Teaching Interactive Structures Using the Direct Instruction Framework Direct Instruction Sample Lessons Leveraging the Social Objective

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1 Teaching Interactive Structures Using the Direct Instruction Framework Direct Instruction Sample Lessons Leveraging the Social Objective A Resource Guide for Elementary Teachers San José Unified School District Curriculum, Instruction, & EL Services, PK

2 Table of Contents INTRODUCTION TO THE RESOURCE GUIDE... 3 Twenty- First Century Skills and Promoting Collaboration in the Classroom... 3 What is the resource guide for elementary teachers?... 3 What this resource guide is NOT... 4 Rationale... 4 How and when to use the sample lessons in the guide... 4 Reflective Questions... 5 THINK- PAIR- SHARE... 7 Summary... 7 Think- Pair- Share Sample Lessons... 8 Model Method... 8 Metacognition Method Think Aloud Method LINES OF COMMUNICATION Summary Lines of Communication Sample Lessons Model Method Metacognition Method Think Aloud Method RALLY ROBIN Summary Rally Robin Sample Lessons Model Method Metacognition Method Think Aloud Method RALLY COACH Summary Rally Coach Sample Lessons Model Method Metacognition Method Think Aloud Method ALL WRITE ROUND ROBIN Summary All Write Round Robin Sample Lessons Model Method Metacognition Method Think Aloud Method ADDENDUM Sample Language Objectives REFERENCES

3 INTRODUCTION TO THE RESOURCE GUIDE Twenty- First Century Skills and Promoting Collaboration in the Classroom This resource guide supports teachers in thinking about how they can create conditions in their classrooms that promote twenty- first century skills. As we build classroom communities focused on interaction, engagement, and productive group work, we know that students are provided meaningful time to think more deeply and to process new information with peer learners. The guide supports teachers in explicitly teaching interactive structures in their classrooms. These interactive structures can serve as the foundation for students to learn how to engage in peer learning and collaboration. As we use interactive structures purposefully, we can present students with multiple opportunities throughout the year to use the following twenty- first century skills: (1) critical thinking and problem solving, (2) collaboration, (3) communication, (4) agility and adaptability, and (5) access and analyze information. These twenty- first century skills are promoted more effectively when social norms are taught explicitly and monitored continuously for impact on student learning. What is the resource guide for elementary teachers? The resource guide is a set of sample lessons that teach five specific interactive structures using the SJUSD s Direct Instruction Framework for lesson design and delivery. Sample lessons are provided for the following five research- based, interactive structures that create opportunities for students to engage with their peer learners: (1) Think- Pair- Share, (2) Lines of Communication, (3) Rally Coach, (4) Rally Robin, and (5) All Write Round Robin. The sample lessons can be adjusted and modified for developmental appropriateness. The sample lessons provide a foundation for teachers to draw upon as they emphasize social norms at the beginning of the academic year. These five structures provide students with multiple opportunities to process information collaboratively with peers. Students also have the opportunity to deepen their own thinking and learning and demonstrate their understanding. Interactive structures promote student learning in diverse classrooms by creating a communicative and productive atmosphere where students can practice and internalize the content teachers present. English Language Learners, students with special needs, and the gifted all benefit from learning in an environment that values student engagement, peer learning, productive group work, and equitable opportunities for listening and speaking. The resource guide also serves as a professional development tool. As teachers implement the sample lessons, they are provided with the opportunity to internalize 3

4 the phases and the components of the Direct Instruction Framework. The sample lessons can also become an entry point for professional dialogues about the framework as staff work to develop shared understanding about the framework. What this resource guide is NOT The guide does not include a comprehensive set of interactive structures. There is complete awareness that teachers have a much more expansive repertoire of interactive structures beyond those identified in this guide. However, the guide does demonstrate how SJUSD s Direct Instruction Framework can be utilized to explicitly teach classroom norms, behaviors, routines, rituals, expectations, etc. The sample lessons in the guide are not scripts, but rather examples of how teachers can plan and deliver lessons based upon the social objectives they need students to master. The guide does not suggest that these are the only social objectives teachers should teach in order for students to learn how to engage with interactive structures in the classroom. The guide simply provide examples as to how teachers can use the framework for designing and delivering intentional, systematic lessons based upon social objectives to establish a community of learning at the beginning of the school year. Rationale Through systematic Direct Instruction lessons that leverage the social objective, students will better internalize the procedures of each structure and its function. Later, the teacher will be able to focus on academic content and language rather than having to teach the structure simultaneously. When taught explicitly, these types of interactive structures can reach their maximum potential in the classroom. Most importantly, the three presentation methods (modeling, metacognition, and think alouds) ensure that students not only learn the steps for using the structure, but also understand its purpose. By taking the time to explicitly teach students interactive structures in this way, teachers and students collectively build a strong classroom community that is prepared to engage in high levels of learning. These types of Direct Instruction sequences that leverage the social objective early on will allow teachers and students to focus their time and effort more effectively on learning grade level content and the academic language throughout the year. Lastly, teachers and students will have the opportunity to internalize the approach to Direct Instruction lesson design and delivery since the content demand is lowered given the social nature of the lessons. How and when to use the sample lessons in the guide The lessons in the guide are intended for implementation at the beginning of the school year. The recommendation is that the sample lessons be utilized to teach these five specific structures that can later be used during Direct Instruction lesson sequences focused on language or academic content. There is not an absolute order to teaching the structures; however, it is suggested that Think- Pair- Share be taught first given that it addresses the many prerequisite behavioral skills. 4

