Sources of contamination

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Sources of contamination"

Transcription

1 RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION OF WOOD IN LITHUANIA L. Pilkytė, R. Ladygienė, A. Orentienė, A. Skripkienė Radiation Protection Centre Lithuania

2 CONTENT OF PRESENTATION Sources of radioactive contamination Methods of measurements Radioactive contamination of Lithuanian wood Radioactive contamination of wood imported to Lithuania Radioactive contamination of wood fuel and ash Evaluation of effective dose to population due to different use of wood

3 Sources of contamination Global radioactive fallout after nuclear weapons test in atmosphere and fallout after Chernobyl nuclear accident contaminated Lithuanian environment with mixture of radionuclides Recently short lived radionuclides already decayed. Contamination with long lived fission products Cs-137 and Sr-90 declines slowly After Chernobyl accident radioactive pollution fell down in dust form and not heavily contaminated territory of Lithuania Fallout resulted contamination with Cs-137 up to 18.5 kbq/m 2 and the highest contaminated areas were in some places in the west and south part of Lithuania where contamination was approximately 19.7 kbq/m 2 (Institute of Physics) Radiation Protection Centre started multipurpose survey including in situ gamma spectrometry measurements of Cs-137 in environment in 2008 with grid km 2 Cs-137 activity is in range kbq/m 2

4 Methods Sampling Gamma spectrometry method IEC 1452:1995, high-purity germanium detectors, relative efficiencies 27% the spectra analysis software Genie2000. Efficiency calibrated using mathematical calibration with LabSOCS in energy range kev for particular measurement geometries and densities of wood and ash Sr-90 activity concentration in the wood and ash was determined after radiochemical separation by counting the Cherenkov radiation with liquid scintillation counter Quantulus Methods accredited according requirements of ISO standard 17025:2005 Calculations of gamma dose rate due to Cs-137 in wood building materials performed by Visiplan 3D ALARA planning tool which allows to describe sources of any geometry and with any gamma radionuclide composition and to perform calculations of dose rate distribution around these sources. For estimation of effective dose to the population due different use of wood were used models from IAEA-TECDOC-1376 Assessing radiation doses to the public from radionuclides in timber and wood products.

5 Contamination of Lithuanian wood Wood samples investigated by gamma spectrometry during were: wooden board, chipboard, parquet, wood fiber, plywood, wooden door, timber. Types of investigated wood were: fir, pine, birch, oak, alder and asp During production process of wood items Cs-137 activity concentration in wood remains the same. Cs-137 activity concentration in different kinds of wood products was in range from MDA (less than minimum detectable activity) to 4±1 Bq/kg, average 1.3±0.3 Bq/kg (95 % confidence), median 1.0 Bq/kg. Accoding Lithuanian legislation exemption level for Cs-137 is Bq/kg Reletive frequency 0,3 0,2 0,1 0, Cs-137 activity concentration, Bq/kg Distribution of Cs-137 activity concentration in the samples of Lithuanian wood

6 Contamination of wood imported to Lithuania Not many samples of imported wood from Belarus and Ukraine were investigated. Highest Cs-137 activity concentration was 406 Bq/kg in wood from Belarus. More samples of wood were wood fuel Fuel was burnt in laboratory for investigation of Cs-137 enrichment in ash Measured Cs-137 activity concentration was: Country of origin Sample type Cs-137 activity concentration, Bq/kg In wood fuel In ash Ukraine Wood briquettes Wood pellets Belarus Wood pellets Wood chips Clearance level for Cs-137 is 400 Bq/kg

7 Evaluation exposure in living environment Another way to evaluate exposure to the population due to radioactive contamination in wood is measurements in living environment. Measurements of gamma dose rate of wooden furniture, wood trim and wooden board were done in living houses. Gamma dose rate did not exceed background. Gamma dose rate indoors were measured in over 600 of wooden dwellings built in whole Lithuania. Increase of gamma dose rate was not identified. It means dwellings were built from not contaminated or very little contaminated wood and fallout after Chernobyl accident did not contaminate heavily surface of houses. It do not cause additional effective dose to the population

8 Contamination of Lithuanian wood fuel Wood fuel production is important industrial sector from radiation protection point of view due to possible contamination in wood ash. Burning wood concentrates activity of radionuclides in ash 118 samples of wood fuel and ash were taken from 13 energy power plants in Average Cs-137 concentration 4,2±1,8 Bq/kg, Sr-90 3,8±1,4 Bq/kg in wood fuel, Cs ±54 Bq/kg, Sr-90 22±15 Bq/kg in ash. It was investigated that ash treatment reduce Cs-137 concentration 2-3 times Activity concentration, Bq q/kg Cs-137 Sr-90 Samples Cs-137 and Sr-90 activity concentrations in the samples of Lithuanian wood chips and sawdust

9 Effective dose due to use of Lithuanian wood ash Energy power plants burn Lithuanian wood fuel Combustion temperature is C at energy power plants. At such temperature part Cs-137 and Sr-90 evaporate and discharge into the environment Discharge is one of the pathways of exposure to the population. Effective doses due to Cs-137 and Sr-90 discharge was evaluated and do not exceed 10 µsv per year. It do not need radiation protection measures. Another part of Cs-137 and Sr-90 remains in the ash. Effective dose to the population depends on the way of ash treatment and use as fertilizer in agriculture. If the maximum permitted quantity of ash, 2.5 tons per hectare per year would be used up to 25 cm in the depth, the ash would contain the maximum measured values of Cs-137 (103 Bq/kg) and Sr-90 (22 Bq/kg), the radioactive contamination of soil would increase by Cs Bq/kg, Sr Bq/kg after a single fertilization. Such contamination will not have significant influence to the exposure of the population.

