Ultrafast Short Pulse Laser Material Processing of Aerospace Materials

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1 Ultrafast Short Pulse Laser Material Processing of Aerospace Materials P.W. French 1, J. Clowes 2, W. Perrie 4, M. Sharp 1, J.Cheng 3, D. Homes 1, L. Mellor 3, K.G. Watkins 3 1 Lairdside, Cambeltown Rd, Birkenhead, CH41 9HP 2 Fianium Ltd, 20 Compass Point, Ensign Way, Hamble, Southampton, SO31 4RA 3 University of Liverpool, Laser Group, Department of Engineering, Liverpool, L69 7ZG 4 Northwest Laser Engineering Consortium, Cambeltown Rd, Birkenhead, CH41 9HP

2 Fianium Laser Systems. Pulse Length 20ps. Wavelength 1064 nm. Rep Rate 200kHz or 500kHz Maximum Pulse Energy 6 µj Laser Power 2.1W Experimental Spot Size 26µJ Lairdside Micro / Nano Laser Systems Master Source High-Power Amplifier Shutter Control Stages FemtoPower pp Pulse Length 10ps. Wavelength 1064 nm. Rep Rate 1,2,3,4 20 MHz Maximum Pulse Energy 3 µj Laser Power 8 W Experimental Spot Size 30µJ FemtoPower µJ-pp

3 Lairdside Micro / Nano Laser Systems Super Continuum Source SC450 One of a family of lasers from Fianium Main Applications are in: Bio medical Optical coherence tomography Fundamental study LLEC Laser Material Processing Spectral range nm Spectral density up to 3mW/nm Output power up to 6W

4 Lairdside Micro / Nano Laser Systems Characterise output with a spatial light modulator Planning material processing trials (mid Summer)

5 Master Source The Laser System Acousto-Optic Modulator High-Power Amplifier High Power Optical Isolator

6 Lairdside Micro / Nano Laser Systems Clarke-MXR CPA 2010 Pulse Length 180 fs. Wavelength 775 nm. Rep Rate 1kHz Maximum Pulse Energy 1mJ Laser Power 1W Experimental Spot Size 30µJ

7 Lairdside Micro / Nano Laser Systems High Q Laser picoregen Pulse Length 12 ps. Wavelength 1064 nm. Rep Rate 1-50kHz Maximum Pulse Energy 350 µj Laser Power 2.5W Experimental Spot Size 30µm

8 Fianium Laser Ablation Experiments Ablation with the Fianium system must take advantage of incubation affect. With 100 pulses results obtained for Aluminium but for Titanium and Nickel Alloy C263 just on the threshold of forming a crater. Profile of the processed area. Nickel Alloy C263, 3.82 µj, 100 pulses

9 iameter D^2 m^2) Fianium Laser Ablation Experiments Ablation Threshold for Aluminium Aluminium 2024: 1.29 J/cm2 Aluminium 6061: 1.12 J/cm2 Squared D (um Threshold Analysis for Aluminium 2024 y = Ln(x) R 2 = Laser Fluence (J/cm^2) S quared Diameter D^2 (um^2) Threshold Analysis for Aluminium 6061 y = 96.04Ln(x) R 2 = Laser Fluence (J/cm^2) Al 6061: 3.82 µj, 100 pulses Al 2024: 3.82 µj, 100 pulses

10 Aerospace Materials Processing Evaluation Fianium Laser System Experimental Setup 60mm fl processing lens X2 Beam Expanding Telescope Processed in atmosphere Spot Size 25 µm Micro-machined tracks into different aerospace alloys. Analysis using the WYKO NT1100 Optical Profiling System, Microscope system image software.

11 Aerospace Materials Processing Evaluation Fianium Laser System Experimental Setup Investigated the machining depth of the laser a different feed rates Range investigated mm/sec. The affect of different number of passes. 1, 5, 15, 20, 30 passes

12 Aerospace Materials Processing Evaluation Fianium Laser System Experimental Results Titanium Processed at 2.9uJ, 1.45W, 500kHz. Fluence: 0.96J/cm 2 5 passes or greater to produce a channel using above Processing parameters. Maximum average depth 14µm at 10mm/sec at 30 passes. 20 Passes 10mm / sec 20mm / sec 30mm / sec Using process parameters Of 1.75Jm, 3.5W, 2MHz. Fluence 0.56J/cm 2 average depth 4-6µm even at 30 passes.

13 Material Processing Experiments Titanium Data follows exponential decrease in penetration depth with respect to feed rate. The dependence of the above relationship decreases with the number of passes

14 Material Processing Experiments Titanium 5.0 mm/sec 2.0 mm/sec Geometry of the channel shows A V shape. The edge of the channel showed A certain degree of melt debris 1.0 mm/sec 0.5 mm/sec

15 Material Processing Experiments Fianium Laser System Thermal Barrier Coated Nickel Alloy Processed at the higher pulse energy of 2.9µJ And 25 µm spot size, below the ablation threshold Just created a surface melt. With both the aerospace alloys and TBC processing with a low fluence control of spot size an important factor Plan to use diffraction limited optics (Aplanats) Increase the energy density.