5 A summary sheet is provided for each of the five interactive structures. These summary sheets provide the following information regarding each structure (Kagan 2009): Definition Functions Prerequisite Structures Social Skills Phases of the Direct Instruction Framework where the structure might be implemented Variations of the Structure Factors to Consider Following each of the summaries, you will find three lessons that teach the structure. There is a lesson using each of the presentation methods: model, metacognition, and think aloud. Because of the nature of the lesson, the social objective is emphasized. Language objectives by proficiency level are included for teachers of English Learners in the addendum section. The language objectives provide students with the function and forms of language necessary to engage in dialogue about the interactive structures in these lessons. It is essential for classroom teachers to understand that these lessons are brief given their social content. The lessons are intended to be minutes total. Remembering that the lesson sequence is recursive based on student learning, teachers may return to a phase in the sequence after formatively assessing the behaviors of the students in their classrooms. Beyond the lessons in the guide, continuously teaching social expectations in this manner with accountability for students increases the likelihood that students will develop their capacity to do the following: critically think about content, problem solve with peers, collaborate with others, practice agility and adaptability, and communicate using academic language in the classroom to articulate their thinking. Reflective Questions These reflective questions are meant to promote thinking about how we currently address building a collaborative learning community amongst students in our classrooms: 1. Do I explicitly teach the behaviors I expect from my students or do I merely engage in telling them about the desirable behaviors in the classroom? 2. When I deliver lessons on behavioral expectations, do I gradually release the responsibility of the learning in that lesson or do I show students and then expect them to do it themselves? 3. Do my students have consistent opportunities to engage in peer- based discussions and productive group work in the classroom during every lesson in every content area? 5

6 4. Do I use these types of interactive structures with intentionality and purpose? Are the structures preplanned or mostly used spontaneously? 5. Is there room for continuous improvement of student engagement, behavior, and learning in the classroom? Could I be more systematic and explicit in addressing those three areas for my students? 6

7 THINK- PAIR- SHARE Summary Definition Functions Prerequisite Structures Social Skills These are the social skills that could be addressed within this structure. Phases of Direct Instruction Framework where the structure might be implemented Variations of the Structure Each student has think time. Students pair up and take turns sharing their ideas while their partner actively listens. Interpersonal Skills Students build their capacity to effectively communicate their thoughts and to actively listen to another student as they share their ideas. Processing Information Students interact, talking about or reviewing information that has been presented. Students remember dramatically more of what they say or do than what they hear. Processing structures tag information for storage in long- term memory and clear working memory to receive new information. None Accepting compliments Active listening Checking for understanding Contributing your ideas Disagreeing appropriately Encouraging others and their contributions Expressing opinion Giving reasons Pairing Providing clarifications Respecting differences Sharing Settling differences of opinions Taking turns Orientation: Turn to your partner and tell him/her the objective of today s lesson. Activate prior knowledge Presentation: Repeating the steps of the demonstration. Highly Structured Practice: Often starts with the second example, Turn to your partner to solve/complete one of the steps. Closure: Reviewing the steps of the skill by telling a partner about what was learned in the lesson. Timed- Pair- Share- Pair share given specific time constraints for each share. Mix- Pair- Share (tea party)- Students think- pair share, then move around until they hear a signal and pair up with a new partner, and continue for 2-3 times. Rally Robin- See lesson below. Think Write Pair Share- After think time, students have the opportunity to write their ideas before sharing. Factors to Consider Student language proficiency levels when pairing and the use of language frames. Making the T- P- S intentional and purposeful. Levels of questioning. This is the fundamental structure for many other collaborative pair and group structures in the classroom. 7

