types of circuit boards; there are rigid printed

More information

CH 6: Fatigue Failure Resulting from Variable Loading

CH 6: Fatigue Failure Resulting from Variable Loading CH 6: Fatigue Failure Resulting from Variable Loading Some machine elements are subjected to static loads and for such elements static failure theories are used to predict failure (yielding or fracture).

More information

Ageing effect and long term performance of cement bonded particleboard. Prepared for: Viroc Portugal Indústrias de Madeira e Cimento S.A.

Ageing effect and long term performance of cement bonded particleboard. Prepared for: Viroc Portugal Indústrias de Madeira e Cimento S.A. Ageing effect and long term performance of cement bonded particleboard Prepared for: Viroc Portugal Indústrias de Madeira e Cimento S.A. 25 March 2008 Client report number 225399 1 Ageing effect and long

More information

Stress Strain Relationships

Stress Strain Relationships Stress Strain Relationships Tensile Testing One basic ingredient in the study of the mechanics of deformable bodies is the resistive properties of materials. These properties relate the stresses to the

More information

Chapter 5 Bridge Deck Slabs. Bridge Engineering 1

Chapter 5 Bridge Deck Slabs. Bridge Engineering 1 Chapter 5 Bridge Deck Slabs Bridge Engineering 1 Basic types of bridge decks In-situ reinforced concrete deck- (most common type) Pre-cast concrete deck (minimize the use of local labor) Open steel grid

More information

Chapter 6 ROOF-CEILING SYSTEMS

Chapter 6 ROOF-CEILING SYSTEMS Chapter 6 ROOF-CEILING SYSTEMS Woodframe roof-ceiling systems are the focus of this chapter. Cold-formed steel framing for a roof-ceiling system also is permitted by the IRC but will not be discussed;

More information

Seismic retrofit of non-ductile concrete and masonry walls by steelstrips

Seismic retrofit of non-ductile concrete and masonry walls by steelstrips Seismic retrofit of non-ductile concrete and masonry walls by steelstrips bracing Mustafa Taghdi, Michel Bruneau, & Murat Saatcioglu Ottawa Carleton Earthquake Engineering Research Centre Department of

More information

A-insinöörit Suunnittelu Oy

A-insinöörit Suunnittelu Oy A-insinöörit Suunnittelu Oy www.a-insinoorit.fi Background - Location at Ylöjärvi near Tampere at Highway VT3 - The design of the Malminmaki bridge, part of the Tampere West Bypass, Stage II, Contract

More information

STRAIN-LIFE (e -N) APPROACH

STRAIN-LIFE (e -N) APPROACH CYCLIC DEFORMATION & STRAIN-LIFE (e -N) APPROACH MONOTONIC TENSION TEST AND STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR STRAIN-CONTROLLED TEST METHODS CYCLIC DEFORMATION AND STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR STRAIN-BASED APPROACH TO

More information

Wall Framing Technical Guide. LP SolidStart LSL & LVL. 1730F b -1.35E and 2360F b -1.55E LSL 2250F b -1.5E and 2900F b -2.0E LVL. U.S.

Wall Framing Technical Guide. LP SolidStart LSL & LVL. 1730F b -1.35E and 2360F b -1.55E LSL 2250F b -1.5E and 2900F b -2.0E LVL. U.S. U.S. Technical Guide LP SolidStart LSL & LVL Wall Framing Technical Guide 1730F b -1.35E and 2360F b -1.55E LSL 2250F b -1.5E and 2900F b -2.0E LVL Please verify availability with the LP SolidStart Engineered

More information

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OUTCOME 2 ENGINEERING COMPONENTS TUTORIAL 1 STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OUTCOME 2 ENGINEERING COMPONENTS TUTORIAL 1 STRUCTURAL MEMBERS ENGINEERING COMPONENTS EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OUTCOME ENGINEERING COMPONENTS TUTORIAL 1 STRUCTURAL MEMBERS Structural members: struts and ties; direct stress and strain,

More information

Structural Integrity Analysis

Structural Integrity Analysis Structural Integrity Analysis 1. STRESS CONCENTRATION Igor Kokcharov 1.1 STRESSES AND CONCENTRATORS 1.1.1 Stress An applied external force F causes inner forces in the carrying structure. Inner forces