10 Contamination of wood fuel Detail radiological monitoring of Cs-137 in wood pellets was performed at one of the biggest Lithuanian factory (where mixture of wood of Lithuanian origin and Belarus origin were used) taking daily integrated samples (each sample was composed from 24 samples taken on 60 min basis). The measurements of 122 integrated samples were done June 23 - October 21, Cs-137 activity concentration in the wood pellets was in range from 5 up to 40 Bq/kg. 50 Cs-137 activity concentration, Bq/kg Date Wood fuel production plant.

11 Estimation effective dose to population due to using wood as a building material Wood is used in the construction of houses Wood can be used only for floor, walls or ceiling. For indoor exposure evaluation standard room m 3 with wall thickness of 20 cm, density 0.6 g/cm 3 is used Exposure occur from walls, floor and ceiling, provided each of these is constructed of contaminated wood Gamma dose rate is caused by activity concentration of Cs-137 and was calculated with Visiplan-3D in the middle of the room at height 1.25 m For dose rate calculations Cs-137 concentration in wood were used: 1.3 Bq/kg and 4.0 Bq/kg (average and maximum concentrations found in Lithuanian wood) Gamma dose rate in the standard room made of wood with 4 Bq/kg of Cs-137 is 0.6 ngy/h. It cause effective dose for the population 3 µsv per year. This dose is low less than 10 µsv per year (effective dose to the population due to exempted practice should not exceed 10 µsv per year). Effective dose would be 0.3 msv per year when Cs-137 concentration is 406 Bq/kg (Belarus origin)

12 CONCLUSIONS 1. Radioactive contamination of wood from Lithuanian forests is very low and it does not cost any problem from radiation protection point of view and would not lead to increase exposure to the population and workers; 2. Ash of fuel produced from Lithuanian wood used for fertilizers can contaminate soil up to 0.1 Bq/kg for single fertilization; 3. Lithuanian wood used as building material cause the effective dose to the population 3 µsv per year.

RADIATION MONITORING NETWORK OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC

RADIATION MONITORING NETWORK OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC RADIATION MONITORING NETWORK OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC Petr Kuča, Leoš Novák, Petr Rulík, Josef Tecl National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague, Czech Republic Introduction The Radiation Monitoring Network

More information

LONG-TERM DYNAMICS OF CAESIUM IN FOREST

LONG-TERM DYNAMICS OF CAESIUM IN FOREST Oct 1, 213 JAEA Caesium workshop 1 LONG-TERM DYNAMICS OF CAESIUM IN FOREST Masamichi Takahashi, Masahiro Kobayashi, Takuya Kajimoto, Shoji Hashimoto FORESTY AND FOREST PRODUCTS RESEACH INSTITUTE 213.1.1

More information

Nuclear accidents and radioactive contamination of foods 30 March 2011

Nuclear accidents and radioactive contamination of foods 30 March 2011 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Nuclear accidents and radioactive contamination of foods 30 March 2011 This document is intended to provide basic background information and not

More information

Environmental Radiation Monitoring in Taiwan

Environmental Radiation Monitoring in Taiwan Environmental Radiation Monitoring in Taiwan Introduction: Ching-Chung Huang Radiation Monitoring Center, Atomic Energy Council 823, Cherng-Ching Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan cchuang @ trmc.aec.gov.tw Chemical,

More information

Soil Radiological Characterization and Remediation at CIEMAT

Soil Radiological Characterization and Remediation at CIEMAT Soil Radiological Characterization and Remediation at CIEMAT Cristina Correa (ENRESA), Esther García Tapias (ENRESA), José Luis Leganés (ENRESA), (Spain) Located in Madrid, CIEMAT is the Spanish Centre

More information

Finnish experience and emergency measures after the Chernobyl accident and fallout

Finnish experience and emergency measures after the Chernobyl accident and fallout Finnish experience and emergency measures after the Chernobyl accident and fallout Content The Chernobyl fallout in Finland, effects on Agricultural environment Natural and freshwater environment Baltic

More information

Radiological Protection Principles concerning the Natural Radioactivity of Building Materials

Radiological Protection Principles concerning the Natural Radioactivity of Building Materials Radiological Protection Principles concerning the Natural Radioactivity of Building Materials European Commission Radiation protection 112 Radiological Protection Principles concerning the Natural Radioactivity

More information

ROMANIA The characteristics and potential of the wooden pellets and briquettes

ROMANIA The characteristics and potential of the wooden pellets and briquettes ROMANIA The characteristics and potential of the wooden pellets and briquettes ROMANIAN PELLETS AND BRIQUETTES ASSOCIATION Mr. Dorin Sfaca - President ROMANIA - located in Southeastern Europe and that

More information

Radiological mapping and characterization at the Barsebäck nuclear power plant

Radiological mapping and characterization at the Barsebäck nuclear power plant Radiological mapping and characterization at the Barsebäck nuclear power plant Leif Spanier, Scandpower AB Lars Håkansson, Barsebäck Kraft AB Radiological Characterisation for Decommissioning Workshop

More information

Calibration of HPGe detector for in situ measurements of 137 Cs in soil by peak to valley method

Calibration of HPGe detector for in situ measurements of 137 Cs in soil by peak to valley method Calibration of HPGe detector for in situ measurements of 137 Cs in soil by peak to valley method M. Fülöp Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Limbova 14, 83101 Bratislava, Slovak Republic INTRODUCTION