8 Think- Pair- Share Sample Lessons Model Method Lesson: Think- Pair- Share Standard: Kinder: L&S 1.2; 1 st : L&S 1.1; 2 nd : L&S 1.3; 3 rd : L&S 1.1; 4 th : L&S 1.2; 5 th : L&S 1.5 Phase Characteristics Teacher Orientation A. States Learning Objectives Content Language Social B. Activates Prior Knowledge C. Communicates Expected Results Student Exemplar Presentation A. Learning Objectives: a. Content: b. Language: (see Addendum) c. Social: Students will be able to actively listen and restate their partner s idea during a Think- Pair- Share. B. Prior Knowledge: Remember this morning when I asked you to share with your table partner? This week we are going to learn a structured routine that will help you share and listen to your partner, and then share with the class what your partner said. C. Expected Result: In a small group or whole group setting, students think about teacher prompt, pair up, take turns sharing and listening to their partner when directed by the teacher. Model Phase Characteristics Students Orientation Actively listening Connecting their schema to learning objectives Building an understanding of learning objectives and expectations Presentation n Model Name the strategy, skill, or task State the purpose of the strategy, skill, or task Explain when the strategy or skill is used Use an analogy to link prior knowledge to new learning Demonstrate how the skill, strategy, or task is completed Alert learners about errors to avoid Assess the use of the skill 1. Name it: Today we will learn to Think- Pair- Share. 2. Purpose: There are many reasons why I ask you to do Think- Pair- Shares, most importantly that when you talk with your friend about what you are learning, you develop your ideas and gain a deeper understanding of the concepts you are learning. (Need to modify according to grade- level). 3. When: We will use Think- Pair- Share regularly during the school day. 4. Analogy: This is like when I had to learn how to use a remote control for our television. I learned a little bit by reading the manual and playing with it, but when someone talked me through it and I could ask questions, I really learned how to use it. 5. Demonstration: (Model this with a student helper). a. I have to listen to the question. b. Then I have to THINK (TPR: point to brain) silently about what my answer will be/what I will tell my partner. c. Next, I will PAIR (TPR: index finger to index finger) up with my partner. They are the person sitting next to me. I need to sit knees to knees with my partner. (This could be your elbow or shoulder partner if sitting in two s at their desks, or their face partner if sitting across from one another at a table). d. We need to decide who is partner A and B. e. If I am partner A, I will start and I will SHARE (TPR: finger to mouth) my idea in a complete sentence while partner B listens (TPR: finger to ear) actively & respectfully. Actively listening Connecting their schema to concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language Engaging with lesson s concepts Responding to CFU s 8

9 Highly Structured Practice Whole class Direct supervision or led by teacher Teacher carries cognitive load Step- by- step Controlled practice for doing the process correctly Check for understanding at every step f. Then we will switch roles and partner B will SHARE with me their idea in a complete sentence and I will listen actively & respectfully. g. I will thank my partner for sharing their idea with me. h. Finally, if I am called on, I will share out my partner s idea using the sentence frames (see Addendum). 6. Possible errors to avoid: I need to be sure a. that we stay on topic. b. to partner with someone sitting close to me. c. that I understand what my partner is saying, and ask questions if I am not sure. 7. Self- assessment: I know that my partner and I did a good Think- Pair- Share if I can restate what my partner said and they can restate my idea using the sentence frames (see addendum). Teacher provides topic (same as model). What is your favorite food? T: What do you do after the teacher states the question? SS: Think about your answer! Students think quietly. T: What do you do after you THINK? SS: Face your partner! T: Have students think and point to the person close to them that they will partner with. (Line to line, shoulder partner, face partner, sitting next to them). SS: Turn and face each other. T: Establishes who is A & B. T: What happens now that you are facing your partner? SS: Partner A shares and Partner B listens! T: Signals Partner A to share first and reminds students to speak in complete sentences. T: What happens next? SS: Partners switch roles. T: Signals Partner B to share. SS: Partner B shares and Partner A listens. T: Now we all thank our partners and turn and face the teacher. Students thank their partner and turn toward the teacher. T: Invites 4-5 to share out using the sentence frames (see Addendum) with whole group echoing their response. (T Checks for Understanding throughout HSP, but especially during the student share- out to determine whether to engage in another HSP example or move to collaborative). T: Extends the topic. What is your favorite vegetable and why? T signals with TPR to Think, Pair, Share and observes student interaction to CFU. Highly Structured Practice Practicing concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language with teacher step- by- step Requesting clarification of concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language Responding to CFUs 9

10 Guided Practice Instructing in small, flexible groups based on CFUs Follows the lead of the student Probing the knowledge of the students Questioning, prompting, cueing, and scaffolding Carefully and strategically shifting the cognitive load to the student Collaborative Practice Teacher is working with the Guided Practice group Independent Practice Provides distributed practice to ensure retention of skills Plans short practice session Includes limited number of practice items Closure Reviews learning outcome Wraps up lesson Takes one last opportunity to review essential components Gives sense of completion and success T: Extends the topic. What is your favorite breakfast and why? Teacher may give a few more questions, one at a time, for students to continue to practice the structure. Guided / Collaborative Practice: Based on the Check for Understanding (CFU) from the last Highly Structured Practice (HSP) example, teacher listens in and provides corrective feedback to the student or pair of students who need more scaffolding (Guided) while the whole group is practicing the structure (Collaborative). Choral response: What did we do today? Teacher refers to objective. Give me a finger rating 1-5 of how well you did a Think- Pair- Share today. Guided Practice Working in a small group with the teacher Dialoguing with teacher about the concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language Applying their knowledge under the careful guide of the teacher Assuming more of the cognitive load Collaborative Practice Consolidating understanding Negotiating meaning with peers Practicing academic language Applying knowledge to novel situations Experiencing the possibility of productive failure Independent Practice Independently engaging with a meaningful activity Developing automaticity and fluency of the concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language taught Closure Summarizes lesson s goals and achievements 10

