CO 2 Capture and Storage: Briefing for NGA Governors Energy Advisors Policy Institute. April 4, 2011

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1 CO 2 Capture and Storage: Briefing for NGA Governors Energy Advisors Policy Institute April 4, 2011 John Novak Executive Director, Federal And Industry Activities Environment and Generation Sectors

2 The Electric Power Research Institute RD&D for the Electricity Industry Independent, unbiased, tax-exempt collaborative research organization Full spectrum industry coverage Nuclear Generation Environment Power Delivery & Utilization 460 participants in over 40 countries Major offices in Palo Alto, CA; Charlotte, NC and Knoxville, TN 2

3 What is CO 2 Capture and Sequestration (Storage)? CO2 capture is the separation of CO2 from emissions sources. The CO2 is recovered in a concentrated stream that is amenable to sequestration. Geologic sequestration involves injecting CO2 into underground reservoirs that have the ability to securely contain it. oil and gas reservoirs deep saline formations unmineable coal seams oil- and gas-rich organic shales basalts 3

4 CO 2 Capture in Advanced Coal Power Systems 4

5 Pulverized Coal with CO 2 Capture Fresh Water CO 2 to use or Sequestration Coal Air PC Boiler SCR ESP FGD CO 2 Removal e.g., MEA Flue Gas to Stack CO 2 to Cleanup and Compression Steam Turbine Fly Ash Gypsum/Waste Cleaned Flue Gas to Atmosphere Chemical processes commercially available at relatively small scale; demonstrations now scaling up Absorber Tower CO 2 Stripper Process improvement is a major industry focus both for the CO 2 capture equipment and its integration with the plant Plot space requirements significant, which could limit retrofit options, but should not be an issue for new plants Flue Gas from Plant CO 2 Stripper Reboiler CO 2 Capture = $, Space, Ultra-Low SO 2, and Lots of Energy 5

6 IGCC with CO 2 Capture Coal Sulfur CO 2 Air ASU O 2 Gasifier Shift Gas Clean Up CC Power Block Power H 2 Slag Plot space and water demand for water-gas shift reactor; needs vary by gasifier type Sulfur CO 2 Equipment design given different syngas composition and heating value Steam CO 2 Compressor Little experience with H 2 -firing gas turbines Need for new capture-optimized reference plant designs Shift Reactor Sulfur Recovery CO 2 Recovery (e.g., Selexol) CO 2 Capture = $, Space, Shift, H 2 Firing, CO 2 Removal, Energy 6

7 Oxy-Combustion Electricity Cooling Water Steam Condenser Steam Turbine Boiler Particle Removal Cooler and Condenser Mechanical Energy Sulfur Removal Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide Compressor Cooler and Condenser Air Separation Air Energy Nitrogen Fuel Oxygen Fly Ash Water Recycle (Mainly CO 2, Water Vapor) Low Sulfur Temperature Heat Water Low Temperature Heat Bottom Ash Significant Energy & Capital Required for O 2 Production 7

8 30-Yr levelized COE, $/MWh (Constant 2007$). With Current Technology CO 2 Capture Costly No Clear Winners in Current Designs EPRI 600 MW (net) PC and IGCC Cost of Electricity With Illinois and Without #6 Bituminous CO 2 Capture (Illinois PRB #6 and ( Western PRB Coal) Coal) No Capture Retrofit Capture New Capture Installed Later COE Includes $10/tonne for CO 2 Transportation and Sequestration IGCC & CCS include 10% TPC contingency for first-of-a-kind MEA- installed initially Supercritical GE Total Average Ultrasupercritical Supercritical PC GE Total Quench Average IGCC Ultrasupercritical PC Quench IGCC PC PC 8 ConocoPhillips ConocoPhillips E-Gas IGCC Average Average IGCC IGCC

9 CO 2 Capture Can Be Done Today, But. Levelized cost of electricity (COE) will increase significantly 60-80% increase versus SCPC with no capture Cost delta for IGCC less than SCPC, but IGCC base cost is higher Similar cost increase for Oxycombustion At the current state-of-the art, there is no silver bullet technology for CO 2 Capture for coal power plants. Technology selection depends on location, coal, and application. IGCC is often least cost for bituminous coals IGCC and PC plants with amine scrubbing usually have similar COE for high-moisture subbituminous coals CO 2 specification may be the single most important factor in establishing most feasible oxy-fuel combustion option for CCS Concerted RDD&D effort needed to decrease cost, energy impacts dramatically 9

10 Anticipated Cost of Full-Scale Application Technology Deployment Curve for Coal Research Development Demonstration Deployment Mature Technology Advanced USCPC Plants 1400 F CO F+ Capture USCPC Plants 1150 F F IGCC Plants Oxyfuel CO 2 Storage <1100 F 1050 F SCPC Plants Time RDD&D Needed to Prove CCS, Lower Costs 10

11 Post-combustion CO2 Capture Configuration for NGCC Plants Source: DOE CO2 Capture = $, space, water 11

12 Impacts of Retrofitting CO2 Capture to the Hypothetical Existing NGCC Power Plant NGCC Power Plant w/o CO 2 Capture NGCC Power Plant w/ CO 2 Capture Gross Output, MW 1, Net Output, MW 1, Capital Cost for CCS System, $/kw (net) Capital Cost for CCS System, $ million Reduction in Efficiency - 15% Efficiency, % (HHV) Heat Rate, Btu/kWh (HHV) 6,870 8,080 Increase in Cost of Electricity, % - 46 Water Use, MGD Increase in Plant Water Use, % - 55 Increase in Plant Water Use, MGD Additional Plant Site Land Area, Acres

13 What We Are Seeing in EPRI models for U.S. Near term response to high CO 2 price likely dominated by renewables, efficiency and natural gas Coal retirements offset by new renewables, efficiency Natural gas fills much of the remaining demand Longer term, nuclear and CCS will be important Without them, rely on more costly renewables, efficiency Significant CCS for Natural Gas in some regions 13

14 CO2 Capture and Storage Legal, Regulatory, Liability Issues GHG reporting Storage Permitting (UIC Program) Pore Space Ownership Liability During operation Post closure, long term Other 14

15 Together Shaping the Future of Electricity 15

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