More information

Fukushima Accident: Radioactive Releases and Potential Dose Consequences

Fukushima Accident: Radioactive Releases and Potential Dose Consequences Fukushima Accident: Radioactive Releases and Potential Dose Consequences Peter F. Caracappa, Ph.D., CHP Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute ANS Annual Meeting Special Session: The Accident at Fukushima Daiichi

More information

Intermediate 2 Radioactivity Past Paper questions

Intermediate 2 Radioactivity Past Paper questions Intermediate 2 Radioactivity Past Paper questions 2000-2010 2000 Q30. A drawing of the core of a nuclear reactor is shown below. The fuel rods contain uranium-235. (a) Describe what happens when a slow

More information

Assessment of environmental radiation monitoring data in Hungary following the Fukushima accident

Assessment of environmental radiation monitoring data in Hungary following the Fukushima accident Radioprotection 2013 Vol. 48, n o 5, pages S117 à S123 DOI: 10.1051/radiopro/20139918 Case studies in national experiences Assessment of environmental radiation monitoring data in Hungary following the

More information

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE USEFULNESS OF THE ISOCS MATHEMATICAL EFFICIENCY CALIBRATION FOR LARGE RECTANGULAR 3 x5 x16 NAI DETECTORS

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE USEFULNESS OF THE ISOCS MATHEMATICAL EFFICIENCY CALIBRATION FOR LARGE RECTANGULAR 3 x5 x16 NAI DETECTORS AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE USEFULNESS OF THE ISOCS MATHEMATICAL EFFICIENCY CALIBRATION FOR LARGE RECTANGULAR 3 x5 x16 NAI DETECTORS Frazier L. Bronson CHP Canberra Industries, Inc. 800 Research Parkway,

More information

Chapter 3. Radioactive Decay Laws. Half-life. Definition. The Physical Half-life

Chapter 3. Radioactive Decay Laws. Half-life. Definition. The Physical Half-life Chapter 3 Radioactive Decay Laws Half-life The term half-life has been mentioned earlier. So far, this has referred to only the physical half-life. When considering health and the environment, we have

More information

Investigation of Radioactivity Levels in Soil at JUST Campus Prior to the Construction of JRTR

Investigation of Radioactivity Levels in Soil at JUST Campus Prior to the Construction of JRTR Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 7, No. 4, 2013 Investigation of Radioactivity Levels in Soil at JUST Campus Prior to the Construction of JRTR Salaheddin R. Malkawi*, Mahmoud El-Gohary, Mohammad

More information

Application Note. ipix A Gamma imager to support various applications

Application Note. ipix A Gamma imager to support various applications Application Note ipix A Gamma imager to support various applications Introduction ipix is a unique gamma imager that quickly locates low level radioactive sources from a distance and estimates the dose

More information

The Situation of NORM in Non-Uranium Mining in China

The Situation of NORM in Non-Uranium Mining in China The Situation of NORM in Non-Uranium Mining in China Liu Hua Dept. of Nuclear Safety Management, Ministry of Environment Protection, China (National Nuclear Safety Administration) October, 2011 I Introduction

More information

High-Z shielding radiopurity and material compatibility

High-Z shielding radiopurity and material compatibility High-Z shielding radiopurity and material compatibility Ma#hieu VIVIER CEA- Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SPP CeSOX kick- off mee@ng Paris, February 5 th CeANG characteristics Anti-neutrino emitter = 144 Ce- 144 Pr,

More information

THE RESULTS OF THE LITHUANIAN RADON SURVEY. Gendrutis Morkunas 1, Gustav Akerblom 2

THE RESULTS OF THE LITHUANIAN RADON SURVEY. Gendrutis Morkunas 1, Gustav Akerblom 2 Radon in the Living Environment, 008 THE RESULTS OF THE LITHUANIAN RADON SURVEY Gendrutis Morkunas 1, Gustav Akerblom 2 1 Radiation Protection Centre, Kalvariju 153, LT-2042, Vilnius, Lithuania Tel. 3702

More information

arxiv:1401.3092v1 [physics.ins-det] 14 Jan 2014

arxiv:1401.3092v1 [physics.ins-det] 14 Jan 2014 Monte Carlo Simulation of Indoor External Exposure due to Gamma-emitting Radionuclides in Building Materials arxiv:1401.3092v1 [physics.ins-det] 14 Jan 2014 DENG Jun 1) CAO Lei SU Xu 2) Key Laboratory

More information

NORM Radiation Safety Officer Course (RSO) Outline

NORM Radiation Safety Officer Course (RSO) Outline NORM Radiation Safety Officer Course (RSO) Outline Day 1 1. Introductions/overview a. Why we do NORM Training d. Different Levels of NORM Training 2. General Health Physics a. Radiological Awareness b.

More information

Exposures from the Events at the NPPs in Fukushima following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami

Exposures from the Events at the NPPs in Fukushima following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Exposures from the Events at the NPPs in Fukushima following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Yoshiharu YONEKURA The 58th session of UNSCEAR, 23 rd May, 2011 1. Impact on Public & Environment

More information

Case study from Ukraine

Case study from Ukraine Case study from Ukraine Uranium Mining Facilities at the Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant Rodolfo Avila Outline Overview of the situation Monitoring programs Examples of monitoring results Modelling work Examples

More information

Radiation Safety Officer APS-289-TE. TECEP Test Description

Radiation Safety Officer APS-289-TE. TECEP Test Description Radiation Safety Officer APS-289-TE This TECEP tests the knowledge that is needed for an individual to serve as a radiation safety officer (RSO) at a non-medical radioactive material license facility.