11 Metacognition Method Lesson: Think- Pair- Share Standard: Kinder: L&S 1.2; 1 st : L&S 1.1; 2 nd : L&S 1.3; 3 rd : L&S 1.1; 4 th : L&S 1.2; 5 th : L&S 1.5 Phase Characteristics Teacher Orientation A. States Learning Objectives Content Language Social B. Activates Prior Knowledge C. Communicates Expected Results Student Exemplar Presentation n Metacognition What am I trying to accomplish? What strategies am I using? How well am I using the strategies? What else could I do? A. Learning Objectives: a. Content: b. Language: (see Addendum) c. Social: Students will be able to identify the strategy they use to understand their partner during a Think- Pair- Share. B. Prior Knowledge: Remember yesterday when we learned how to do a Think- Pair- Share? Today we are going think of strategies we can use to help us better understand our partner so we can share out. C. Expected Result: Students can articulate the strategy they use to understand their partner. Meta What am I trying to accomplish? What strategies am I using? How well am I using the strategies? What else could I do? My problem is that I do not always understand what my partner is sharing. I know that there are a few things that I can do to help me with my problem. First, I can remember to look at them in the eyes when they speak, and that helps me listen, but I still don t understand what they said. I know that I have to listen carefully to what they say and think about what they are saying to see if it makes sense to me. So I try that, and I understand some things, but sometimes I don t understand all of the words they are saying so I don t understand. Hmmm.I can ask them to repeat it and focus really hard on the word I didn t understand to see if I know the word, or I can ask a question about what the word means. Or maybe, I might have to ask them to say it in a different way, or even explain it a little more. Finally, if I speak another language, and my partner knows my language, I may ask them to say it in my language to understand and then ask for help to say it in English. I really want to understand their idea, so I will keep asking until I understand. In the end, if I can tell someone what my partner said using the sentence frame (see addendum for Think- Pair- Share: Model method), I know that I did it well. If I cannot tell someone what my partner said, I still did Phase Characteristics Students Orientation Actively listening Connecting their schema to learning objectives Building an understanding of learning objectives and expectations Presentation Actively listening Connecting their schema to concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language Engaging with lesson s concepts Responding to CFU s 11

12 Highly Structured Practice Whole class Direct supervision or led by teacher Teacher carries cognitive load Step- by- step Controlled practice for doing the process correctly Check for understanding at every step not understand very well. Review the guiding questions with the students. Use the sentence frames (see addendum for Think- Pair- Share: Metacognition Method) to identify the strategies you used to help you understand your partner. Teacher walks students through the guiding questions for metacognition one by one. T: The first step is to ask myself, What am I trying to accomplish? SS: Echo question. T: I need to understand what my partner is sharing. SS: Echo response. T: The next step is to ask myself, What strategies am I using? SS: Echo question. T: One strategy I can use is to look at him/her when he/she speaks. (T charts the strategy). SS: Echo strategy. T: Talk with your partner about other strategies that you could use to understand what your partner is sharing. SS: Do a Think- Pair- Share to identify strategies already mentioned or new ones. T: Invites volunteer share- out. SS: Share out strategies that they have identified to understand their partner better (add new ones to chart). T: The next step in trying to solve my problem is to think, How well am I using the strategies? SS: Echo question. T: If I can tell someone what my partner said, I know that I did it well. (TPR: Thumbs up). SS: Echo response. T: BUT, if I cannot tell someone what my partner said, I probably did not understand very well. (TPR: Shake head with puzzled look). SS: Echo response. T: So, finally, the last step is to ask myself, What else could I do? T: Have students do a T- P- S to identify other strategies. SS: Do a Think- Pair- Share to identify strategies. Highly Structured Practice Practicing concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language with teacher step- by- step Requesting clarification of concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language Responding to CFUs 12

13 Guided Practice Instructing in small, flexible groups based on CFUs Follows the lead of the student Probing the knowledge of the students Questioning, prompting, cueing, and scaffolding Carefully and strategically shifting the cognitive load to the student Collaborative Practice Teacher is working with the Guided Practice group Independent Practice Provides distributed practice to ensure retention of skills Plans short practice session Includes limited number of practice T: Invites volunteer share- out. SS: Share out strategies that they have identified to understand their partner better (add new ones to chart). Debrief: Think about your last 2 Think Pair Shares (TPSs). In order to understand your partner, what strategies did you use? Invite students to share out using the sentence frames (see Addendum for Think- Pair- Share metacognition lesson.) Did the strategies help you to understand what you were listening to? Do you think you could use them again or another one when you are trying to understand what someone says? T: Post chart of strategies. Have whole class practice TPS while teacher pays attention to how well students listen to their partner, understand them, and share out their partner s idea using the sentence frame (see Addendum). Topic for TPS: Share with your partner which strategy you use the most/ least and how it works for you. Guided / Collaborative Practice: Based on the Check for Understanding (CFU) from the last Highly Structured Practice (HSP) example, teacher listens in and provides corrective feedback to the student or pair of students who need more scaffolding (Guided) while the whole group is practicing the structure (Collaborative). Guided Practice Working in a small group with the teacher Dialoguing with teacher about the concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language Applying their knowledge under the careful guide of the teacher Assuming more of the cognitive load Collaborative Practice Consolidating understanding Negotiating meaning with peers Practicing academic language Applying knowledge to novel situations Experiencing the possibility of productive failure Independent Practice Independently engaging with a meaningful activity Developing automaticity and fluency of the 13

