WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDES

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1 FAIRFIELD HOSPITAL Department of Nutrition& Dietetics WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDES Cholesterol is produced by the liver and found in the blood. It is also found in some animal foods such as egg yolk, offal, fatty meats, butter, full cream cheese and some shellfish. Too much blood cholesterol can cause fatty deposits to build up inside your blood vessels making it harder for blood to flow through them. The gradual blocking of blood vessels in the heart may lead to a heart attack. Total blood cholesterol should be less than 4.0 mmol/l if you are at risk of heart disease or you already have the disease. You are at risk of heart disease if you have diabetes, or if you have high blood pressure, or if you are overweight or carry too much fat around your waist

2 THE MAIN CAUSES OF HIGH BLOOD CHOLESTEROL Family history Eating too much saturated fat Being overweight This indicates that some of the causes for a high level of blood cholesterol are related to a poor diet; therefore a healthy eating plan is very important to maintain blood cholesterol within healthy range. DIETARY STRATEGIES TO REDUCE BLOOD CHOLESTEROL Eat plenty of foods high in soluble fibre: This includes fruits, vegetables and legumes such as beans, lentils, chickpeas, and soybeans. Also select high fibre or rye bread; rolled oats, and fortified breakfast cereals such as guardian, health wise for the heart, etc. Reduce intake of saturated fats: This can be achieved by eating low fat dairy products, lean meat, skinless chicken, avoiding the use butter, lard, cakes, fried take-away foods, Spanish chorizos, sausages, cream. Include some mono and poly unsaturated fats in your diet: Use oils such olive and canola when cooking, sunflower oil for salads, margarine or avocado as spread and nuts and seeds (unsalted) as snacks. Reduce intake of foods high in cholesterol: Limit your intake of eggs yolk to no more than 3 per week; limit your intake of shellfish such as calamari, octopus and prawns to no more than 1 serve per week; avoid offal. If you eat margarine and if you are not taking cholesterol lowering medicines you can use margarine with plant sterols in it. Eg Logical proactive etc, See your Dietitian for advise how to use this type of margarines adequately. Plant sterols are natural components of plants. They have a structure very similar to cholesterol; therefore they can "compete" with cholesterol in the intestine, which can help to reduce blood cholesterol.

3 Triglycerides Triglycerides are another type of fat found in the blood stream. Triglycerides in the blood are derived from fats eaten in foods or made in the body from other energy sources like carbohydrates. Elevated triglycerides may be a consequence of other disease, such as poorly controlled diabetes. A high blood triglyceride level can reduce your good cholesterol (HDL) and can increase the risk of heart disease Dietary factors that increase triglycerides - High alcohol intake High fat intake (especially saturated fats) High intake of simple sugars eg soft drinks, cordials, lollies etc. Strategies to reduce triglycerides - Consume more omega 3 fats, eg try to have two to three fish meals per week. Avoid alcohol If overweight, losing weight will help to lower your triglycerides If you have diabetes, try to maintain the blood sugars within normal range Include foods with a low glycemic index eg: legumes, multigrain bread and cereals, rolled oats, apples, pears, etc. Last but no the least: Exercise daily! Regular exercise is very important to keep you healthy and reduce your "bad" cholesterol and triglycerides. Any form of exercise is beneficial. Choose an exercise that you enjoy!!! The recommendation is to exercise for 30 minutes or more every day DIETITIAN..CONTACT NUMBER.

4 FAIRFIELD HOSPITAL Department of Nutrition and Dietetics FACTS ON DIETARY FATS All fats are very high in energy and will increase your weight if eaten in excess. Knowing which fats raise LDL ( Bad ) cholesterol is the first step in lowering your risk of heart disease. Saturated fat, trans-fatty acids and dietary cholesterol can raise your LDL or bad cholesterol. Monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats appear to not raise LDL cholesterol Some studies suggest they might even help lower LDL cholesterol slightly when eaten as part of a low-saturated and trans-fat diet.

5 TYPES OF DIETARY FATS SATURATED FATS Saturated fat is the main dietary cause of high blood cholesterol. Saturated fat is found mostly in foods from animals and some plants. The following foods are rich in saturated fats, therefore try to avoid them: Fatty meats (asado, spare ribs), skin of chicken, sausages, Spanish chorizos, luncheon meats such as mortadella, devon, salami, bacon, liverwurst Full cream dairy products - milk, cheese, yoghurt, ice cream Cream, Butter, lard, cooking margarine Palm oil (used in commercial biscuits, cakes, pastries, snack foods, and many fried take-away foods) Cocoa butter. TRANS FATS (TFA) TFA or hydrogenated fats tended to raise total blood cholesterol levels. TFA also tend to raise LDL (bad) cholesterol and lower HDL (good) cholesterol. Therefore Avoid foods containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils to reduce trans fat in your diet. Limit cakes, cookies, crackers, pastries, pies, muffins, doughnuts and French fries made with partially hydrogenated or saturated fats. DIETARY CHOLESTEROL Cholesterol is only found in animal food, as it is the animal's liver that converts plants foods into cholesterol. Main dietary sources of cholesterol: Offal, egg yolk, butter, prawns, shrimp, calamari, and octopus

6 POLYUNSATURATED AND MONOUNSATURATED FATS These fats may help lower your blood cholesterol level when you use them in place of saturated and trans fats. Polyunsaturated fats - There are two types of polyunsaturated fats: Omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids. They are found in plant products and fish. Both types are healthy! Omega 6 fatty acids polyunsaturated oils - sunflower, safflower, soybean, corn and grape-seed oil polyunsaturated margarines nuts - brazil, walnuts seeds sunflower, safflower Omega 3 fatty acids They will help to reduce high blood triglycerides, reduce high blood pressure, reduce the risk of blood clots (thrombosis). Fatty fish eg. mackerel, sardines, herring, salmon, trout, tuna and mullet linseed- including linseed products eg. breads, cereals. walnuts, canola oil Monounsaturated fats oils - olive, canola, peanut, macadamia margarines based on olive oil and canola avocado, peanut butter nuts: peanuts, macadamia, cashews, almonds seeds - sesame, pumpkin DIETITIAN:. TELEPHONE:.

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