More information

40-HOUR NORM/TENORM RADIATION SAFETY OFFICER COURSE OUTLINE DAY 1: 8-HOUR NORM/TENORM RADIATION COURSE OUTLINE

40-HOUR NORM/TENORM RADIATION SAFETY OFFICER COURSE OUTLINE DAY 1: 8-HOUR NORM/TENORM RADIATION COURSE OUTLINE DAY 1: 8-HOUR NORM/TENORM RADIATION Section 1.0 ATOMIC THEORY 1.1 Radiation 1.2 Non-ionizing Radiation 1.3 Ionizing Radiation 1.4 The Nucleus 1.5 Electrons 1.6 The Periodic Table 1.7 Isotopes and Nuclides

More information

Dose assessment for workers at mercury recycling of sludge and scale from natural gas production

Dose assessment for workers at mercury recycling of sludge and scale from natural gas production Dose assessment for workers at mercury recycling of sludge and scale from natural gas production Hartmut Schulz IAF - Radioökologie GmbH. Karpatenstraße 20 01326 Dresden Wolfgang Mothes GMR Gesellschaft

More information

Portable Radiation Monitor

Portable Radiation Monitor Portable Radiation Monitor Kaoru Masui Takeshi Ishikura Daisuke Inui 1. Introduction At nuclear power plants, research facilities, hospitals and the like in Japan, portable radiation monitors that can

More information

Natural and Anthropogenic Radionuclides in Date Fruit from the United Arab Emirates: a Baseline Study. Dr. Rubina Rahman

Natural and Anthropogenic Radionuclides in Date Fruit from the United Arab Emirates: a Baseline Study. Dr. Rubina Rahman Natural and Anthropogenic Radionuclides in Date Fruit from the United Arab Emirates: a Baseline Study. Dr. Rubina Rahman Visiting Research Scholar (Khalifa University), Abu Dhabi, UAE Associate Professor,

More information

Local government radiation surveillance system for nuclear power plant at post-fukushima era in China

Local government radiation surveillance system for nuclear power plant at post-fukushima era in China NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUES 25, S010603 (2014) Local government radiation surveillance system for nuclear power plant at post-fukushima era in China HUANG Yan-Jun ( 黄 彦 君 ), 1, CHEN Chao-Feng ( 陈 超

More information

Radiation Measurements

Radiation Measurements Radiation Measurements 55 (2013) 12e16 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect Radiation Measurements journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/radmeas Chernobyl accident: Causes, consequences

More information

A methodological approach for sediment core dating

A methodological approach for sediment core dating Radioprotection - Colloques, volume 37, Cl (2002) Cl-1009 A methodological approach for sediment core dating R. Ocone, M. Belli, L. Schiozzi 1 and A. Fazio 2 ANPA, Agenzia Nazionale perla Protezione dell'ambiente,

More information

Acid Rain in Germany, Air Pollution in UK, & Nuclear Disaster in Chernobyl, Ukraine

Acid Rain in Germany, Air Pollution in UK, & Nuclear Disaster in Chernobyl, Ukraine Acid Rain in Germany, Air Pollution in UK, & Nuclear Disaster in Chernobyl, Ukraine Standards SS6G9 The student will discuss environmental issues in Europe. a. Explain the major concerns of Europeans regarding

More information

Radiation Safety Aspects of Fluorescent Lamp Starters incorporating radiation source

Radiation Safety Aspects of Fluorescent Lamp Starters incorporating radiation source Radiation Safety Aspects of Fluorescent Lamp Starters incorporating radiation source Geetha Sadagopan, V.K.Shukla* Radiological Physics and Advisory Division *Environmental Assessment Division Bhabha Atomic

More information

Safety Information for Sealed Source Users. University of Arkansas Environmental Health & Safety

Safety Information for Sealed Source Users. University of Arkansas Environmental Health & Safety Safety Information for Sealed Source Users University of Arkansas Environmental Health & Safety Sealed source Sealed source Radioactive materials sealed inside metal/plastic. Most sealed sources can be

More information

Treatment Centers for Radioactive Waste

Treatment Centers for Radioactive Waste Treatment Centers for Radioactive Waste TREATMENT CENTERS FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE Introduction Nuclear facilities such as nuclear power plants, reprocessing plants, nuclear fuel cycle production units, laboratories

More information

46 Health, safety and risk. Radiation doses. Objectives To understand the risks associated with radiation. To learn how radon levels are controlled.

46 Health, safety and risk. Radiation doses. Objectives To understand the risks associated with radiation. To learn how radon levels are controlled. 46 Health, safety and risk Radiation doses Teachers notes Objectives To understand the risks associated with radiation. To realise how the risks associated with radiation compare with other risks associated

More information

INFO-0545 RADIOISOTOPE SAFETY MONITORING FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

INFO-0545 RADIOISOTOPE SAFETY MONITORING FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION INFO-0545 RADIOISOTOPE SAFETY MONITORING FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION 1. INTRODUCTION This document provides general guidance for monitoring and controlling radioactive contamination, and relating the

More information

NORM MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES & PRINCIPLES

NORM MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES & PRINCIPLES Introducing NORM NORM MANAGEMENT Three is glad to present some basic hints about NORM that should be taken onto consideration whilst dealing with these matters The acronym NORMmeans all Naturally Occurring

More information

A Comparison of an HPGe-based and NaI-based Radionuclide Identifier (RID) for Radioactive Materials

A Comparison of an HPGe-based and NaI-based Radionuclide Identifier (RID) for Radioactive Materials Illicit Trafficking, Sub/cross-national threats, Poster presentation A Comparison of an HPGe-based and NaI-based Radionuclide Identifier (RID) for Radioactive Materials Ronald M. Keyser, Timothy R. Twomey,