14 items Closure Reviews learning outcome Wraps up lesson Takes one last opportunity to review essential components Gives sense of completion and success Summarize what we learned today? What strategies did you use to understand your partner? SS: The strategy I used was. When I tried to understand my partner, the strategy I used was. (You may need to add more of their strategies to the chart). Have the students reflect on how being aware of the strategies they are using is helpful. Let them know that they will practice again tomorrow. Closure concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language taught Summarizes lesson s goals and achievements 14

15 Think Aloud Method Lesson: Think- Pair- Share Standard: Kinder: L&S 1.2; 1 st : L&S 1.1; 2 nd : L&S 1.3; 3 rd : L&S 1.1; 4 th : L&S 1.2; 5 th : L&S 1.5 Orientation A. States Learning Objectives Content Language Social B. Activates Prior Knowledge C. Communicates Expected Results Student Exemplar Presentation: n Think Aloud Focus is tight and brief Pay attention to your own thinking processes Use an authentic voice Use I statements Think like the expert you are Name your cognitive and metacognitive processes Highly Structured Practice Whole class Direct supervision or led by teacher Teacher carries cognitive load Step- by- step Controlled practice for doing the process correctly Check for understanding at every step Guided Practice Instructing in small, flexible groups based on CFUs Follows the lead of the student Probing the knowledge of the students Questioning, prompting, cueing, and scaffolding Carefully and strategically shifting the cognitive load to the student A. Learning Objectives: a. Content: b. Language: (see Addendum) c. Social: Students will be able to actively listen and restate their partner s idea during a Think- Pair- Share. B. Prior Knowledge: For the past few days we have been practicing how to engage in a TPS, remember? C. Expected Result: In a small group or whole group setting, students think about teacher prompt, pair up, take turns sharing and listening to their partner when directed by the teacher. When we do a TPS, I need to remember what my jobs are: (T prepares a chart with the TPS steps: (1) I need to listen to my teacher. (2) Think about what I want to say. (3) Find my partner. (4) Decide who goes first. (5) Take turns sharing and listening. I remember that sometimes I have problems listening to my partners and I know that if I look at my partner s eyes when he/she is talking, I tend to pay attention better. Maybe one thing that I need to remember to do when I do not understand is ask a clarifying question of my partner. I know that my goal is that I have to understand what my partner said so well that if someone asks me, I can tell them using the frames (see addendum for think aloud lesson). Teacher determines whether or not Highly Structured Practice (HSP) is needed at this point in the lesson sequence. This HSP is designed based on the teacher s observation of the challenges students are facing in executing the skill. It would be similar to the HSP of the lesson using the model method. Ask the students what their favorite is. Have them practice the Think- Pair- Share. Take volunteers to share what their partner said using the sentence frames (see Addendum). Guided / Collaborative Practice: Based on the Check for Understanding (CFU) from the last Highly Structured Practice (HSP) example, teacher listens in and provides corrective feedback to the student or pair of students who need more scaffolding (Guided) while the whole group is practicing the structure (Collaborative). Orientation Actively listening Connecting their schema to learning objectives Building an understanding of learning objectives and expectations Presentation Actively listening Connecting their schema to concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language Engaging with lesson s concepts Responding to CFUs Highly Structured Practice Practicing concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language with teacher step- by- step Requesting clarification of concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language Responding to CFUs Guided Practice Working in a small group with the teacher Dialoguing with teacher about the concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language Applying their knowledge under the careful guide of the teacher Assuming more of the cognitive load Collaborative Practice 15

16 Collaborative Practice Teacher is working with the Guided Practice group Independent Practice Provides distributed practice to ensure retention of skills Plans short practice session Includes limited number of practice items Closure Reviews learning outcome Wraps up lesson Takes one last opportunity to review essential components Gives sense of completion and success Summarize the TPS that we practiced today. Have students share elements of the TPS that they did well and an element that they need to improve. Consolidating understanding Negotiating meaning with peers Practicing academic language Applying knowledge to novel situations Experiencing the possibility of productive failure Independent Practice Independently engaging with a meaningful activity Developing automaticity and fluency of the concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language taught Closure Summarizes lesson s goals and achievements 16

17 Definition Functions Prerequisite Structures Social Skills These are the social skills that could be addressed within this structure. Phases of Direct Instruction Framework where the structure might be implemented Variations of the Structure LINES OF COMMUNICATION Summary Students line up in two lines facing each other for sharing, quizzing, or problem solving. Interpersonal Skills Students build their capacity to effectively communicate their thoughts and to actively listen to another student as they share their ideas through multiple partnerships. Students learn to be agile and flexible as they work with multiple partners quickly and consecutively. Knowledge Building Students build their information base and their ability to immediately recall important facts and information. Processing Information Students interact, talking about or reviewing information that has been presented. Students remember dramatically more of what they say or do than what they hear. Processing structures tag information for storage in long- term memory and clear working memory to receive new information. Thinking Skills Students interact in ways that engage and develop different types of thinking. Thinking is a skill developed by practice; students learn to think by thinking. Think Pair Share Active listening Checking for understanding Contributing your ideas Encouraging others and their contributions Expressing opinion Giving reasons Providing clarifications Respecting differences Sharing Settling differences of opinions Taking turns Highly Structured Practice: Often starts with the second example, Face your partner in the line to solve/complete one of the steps. Move one of the lines to create new partnerships with other steps. Closure: Creating the line and having students share three times with three different partners the skills they learned in today s lesson sequence. Inner- Outer Circle- Students face each other in two concentric circles instead of lines. Tea Party- Students mix around classroom, or mix to music, and pair up at a signal. Find Someone Who Students circulate through the classroom, forming and reforming pairs, trying to Find Someone Who knows the answer. Then they become Someone Who Knows. Factors to Consider Language proficiency levels. Use of language frames. Levels of questioning and their progression as students create the new partnerships. How you will create accountability so that students stay on task. 17