More information

New timber bridges- Inventive design by Block-Gluing

New timber bridges- Inventive design by Block-Gluing New timber bridges- Inventive design by Block-Gluing Frank MIEBACH Engineer (Dipl.-Ing. FH) Ingenieurbüro Miebach D-Lohmar, Germany info@ib-miebach.de 1996-2000 timber engineers studies Rosenheim, Germany

More information

The elements used in commercial codes can be classified in two basic categories:

The elements used in commercial codes can be classified in two basic categories: CHAPTER 3 Truss Element 3.1 Introduction The single most important concept in understanding FEA, is the basic understanding of various finite elements that we employ in an analysis. Elements are used for

More information

How to Install Hardwood Flooring Over a Sub Floor

How to Install Hardwood Flooring Over a Sub Floor How to Install Hardwood Flooring Over a Sub Floor Installation Preparation Instructions Read the entire instructions before starting your project. 1) INSPECT EACH PLANK (see fig. a) Wood is a natural product

More information

Installation Guide for Domestic Decking in Recycled Plastic

Installation Guide for Domestic Decking in Recycled Plastic Daisy Mill (Gate 3), Unit B Daisy Street, Waterside Colne, Lancashire, BB8 8ER T: 01282 861325 E: sales@kedeltrade.co.uk W: www.kedeltrade.co.uk Installation Guide for Domestic Decking in Recycled Plastic

More information

- General Guidelines. Soundproof Doors

- General Guidelines. Soundproof Doors - General Guidelines Soundproof Doors Doors and windows are by far one of the the most common reasons for noise leakage within an enclosed enviroment. Since soundproofing is effectively as good as the

More information

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION SERIES 8000 PRECAST CONCRETE

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION SERIES 8000 PRECAST CONCRETE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION SERIES 8000 PRECAST CONCRETE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION PART 8000 - PRECAST CONCRETE TABLE OF CONTENTS Item Number Page 8100 PRECAST CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION - GENERAL 8-3 8101 General

More information

EVALUATION OF SEISMIC RESPONSE - FACULTY OF LAND RECLAMATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -BUCHAREST

EVALUATION OF SEISMIC RESPONSE - FACULTY OF LAND RECLAMATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -BUCHAREST EVALUATION OF SEISMIC RESPONSE - FACULTY OF LAND RECLAMATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -BUCHAREST Abstract Camelia SLAVE University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, 59 Marasti

More information

Behaviour of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beams with Duct Openings Strengthened by Steel Plates

Behaviour of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beams with Duct Openings Strengthened by Steel Plates Behaviour of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beams with Duct Openings Strengthened by Steel Plates J.Suresh Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering Hindustan University, Padur, Chennai, India

More information

HARDBOARD WEBBED WOOD I-BEAMS

HARDBOARD WEBBED WOOD I-BEAMS HARDBOARD WEBBED WOOD I-BEAMS Maya Fitton, Bryan Walford Forest Research Institute, Rotorua, New Zealand Abstract This present paper describes the testing of hardboard webbed wood I-beams with flanges

More information

FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR OF HYBRID FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS

FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR OF HYBRID FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS Int. J. Struct. & Civil Engg. Res. 2013 M D Koli and H S Jadhav, 2013 Research Paper ISSN 2319 6009 www.ijscer.com Vol. 2, No. 3, August 2013 2013 IJSCER. All Rights Reserved FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR OF HYBRID

More information

Reinforced Concrete Design SHEAR IN BEAMS

Reinforced Concrete Design SHEAR IN BEAMS CHAPTER Reinforced Concrete Design Fifth Edition SHEAR IN BEAMS A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Part I Concrete Design and Analysis 4a FALL 2002 By Dr.

More information

Statics and Mechanics of Materials

Statics and Mechanics of Materials Statics and Mechanics of Materials Chapter 4-1 Internal force, normal and shearing Stress Outlines Internal Forces - cutting plane Result of mutual attraction (or repulsion) between molecules on both

More information

CONCRETE FLOOR SLAB & CASTING BED CONSTRUCTION

CONCRETE FLOOR SLAB & CASTING BED CONSTRUCTION CONCRETE FLOOR SLAB & CASTING BED CONSTRUCTION General 7 www.meadowburke.com 877-518-7665 MB1109 CONCRETE FLOOR SLAB AND CASTING BED CONSTRUCTION Quality Construction Begins at Ground Level Everything