More information

Chapter VI Agricultural and environmental impacts

Chapter VI Agricultural and environmental impacts Chernobyl: Assessment of Radiological and Health Impact 2002 Update of Chernobyl: Ten Years On Chapter VI Agricultural and environmental impacts Conclusions (Conclusions will open in a pop-up window) Agricultural

More information

Role and tasks of Arpa Piemonte in controlling and monitoring of ionizing and non ionizing radiation. G.. d Amored

Role and tasks of Arpa Piemonte in controlling and monitoring of ionizing and non ionizing radiation. G.. d Amored Sino-Italian Cooperation Project Role and tasks of Arpa Piemonte in controlling and monitoring of ionizing and non ionizing radiation G.. d Amored Environmental Protection Agency of Piedmont Region (ARPA

More information

Nuclear Energy. By Cole Wzientek and Haley Bowen

Nuclear Energy. By Cole Wzientek and Haley Bowen Nuclear Energy By Cole Wzientek and Haley Bowen What can nuclear energy be used for? This energy source can send electricity to homes, office buildings, factories, power batteries, and it can provide electricity

More information

Azeri, Chirag & Gunashli Full Field Development Phase 3 Environmental & Socio-economic Impact Assessment. A10.1 Introduction...

Azeri, Chirag & Gunashli Full Field Development Phase 3 Environmental & Socio-economic Impact Assessment. A10.1 Introduction... APPENDIX 10 Normally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) Contents A10.1 Introduction... A10/3 A10.2 Occurrence & Concentration of NORM in Oil and Gas Operations... A10/4 A10.2.1 Probability of NORM formation

More information

ORTEC Radioactivity and its Measurements in Foodstuffs Where Does Radioactivity in Food Come From? Natural Radioactivity: Industrial Radioactivity:

ORTEC Radioactivity and its Measurements in Foodstuffs Where Does Radioactivity in Food Come From? Natural Radioactivity: Industrial Radioactivity: ORTEC Food Monitoring Note Radioactivity and its Measurements in Foodstuffs Where Does Radioactivity in Food Come From? Radioactivity is, and always has been, present in all foodstuffs to some extent.

More information

Government of India Atomic Energy Regulatory Board

Government of India Atomic Energy Regulatory Board Government of India Atomic Energy Regulatory Board Niyamak Bhavan Anushakti Nagar Mumbai - 400 094 G.S.R. No. 388 --- In pursuance of rule 15 of the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971, the Atomic Energy

More information

The Role of the United States Food Safety and Inspection Service After the Chemobyl Accident

The Role of the United States Food Safety and Inspection Service After the Chemobyl Accident XA04N1194 The Role of the United States Food Safety and Inspection Service After the Chemobyl Accident Ronald E. Engel Victor Randecker Wesley Johnson Food Safety and Ispection Service United States Department

More information

THE ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORING SYSTEM AND IN-SITU MEASUREMENTS FOR EARLY NOTIFICATION AND OIL CALCULATIONS.

THE ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORING SYSTEM AND IN-SITU MEASUREMENTS FOR EARLY NOTIFICATION AND OIL CALCULATIONS. THE EVIROMETAL RADIATIO MOITORIG SYSTEM AD I-SITU MEASUREMETS FOR EARLY OTIFICATIO AD OIL CALCULATIOS. G. Haquin, E. e eman, S. Brenner and. Lavi Radiation Safety Division, Institute for Environmental

More information

Clearance Laboratory. Capability and measurement sensitivity DD-R-15(EN)

Clearance Laboratory. Capability and measurement sensitivity DD-R-15(EN) DD-R-15(EN) Clearance Laboratory Capability and measurement sensitivity Per Hedemann Jensen, Bente Lauridsen, João Silva, Jens Søgaard-Hansen, Lisbeth Warming Danish Decommissioning, Roskilde September

More information

Natural Radioactivity

Natural Radioactivity Natural Radioactivity True or false The food we eat is a natural source of radiation. True or false Radiation dose can be measured in rem, gray or rad. True or false Older homes are more susceptible to

More information

Procedure 13: Laboratory Design and Classification

Procedure 13: Laboratory Design and Classification Laboratory Design and Classification P13-1 Procedure 13: Laboratory Design and Classification Nuclear laboratories are classified into three levels: Basic, Intermediate and High, depending on the nuclear

More information

Questionnaire for NORM service providers

Questionnaire for NORM service providers Questionnaire for NORM service providers This questionnaire is intended for institutes and companies providing services relevant for NORM industries in Belgium. Its objective is to give to Belgian NORM

More information

Exampro GCSE Physics. P2 Radioactivity Self Study Questions Higher tier. Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 80. Marks: 80. Comments: Page 1 of 30

Exampro GCSE Physics. P2 Radioactivity Self Study Questions Higher tier. Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 80. Marks: 80. Comments: Page 1 of 30 Exampro GCSE Physics P2 Radioactivity Self Study Questions Higher tier Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 80 Marks: 80 Comments: Page of 30 Q. A beta particle is a high-energy electron. (i) Which part of

More information

Natural radioactivity in imported ceramic tiles used in Serbia #

Natural radioactivity in imported ceramic tiles used in Serbia # Processing and Application of Ceramics 7 [3] (2013) 123 127 DOI: 10.2298/PAC1303123J Natural radioactivity in imported ceramic tiles used in Serbia # Marija M. Janković 1,*, Milica M. jačić 1, Tamara M.