18 Lines of Communication Sample Lessons Model Method Lesson: Lines of Communication Standard: Kinder: L&S 1.2; 1 st : L&S 1.1; 2 nd : L&S 1.3; 3 rd : L&S 1.1; 4 th : L&S 1.2; 5 th : L&S 1.5 Phase Characteristics Teacher Orientation A. States Learning Objectives Content Language Social B. Activates Prior Knowledge C. Communicates Expected Results Student Exemplar Presentation A. Learning Objectives: a. Content: b. Language: (see Addendum) c. Social: Students will be able to express their opinion during lines of communication. B. Prior Knowledge: We have practiced lining up to go out for recess. We have practiced Think- Pair- Share. Now we are going to learn how to put the two together to create Lines of Communication! C. Expected Result: In a small group or whole group setting, students think about teacher prompt, form two lines, pair up, take turns sharing and listening to their partner when directed by the teacher. Model Phase Characteristics Students Orientation Actively listening Connecting their schema to learning objectives Building an understanding of learning objectives and expectations Presentation n Model Name the strategy, skill, or task State the purpose of the strategy, skill, or task Explain when the strategy or skill is used Use an analogy to link prior knowledge to new learning Demonstrate how the skill, strategy, or task is completed Alert learners about errors to avoid Assess the use of the skill 1. Name it: Today we will learn to create Lines of Communication and use them to learn more about our classmates. I will be asking you about your favorite animals, movies, and games at recess. 2. Purpose: There are many reasons why I ask you to form Lines of Communication. The most important reason is that you can have many opportunities to talk with your friends about what you are learning. Today we are going to learn more about each other. 3. When: I want to teach you this because we will use Lines of Communication regularly at school to share ideas, problem solve or quiz each other. 4. Analogy: This is like when you line up in two lines to pass a ball back and forth, and then one line moves over one person so you have a new partner to practice with. 5. Demonstration: (Model this with four student helpers). a. Teacher models the questions and responses with corresponding sentence frames. b. Ask for two volunteers to form Line A, shoulder to shoulder with body straight and hands at their sides. c. Ask for two more volunteers to form Line B facing the first line and pairing themselves up with the first two volunteers. d. Teacher says: When I give you the signal, step forward and greet each other. Teacher acts out and then gives the signal to the student volunteers. Students follow the direction. e. Teacher says: Now I will give you the question and you will listen. (TPR: point to Actively listening Connecting their schema to concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language Engaging with lesson s concepts Responding to CFUs 18

19 Highly Structured Practice Whole class Direct supervision or led by teacher Teacher carries cognitive load Step- by- step Controlled practice for doing the process correctly Check for understanding at every step your ear). f. Teacher asks: What is your favorite animal? Why? g. Next, I will give you the signal to think (TPR: index finger pointing to temple) and you can think about your answer quietly. h. Partner A shares (TPR: finger to mouth) their answer with Partner B using the sentence frame while Partner B listens attentively (TPR: point to your ear). Then Partner B shares (TPR) using the sentence frames (see Addendum) while Partner A listens (TPR). i. Finally, when you hear the signal, you thank your partner and Line B will move one person to the right. The first person in the line will go to the end of the line to meet their new partner! 6. Possible errors to avoid: I need to be sure a. that we take turns. b. that we stay on topic. c. to look at my partner when they are speaking. d. that I use the frames. 7. Self- assessment: I know that we did a good job with Lines of Communication if we followed the teacher s directions and took turns answering the questions. Teacher provides topic (same as model). May use the same question or What is your favorite movie? Why? T: Practice forming the Lines of Communication, five students per line at a time. Ask questions about how they should move to the line, stand, and where they should be looking. Give everyone a chance to practice and then have ten students at a time line up correctly until all students are lined up. T: Ask: What is the first thing you do with your partner? SS: Greet your partner. T: Ask the question and give students think time: Who shares first? SS: Line A shares first. SS: Partner A shares using the sentence frames (see Addendum) and Partner B listens. They switch roles. T: I will give the signal, what do you do? SS: Thank your partner and Line B moves one place to the right. T: Gives signal. SS: Thank each other and Line B moves. T: Help the first person in the line to the end of the line as everyone watches. T: Ask: Now what happens? SS: Greet your new partner! T: Gives same or new question: What is your favorite Highly Structured Practice Practicing concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language with teacher step- by- step Requesting clarification of concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language Responding to CFUs 19