More information

SCIENTIFIC DESIGN OF BAMBOO STRUCTURES

SCIENTIFIC DESIGN OF BAMBOO STRUCTURES SCIENTIFIC DESIGN OF BAMBOO STRUCTURES Dr. Suresh Bhalla Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi -110016 EMAIL: sbhalla@civil.iitd.ac.in CONTENTS WHY

More information

Analysis and test for shaping formation of space truss by means of cable-tensioning

Analysis and test for shaping formation of space truss by means of cable-tensioning Proc. ISCAS'07; Beale, R.G. (Ed.) 2007, Oxford Brookes University Analysis and test for shaping formation of space truss by means of cable-tensioning J. W. Kim, Professor, Gyeongsang National University,

More information

Composite Design Fundamentals. David Richardson

Composite Design Fundamentals. David Richardson Composite Design Fundamentals David Richardson Contents A review of the fundamental characteristics of composites Stiffness and Strength Anisotropic Role of fibre, matrix and interface Composite failure

More information

Detailing of Reinforcment in Concrete Structures

Detailing of Reinforcment in Concrete Structures Chapter 8 Detailing of Reinforcment in Concrete Structures 8.1 Scope Provisions of Sec. 8.1 and 8.2 of Chapter 8 shall apply for detailing of reinforcement in reinforced concrete members, in general. For

More information

Appendix A Sub surface displacements around excavations Data presented in Xdisp sample file

Appendix A Sub surface displacements around excavations Data presented in Xdisp sample file Appendix A Sub surface displacements around excavations Data presented in Xdisp sample file Notation B1 = lowest level of basement slab c = cohesion E = drained Young s Modulus Eu = undrained Young s Modulus

More information

Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Laminates - Aslan

Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Laminates - Aslan Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Laminates - Aslan 400 series November 10, 2011 Aslan 400 Carbon FRP Laminates are used to structurally strengthen existing concrete, wood, or masonry members in flexure

More information

December 2013. J-Ply Roofing, Flooring and Decking

December 2013. J-Ply Roofing, Flooring and Decking December 2013 J-Ply Roofing, Flooring and Decking Introduction J-Ply plywood is manufactured in New Zealand by Juken New Zealand Limited (JNL) and marketed by New Zealand Wood Products Limited. The J-Ply

More information

Stock sizes are nominal sizes(see glossary) Excludes hardware such as nails and other fixing or fastening components.

Stock sizes are nominal sizes(see glossary) Excludes hardware such as nails and other fixing or fastening components. 2400 x 3000 (8ft x 10ft) Storage Shed Plans Page 1: Introduction and Contents This detailed shed plan-set is in both Standard and metric dimensions. It is built on skids, meaning that there are no footings

More information

Interaction between plate and column buckling

Interaction between plate and column buckling Delft, University of Technology Engineering office of Public works Rotterdam Interaction between plate and column buckling Master Thesis Name: Alex van Ham Student number: 1306138 Email: vanham.alex@gmail.com

More information

CHAPTER 3 FLY ASH BASED GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE

CHAPTER 3 FLY ASH BASED GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE 29 CHAPTER 3 FLY ASH BASED GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE 3.1 GENERAL The fresh and hardened properties such as workability, density, compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength of fly ash

More information

LIST OF CHANGES 1 (17) Finnwood 2.3 SR1

LIST OF CHANGES 1 (17) Finnwood 2.3 SR1 LIST OF CHANGES 1 (17) CHANGES IN SOFTWARE VERSION FINNWOOD 2.3 SR1 (RIL 205-1-2009) Finnwood version 2.3 SR1 (RIL 205-1-2009) includes the following changes compared to the previous version Finnwood 2.3

More information

Ponti pedonali con una struttura di pannelli di tavole accostate Brettstapel

Ponti pedonali con una struttura di pannelli di tavole accostate Brettstapel 14. Internationales Holzbau-Forum 08 Stress-laminated arch construction for footbridges A. Kermani/Dr. G. Freedman 1 Fussgängerbrücken in Brettstapelbauweise Stress-laminated arch construction for footbridges

More information

2.9 WINDOW & DOOR BUCKS

2.9 WINDOW & DOOR BUCKS 2.9 WINDOW & DOOR BUCKS Bucks provide attachment surfaces for windows and doors while holding back concrete from these openings during concrete placement. Mark the center and edges of openings as you place

More information

General Properties. Components

General Properties. Components General Properties Aluminium Composite Panels are aesthetic, sleek looking, smooth, modern building materials used in the design of architectural structures as delimiters of our social life. Components

More information