More information

United States Office of Radiation and October 1998 Environmental Protection Indoor Air Agency. Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory

United States Office of Radiation and October 1998 Environmental Protection Indoor Air Agency. Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory United States Office of Radiation and October 1998 Environmental Protection Indoor Air Agency Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory

More information

Sampling Airborne Radioactivity Generic Soil Sampling

Sampling Airborne Radioactivity Generic Soil Sampling Sampling Airborne Radioactivity Generic Soil Sampling 15 th Annual OSC Readiness Training Program www.oscreadiness.org Air Sampling Primary Tasks 1. Collect 2. Count 3. Calculate 15 th Annual OSC Readiness

More information

Basic hands-on gamma calibration for low activity environmental levels

Basic hands-on gamma calibration for low activity environmental levels Basic hands-on gamma calibration for low activity environmental levels Iolanda Osvath Environment Laboratories Marine Environment Laboratories, Monaco Radiometrics Laboratory International Atomic Energy

More information

Environmental Remediation Examples and Remediation Strategic Planning

Environmental Remediation Examples and Remediation Strategic Planning Environmental Remediation Examples and Remediation Strategic Planning Yasuo Onishi (yasuo.onishi@pnnl.gov) October 16, 2011 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Washington State University, Civil

More information

Cronos -1 Gamma Object / Tool Monitors

Cronos -1 Gamma Object / Tool Monitors Features Counting chamber volume: 42.9 L (1.5 cu. ft.) Robust, ergonomic, easy-to-use and decontaminate Photon energy range from 50 kev to 2 MeV Four or optional six large surface area plastic scintillator

More information

Q 2 - A VERY LOW LEVEL QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE WASTE ASSAY AND RELEASE CERTIFICATION

Q 2 - A VERY LOW LEVEL QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE WASTE ASSAY AND RELEASE CERTIFICATION Q 2 - A VERY LOW LEVEL QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE WASTE ASSAY AND RELEASE CERTIFICATION Frazier Bronson, CHP Canberra Industries, Inc. INTRODUCTION Radioactive waste disposal is an expensive operation

More information

A Review of Emerging Gamma Detector Technologies for Airborne. Radiation Monitoring

A Review of Emerging Gamma Detector Technologies for Airborne. Radiation Monitoring A Review of Emerging Gamma Detector Technologies for Airborne Steven Bell ANSRI Dublin 2015 12-14 January Radiation Monitoring Airborne radiation Particulates: sub-μm to sub-mm contaminated with fission

More information

LEROY MERLÍN FUNDACIÓN JUAN XXIII-IBERMAIL. A Study of Forest Biomass Sustainability SHOUF BIOSPHERE RESERVE, LEBANON THERMAL BIOMASS PROJECT 2013

LEROY MERLÍN FUNDACIÓN JUAN XXIII-IBERMAIL. A Study of Forest Biomass Sustainability SHOUF BIOSPHERE RESERVE, LEBANON THERMAL BIOMASS PROJECT 2013 December 203 SHOUF BIOSPHERE RESERVE, LEBANON THERMAL BIOMASS PROJECT 203 A Study of Forest Biomass Sustainability GRUPO SYLVESTRIS SL CL Asura 34 bis Madrid 28043. SPAIN. Tel.: +34 609 04 42 6 Tel.:+34

More information

ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOLOGICAL DATA RELATING TO THE 2000 WILDFIRE AT HANFORD

ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOLOGICAL DATA RELATING TO THE 2000 WILDFIRE AT HANFORD WDOH/320-025 Environmental Radiation Program STATE OF WASHINGTON DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOLOGICAL DATA RELATING TO THE 2000 WILDFIRE AT HANFORD January 2002 Environmental Health

More information

COMPENDIUM OF EPA-APPROVED ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR MEASURING RADIONUCLIDES IN DRINKING WATER

COMPENDIUM OF EPA-APPROVED ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR MEASURING RADIONUCLIDES IN DRINKING WATER COMPENDIUM OF EPA-APPROVED ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR MEASURING RADIONUCLIDES IN DRINKING WATER June 1998 Prepared by the Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance Air, Water and Radiation Division (EH-412)

More information

Monte Carlo simulation of a scanning whole body counter and the effect of BOMAB phantom size on the calibration.

Monte Carlo simulation of a scanning whole body counter and the effect of BOMAB phantom size on the calibration. Monte Carlo simulation of a scanning whole body counter and the effect of BOMAB phantom size on the calibration. Gary H. Kramer, Linda C. Burns and Steven Guerriere Human Monitoring Laboratory, Radiation

More information

The Follow-up IAEA International Mission on Remediation of Large Contaminated Areas Off-Site the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

The Follow-up IAEA International Mission on Remediation of Large Contaminated Areas Off-Site the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant NE/NEFW/2013 ORIGINAL: English 23.01.2014 Final Report The Follow-up IAEA International Mission on Remediation of Large Contaminated Areas Off-Site the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Tokyo and Fukushima

More information

Radiation Surveys, Instrumentation and Dosimetry. Laurie S. Vivekanand, CIH NXP Semiconductors Hopewell Junction, NY

Radiation Surveys, Instrumentation and Dosimetry. Laurie S. Vivekanand, CIH NXP Semiconductors Hopewell Junction, NY Radiation Surveys, Instrumentation and Dosimetry Laurie S. Vivekanand, CIH NXP Semiconductors Hopewell Junction, NY Radiation Surveys, Instrumentation and Dosimetry Survey Types Survey Instrumentation

More information

Five Years of Monitoring Cs-137 And Cs-134 In Moss And Soil Samples In The Campania Region Of Italy After The Chernobyl Accident.