20 Guided Practice Instructing in small, flexible groups based on CFUs Follows the lead of the student Probing the knowledge of the students Questioning, prompting, cueing, and scaffolding Carefully and strategically shifting the cognitive load to the student Collaborative Practice Teacher is working with the Guided Practice group Independent Practice Provides distributed practice to ensure retention of skills Plans short practice session Includes limited number of practice items Closure Reviews learning outcome Wraps up lesson Takes one last opportunity to review essential components Gives sense of completion and success game at recess? Why? SS: Continue practicing until teacher signals to stop. T: May continue with same question or extend the topic: What is your favorite food? Why? Guided / Collaborative Practice: Based on the Check for Understanding (CFU) from the last Highly Structured Practice (HSP) example, teacher listens in and provides corrective feedback to the student or pair of students who need more scaffolding (Guided) while the whole group is practicing the structure (Collaborative). The whole class debriefs if the students were able to complete a quality Lines of Communication. You may ask for one pair of students to come up in front of the class and demonstrate the conversation they had. Ask the class to affirm what they noticed about how the volunteers did. Thank the volunteers. Ask the class what challenges they faced? How might they do a better job next time? Guided Practice Working in a small group with the teacher Dialoguing with teacher about the concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language Applying their knowledge under the careful guide of the teacher Assuming more of the cognitive load Collaborative Practice Consolidating understanding Negotiating meaning with peers Practicing academic language Applying knowledge to novel situations Experiencing the possibility of productive failure Independent Practice Independently engaging with a meaningful activity Developing automaticity and fluency of the concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language taught Closure Summarizes lesson s goals and achievements 20

21 Metacognition Method Lesson: Lines of Communication Standard: Kinder: L&S 1.2; 1 st : L&S 1.1; 2 nd : L&S 1.3; 3 rd : L&S 1.1; 4 th : L&S 1.2; 5 th : L&S 1.5 Phase Characteristics Teacher Orientation A. States Learning Objectives Content Language Social B. Activates Prior Knowledge C. Communicates Expected Results Student Exemplar Presentation n Metacognition What am I trying to accomplish? What strategies am I using? How well am I using the strategies? What else could I do? Highly Structured Practice Whole class Direct supervision or led by teacher Teacher carries cognitive load Step- by- step A. Learning objectives: a. Content: b. Language: (see Addendum) c. Social: Students will be able to identify the strategy they use to help their partner during the lines of communication. B. Prior Knowledge: Yesterday we learned how to form lines of communication to share our favorite animals, movies, and games with partners. Today we are going to practice that again. When we closed yesterday, you mentioned that it was hard for you to (remember how to support your partner). C. Expected Result: Today you will begin to articulate the strategy you use to support your partner in Lines of Communication. Meta: Use poster with the guiding questions on it. What am I trying to accomplish? What strategies am I using? How well am I using the strategies? What else could I do? My problem is that I do not always know how to best support my partner. I know that when I look at my partner in the eyes when they are speaking and listen carefully, then I can understand them. But sometimes, even if I do that, I can t hear them. So, in that case I can ask them to speak in a louder voice. That would help my partner! But, sometimes what they are saying isn t correct, so I may have to help them with a certain word, or show them where the sentence frames are so they can use one and say their sentence correctly. That would also help them. But, maybe even then they are not sure how to say it, so maybe I could say it with the frame and then they could repeat it. If my partner shares and I understand it, then we did a good jobj. If they don t share or I still do not understand, I need to think of something else to do. SO, maybe I could offer to go first so that they can hear it and then they can go. Or maybe, if they are shy, I can let them know that I want to hear their idea, that they have good ideas to share people feel good when you tell them that. Or maybe, I just need to be patient and show them that I am interested in listening. Again, if we both share and understand each other, then we did a good job! T: Review the guiding questions with the class. Use today s sentence frames to identify which strategies you used to help your partner. (Chart some of these as you share them). Teacher walks students through the guiding questions for metacognition one by one. T: The first step is to ask myself, What am I trying to accomplish? SS: Echo question. T: need to learn how to help my partner. Phase Characteristics Students Orientation Actively listening Connecting their schema to learning objectives Building an understanding of learning objectives and expectations Presentation Actively listening Connecting their schema to concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language Engaging with lesson s concepts Responding to CFUs Highly Structured Practice Practicing concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language with teacher step- by- step Requesting 21

22 Controlled practice for doing the process correctly Check for understanding at every step SS: Echo response. T: The next step is to ask myself, What strategies am I using? SS: Echo question. T: Have students look over possible strategies and choose one to use with their partner today. Have the students Think- Pair- Share the strategy they will use with a partner. SS: Share the strategy they will use. T: The next step in trying to solve my problem is to think, How well am I using the strategy? SS: Echo question. T: Ask the students how they might know if they are using a strategy well or not? SS: Think- Pair- Share with partner. T: Give answer. T: So finally, the last step is to ask myself, What else could I do? SS: Echo question. T: Have students look through chart of strategies and Think- Pair- Share one other strategy they might try with their partner. Form students in Lines of Communication. Ask them to pay attention to the strategies they are using to (help their partners). Use a new question based on same frame from yesterday: What is your favorite book? Why? Have the students in Line A share with their partner and then Line B. T: What strategies did you use to help your partner? SS: The strategy I used was. When I helped my partner, the strategy I used was. T: How well did you use the strategy? Was your partner able to answer? SS: Yes./No. T: What else could you have done? Have students review chart of strategies. SS: Share out other possible strategies to use. T: Give signal for Line B to move to switch partners. Have Line A share again with new partner and then Line B. T: What strategies did you use to help your partner this time? SS: The strategy I used was. When I helped my partner, the strategy I used was. T: How well did you use the strategy? Was your partner able to answer? SS: Yes./No. T: What else could you have done? Have students review clarification of concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language Responding to CFUs 22