16 Fianium Laser Surface Structuring Experiments Surface texturing of Nickel Alloy C mm/sec 200 khz 4 over-scans, pitch values increasing from Most of the processed areas show a strong inference pattern. Square processed at a pitch of 0.05 shows a strong absorption of light. This we believe due to the surface structuring. Similar results reported by a group at Rochester US using a Femtosecond laser. Applications radiation Optics, Sensors

17 Lairdside Fianium Laser Surface Structuring Experiments b a c c f e d b e f Top row: the dark region at (a) X5, (b)x20, (c)x50 Bottom row: the light region at (d) X5, (e) X20, (f) X50

18 Material Processing Experiments Carbon Fibre Composite Carbon Fibre Composites are becoming an increasingly important construction material in the aerospace industry. Structures are bonded together using adhesives. Excimers lasers are used at present to prepare the composite surface prior to bonding. Investigated the use of femto and picosecond lasers to surface texture CFC.

19 Hy Q Material Processing Experiments Laser Machining of Carbon Fibre Composite Picosecond Processed at 1kHz and 5kHz Scan Speed 20 mm/sec 50 overscans Ablation rate / channel depth increases with fluence At <12J/cm -2 5kHz removes 2X at 1kHz At <28J/cm -2 5kHz removes 4X at 1kHz Depth (um) Ablation Depth VS Fluence Fluence (J/cm 2 ) Khz 5Khz Volume (um3/pulse) Ablated Volume VS Fluence Fluence (J/CM 2 ) khz 5khz Ablation rate per pulse at 1kHz High than at 5kHz. ~2 for <12J/cm -2,~1.3 at 28J/cm -2

20 Hy Q Material Processing Experiments Laser Machining of Carbon Fibre Composite Excellent edge quality < 12J/cm -2 No observed thermal damage. Carbon fibres cleanly cut. Matrix cleanly machined. Picosecond processing at 5kHz Picosecond processing at 1kHz

21 Lairdside Hy Q Material Processing Experiments Laser Machining of Carbon Fibre Composite 15 µm diameter fibres processed with a picosecond systems.

22 Material Processing Experiments Laser Machining of Carbon Fibre Composite Laser Fluence 5.7 J/cm 2 Machined with 10 picosecond pulses HY Q Laser system Machined with 180 femtosecond pulses Clarke Femtosecond Laser system CFC shows sign of thermal damage

23 Material Processing Experiments Laser Machining of Carbon Fibre Composite Laser Fluence 5.7 J/cm 2 Machined with 10 picosecond pulses HY Q Laser system Machined with 180 femtosecond pulses Clarke Femtosecond Laser system CFC channels show better quality with lower resolution features

24 Material Processing Experiments Laser Machining of Carbon Fibre Composite Carbon composite MTM44-1 processed at (Left side) 20MHz, (Right side) 500kHz At 20MHz and high mean powers 2.5 W or greater a lot of surface melting At 500kHz and low mean powers 1.45 W, high energy pulses clean ablation, no melting. Melting shows directionality, melting with the fibres.

25 Material Processing Experiments Laser Surface Texturing of Carbon Fibre Composite If the surface tension value of the liquid is greater than the surface free energy of the substrate the liquid molecules stay bound together Poor wetting means a poor bond

26 Material Processing Experiments Laser Surface Texturing of Carbon Fibre Composite When the surface free energy value of the substrate is higher 10mm than / sec that of the liquid it allows the liquid to uniformly wet 20 Passes the surface This is important to achieving a good bond 30mm / sec

27 Material Processing Experiments Laser Surface Texturing of Carbon Fibre Composite A need to raise the 5.0 surface mm/secfree energy 2.0 of mm/sec the composite. A number of possible treatments: Plasma treatment high voltage electrodes in low pressure inert gas atmosphere. Corona discharge treatment. 1.0 mm/sec 0.5 mm/sec Simple mechanical abrading. See fibre tools below

28 Material Processing Experiments Laser Surface Texturing of Carbon Fibre Composite Mechanical Abrading Results Signs of fibre damage

29 Material Processing Experiments Laser Surface Texturing of Carbon Fibre Composite Investigating the Fianium picosecond laser system ability to surface structure carbon composite and increase its surface energy,( Laser Abrading) 10mm/sec 30 Passes 20mm/sec 30mm/sec!.7 W, 3.4 µj 500 khz. 10 mm/sec

30 Aerospace Micro-Machining Application Possible areas where this type of laser system could be employed Surface Preparations for a macro-process possible cleaning application Composite joining Surface texturing to enhance adhesion Surface features Lubrication Micro channels to allow the free run of lubricants Surface Engineering Applications

31 Conclusions Picosecond laser Systems produces a well define channel and structures in most aerospace materials. The machine quality of a picosecond laser system is comparable to a femtosecond system The high average powers of the picosecond systems makes the laser commercially viable in the aerospace industry for surface engineering applications. (50W Trumpf system). A number of aerospace companies are starting to show considerable interest in processing with these new picosecond systems.

32 Ultrafast Short Pulse Laser Material Processing of Aerospace Materials Thank You for Listening Any Questions

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