Five Years of Monitoring Cs-137 And Cs-134 In Moss And Soil Samples In The Campania Region Of Italy After The Chernobyl Accident. Five Years of Monitoring Cs-137 And Cs-134 In Moss And Soil Samples In The Campania Region Of Italy After The Chernobyl Accident. C. Fontana 1, A. Lo Tenero 2, R.G. Musumeci 1 and F.Valeriani 1 1 Italian

More information

Radiation Protection in Industrial Applications in India. Dr Ramanathan Ganesan ex-barc (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre), India

Radiation Protection in Industrial Applications in India. Dr Ramanathan Ganesan ex-barc (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre), India Radiation Protection in Industrial Applications in India Dr Ramanathan Ganesan ex-barc (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre), India Outline Applications of radiation in industry in India Country-wide radiation

More information

Radiation from Granite Countertops

Radiation from Granite Countertops Radiation from Granite Countertops Summary: Assuming a relatively tight house with an air change rate of 0.5/hr and using average measured dose rates from granite countertop slabs, the estimated radon

More information

KUHMO: the perfect example of local bioenergy production

KUHMO: the perfect example of local bioenergy production Kajaani University Consortium CEMIS-Oulu timo.karjalainen@oulu.fi KUHMO: the perfect example of local bioenergy production Background Much more wood energy must be used in the near future to help meet

More information

2 Experimental Procedure. 1 Introduction

2 Experimental Procedure. 1 Introduction Open Chem., 015; 13: 656 660 Research Article Open Access Gordana K. Pantelić*, Dragana J. Todorović, Jelena D. Nikolić, Milica M. Rajačić Interlaboratory comparison material homogeneity testing Abstract:

More information

NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENTS: WHERE? WHEN? WHY?

NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENTS: WHERE? WHEN? WHY? NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENTS: WHERE? WHEN? WHY? Steven L. Simon, PhD National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD USA Beebe Symposium National Academy of Sciences May 13, 2014 An accident

More information

6. PROGRAMS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING. 6.1. Activities Concerning Environment Protection

6. PROGRAMS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING. 6.1. Activities Concerning Environment Protection 6. PROGRAMS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING 6.1. Activities Concerning Environment Protection The objectives of the S. N. NUCLEARELECTRICA environment policy are (Ref. 6-9, 6-10): - prevention of environment

More information

CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE FOR THE USE OF INDUSTRIAL GAUGES CONTAINING SEALED RADIOACTIVE SOURCES

CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE FOR THE USE OF INDUSTRIAL GAUGES CONTAINING SEALED RADIOACTIVE SOURCES CSP19 Version 1.2 ISSN 0110-9316 CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE FOR THE USE OF INDUSTRIAL GAUGES CONTAINING SEALED RADIOACTIVE SOURCES Office of Radiation Safety Ministry of Health PO Box 3877 Christchurch 8140

More information

Gamma Ray Attenuation Properties of Common Shielding Materials

Gamma Ray Attenuation Properties of Common Shielding Materials Gamma Ray Attenuation Properties of Common Shielding Materials Daniel R. McAlister, Ph.D. PG Research Foundation, Inc. 955 University Lane Lisle, IL 60532, USA Introduction In areas where people are likely

More information

Wood market in Poland: structure of use, industrial and energy purposes

Wood market in Poland: structure of use, industrial and energy purposes InnovaWood/Wood Technology Institute Poznan, 25-26.06.2007 Wood market in Poland: structure of use, industrial and energy purposes Prof. Ewa Ratajczak, PhD Wojciech Cichy, PhD Joanna Pikul, MSc Wood Technology

More information

Questions Q1. Carbon-14 is a radioactive isotope that occurs naturally. Scientists use carbon-14 to help find the age of old pieces of wood. This technique is called carbon dating. It uses the idea of

More information

Separation of Pu and Am using TEVA and DGA resins J.A.Corcho Alvarado*, P. Froidevaux

Separation of Pu and Am using TEVA and DGA resins J.A.Corcho Alvarado*, P. Froidevaux Separation of Pu and Am using TEVA and DGA resins J.A.Corcho Alvarado*, P. Froidevaux Radioecology Group Institute of Radiation Physics, Lausanne, Switzerland User s Group Meeting Chester, UK - 15.09.2009

More information

nuclear energy Encyclopedic Entry

nuclear energy Encyclopedic Entry This website would like to remind you: Your browser (Safari 7) is out of date. Update your browser for more security, comfort and the best experience on this site. Encyclopedic Entry nuclear energy For

More information

IONISING RADIATION PROTECTION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY ACT consolidated text - published in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, No.

IONISING RADIATION PROTECTION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY ACT consolidated text - published in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, No. IONISING RADIATION PROTECTION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY ACT consolidated text - published in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, No. 102/2004 UNOFFICIAL TRANSLATION I. GENERAL PROVISIONS Article

More information

RC-17. Alejandro V. Nader National Regulatory Authority Montevideo - Uruguay

RC-17. Alejandro V. Nader National Regulatory Authority Montevideo - Uruguay RC-17 Radiation Protection in Waste Management and Disposal Implementing the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management Alejandro V. Nader

More information

Response of SCK CEN to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident in the Context of the Protection of Belgian Citizens

Response of SCK CEN to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident in the Context of the Protection of Belgian Citizens MELODI Workshop, 8-10 October 2013, Brussels Response of to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident in the Context of the Protection of Belgian Citizens Johan Camps Crisis Management and Decision support unit Belgian

More information

Because the tritium in water is being replenished, we assume that the amount is constant until the wine

Because the tritium in water is being replenished, we assume that the amount is constant until the wine Physics 111 Fall 007 Radioactive Decay Problems Solutions 1 The 3 1 H isotope of hydrogen, which is called tritium (because it contains three nucleons), has a half-life of 133 yr It can be used to measure

More information

THE EFFICIENCY DEPENDENCE ON THE ANALYZED SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS IN GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS

THE EFFICIENCY DEPENDENCE ON THE ANALYZED SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS IN GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS THE EFFICIENCY DEPENDENCE ON THE ANALYZED SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS IN GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS LAURENTIU DONE, LIVIU CORNEL TUGULAN, FELICIA DRAGOLICI, CARMELA ALEXANDRU, MARIA SAHAGIA National Institute

More information

National Radiation Air Monitoring Network National Environmental Monitoring Conference San Antonio -- August 6, 2013

National Radiation Air Monitoring Network National Environmental Monitoring Conference San Antonio -- August 6, 2013 National Radiation Air Monitoring Network National Environmental Monitoring Conference San Antonio -- August 6, 2013 Dan Askren & Scott Telofski National Analytical Radiation Environmental Laboratory Montgomery,

More information

International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources- BSS Current Status-

International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources- BSS Current Status- International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources- BSS 115 - Current Status- 5 th Asian Conference - NEA Tokyo, 3-4 September 2009 Trevor

More information

How is carbon stored in trees and wood products?

How is carbon stored in trees and wood products? How is carbon stored in trees and wood products? Science S Theory Lesson Lesson information Level: Junior secondary school Year 10 Duration: Summary: Approximately 3 lessons Sustainably managed forests

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which one of the following statements about the atomic nucleus is accurate? A) The nucleus

More information

ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. The Environment Agency s approach. Clive Williams

ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. The Environment Agency s approach. Clive Williams ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION IN THE UNITED KINGDOM The Environment Agency s approach Clive Williams Outline Introduction Context Tiered assessment approach The way forward 2 Introduction Environment

More information

FARLab Radioactivity Lab Notes

FARLab Radioactivity Lab Notes FARLab Radioactivity Lab Notes Warning! Warning! Avoiding radiation In the FAR Labs Turntables section you deal with different types of radiation and that for each of these different types, there are different

More information

Radionuclide Transport from Fukushima to Eastern North Pacific

Radionuclide Transport from Fukushima to Eastern North Pacific Radionuclide Transport from Fukushima to Eastern North Pacific J.N. Smith 1, R.M. Brown 2, M. Robert 2, B. Williams 2 and R. Nelson 1 1 Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth,

More information

Natural radioactivity in waste from former non-uranium mining areas in Norway

Natural radioactivity in waste from former non-uranium mining areas in Norway Natural radioactivity in waste from former non-uranium mining areas in Norway Bjørn Lind 1, Torbjørn Gäfvert 1 and Anne Liv Rudjord 1. 1 Norwegian radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Østerås,

More information

REGISTRY OF RADIOACTIVE SEALED SOURCES AND DEVICES SAFETY EVALUATION OF DEVICE (AMENDS IN ITS ENTIRETY)

REGISTRY OF RADIOACTIVE SEALED SOURCES AND DEVICES SAFETY EVALUATION OF DEVICE (AMENDS IN ITS ENTIRETY) NO. : NC-646-D-135-B DATE: July 22, 2006 PAGE: 1 of 6 MODEL No.: 3242 MANUFACTURER/DISTRIBUTOR: Troxler Electronic Laboratories 3008 Cornwallis Road P.O. Box 12057 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (919)

More information

Preparation of Distribution Map of Radiation Doses, etc. (Map of Iodine 131 Concentration in Soil) by MEXT

Preparation of Distribution Map of Radiation Doses, etc. (Map of Iodine 131 Concentration in Soil) by MEXT September 21, 2011 Preparation of Distribution Map of Radiation Doses, etc. (Map of Iodine 131 Concentration in Soil) by MEXT Concerning the distribution maps of radiation doses, etc. (soil concentration

More information

Materials Analysis, Wood Heater Safety and Comparative Fireplace Emissions Testing of the Tacoma Fire Log

Materials Analysis, Wood Heater Safety and Comparative Fireplace Emissions Testing of the Tacoma Fire Log Materials Analysis, Wood Heater Safety and Comparative Fireplace Emissions Testing of the Tacoma Fire Log Prepared for: Prepared by: Rick Tebb Fred Tebb and Sons, Inc. 1906 Marc St. Tacoma WA, 98421 OMNI

More information

Radiation Scanner. R500 Radiation Scanner. Description. Excellent solution for nuclear radiation measurement

Radiation Scanner. R500 Radiation Scanner. Description. Excellent solution for nuclear radiation measurement Excellent solution for nuclear radiation measurement R500 Radiation Scanner High-sensitivity sensor Detect α β γ Χ radiation Computer analysis software Description R500 radiation scanner has awarded the

More information

NPL Radioactive aerosol facility - commissioning progress. Hilary Phillips ARMUG 29 January 2014

NPL Radioactive aerosol facility - commissioning progress. Hilary Phillips ARMUG 29 January 2014 NPL Radioactive aerosol facility - commissioning progress Hilary Phillips ARMUG 29 January 2014 Introduction Radioactive aerosol facility Aerosol Generation system Aerosol generation / generators Radon

More information

Master Degree in Nuclear Engineering: Academic year 2007-2008

Master Degree in Nuclear Engineering: Academic year 2007-2008 Master Degree in Nuclear Engineering: Academic year 2007-2008 Number of students 2007-2008: University Politehnica Bucharest Total: 17 Language: Romanian For further information: www.cne.pub.ro Dates Title

More information

The objective of this chapter is to provide criteria with which to assess the safety of

The objective of this chapter is to provide criteria with which to assess the safety of 9 Radiological aspects The objective of this chapter is to provide criteria with which to assess the safety of drinking-water with respect to its radionuclide content. The Guidelines do not differentiate

More information