23 Guided Practice Instructing in small, flexible groups based on CFUs Follows the lead of the student Probing the knowledge of the students Questioning, prompting, cueing, and scaffolding Carefully and strategically shifting the cognitive load to the student Collaborative Practice Teacher is working with the Guided Practice group Independent Practice Provides distributed practice to ensure retention of skills Plans short practice session Includes limited number of practice items Closure Reviews learning outcome Wraps up lesson Takes one last opportunity to review essential components Gives sense of completion and success chart of strategies. SS: Share out other possible strategies to use. Post chart of strategies for helping your partner in Lines of Communication. Give the next question: What is your favorite indoor activity? Why? Guided / Collaborative Practice: Based on the Check for Understanding (CFU) from the last Highly Structured Practice (HSP) example, teacher listens in and provides corrective feedback to the student or pair of students who need more scaffolding (Guided) while the whole group is practicing the structure (Collaborative). Summarize what we learned today? What strategies did you use to help your partner? SS: The strategy I used was. When I helped my partner, the strategy I used was. (You may need to add more of their strategies to the chart). Have the students reflect on how being aware of the strategies they are using is helpful. Let them know that they will practice again tomorrow. Guided Practice Working in a small group with the teacher Dialoguing with teacher about the concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language Applying their knowledge under the careful guide of the teacher Assuming more of the cognitive load Collaborative Practice Consolidating understanding Negotiating meaning with peers Practicing academic language Applying knowledge to novel situations Experiencing the possibility of productive failure Independent Practice Independently engaging with a meaningful activity Developing automaticity and fluency of the concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language taught Closure Summarizes lesson s goals and achievements Think Aloud Method Lesson: Lines of Communication 23

24 Standard: Kinder: L&S 1.2; 1 st : L&S 1.1; 2 nd : L&S 1.3; 3 rd : L&S 1.1; 4 th : L&S 1.2; 5 th : L&S 1.5 Phase Characteristics Teacher Orientation A. States Learning Objectives Content Language Social B. Activates Prior Knowledge C. Communicates Expected Results Student Exemplar Presentation n Think Aloud Focus is tight and brief Pay attention to your own thinking processes Use an authentic voice Use I statements Think like the expert you are Name your cognitive and metacognitive processes Highly Structured Practice Whole class Direct supervision or led by teacher Teacher carries cognitive load Step- by- step Controlled practice for doing the process correctly Check for understanding at every step Guided Practice Instructing in small, flexible groups based on CFUs Follows the lead of the student Probing the knowledge of the students A. Learning Objectives: a. Content: b. Language: (see Addendum) c. Social: Students will be able to be agile and adaptable as they work with multiple partners quickly and consecutively. B. Prior Knowledge: For the past few days we have been practicing how to share our ideas in Lines of Communication, remember? Today we are going to practice again. C. Expected Result: In a small group or whole group setting, students think about teacher prompt, form two lines, pair up, take turns sharing and listening to their partner when directed by the teacher. When we do Lines of Communication, I need to pay attention to the teacher signals and remember how and where to move. (1) I need to listen to my teacher to see if I am in Line A or Line B. (2) I need to greet my partner and either share first (Line A) or listen to my partner (Line B). (3) After we take turns sharing and thanking each other, I need to listen for the teacher s signal and either stay put (Line A) or move one person to the right (Line B). I remember that sometimes I have problems remembering when and where to move or not to move. I need to pay close attention to what line I am in. I know that Line A always stays put (TPR: point to the ground) and is the first to share (TPR: point to mouth). Line B listens (TPR: cups ear) first and then shares, and that is the line that moves (TPR: point to the right). When I move, I have to move to the right that s the hand I write with (TPR: writing) so that is the direction I move. And, I only have to move over one person (TPR: take one step to the right) to face my new partner. Teacher determines whether or not Highly Structured Practice (HSP) is needed at this point in the lesson sequence. This HSP is designed based on the teacher s observation of the challenges students are facing in executing the skill. It would be similar to the HSP of the lesson using the model method. T: Ask one of the questions: What is your favorite color/song/place? Why? Guided / Collaborative Practice: Based on the Check for Understanding (CFU) from the last Highly Structured Practice (HSP) example, teacher listens in and provides corrective feedback to the Phase Characteristics Students Orientation Actively listening Connecting their schema to learning objectives Building an understanding of learning objectives and expectations Presentation Actively listening Connecting their schema to concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language Engaging with lesson s concepts Responding to CFU s Highly Structured Practice Practicing concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language with teacher step- by- step Requesting clarification of concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language Responding to CFUs Guided Practice Working in a small group with the teacher Dialoguing with teacher about the concepts, skills, tasks, and/or language 24

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