A. A biome is a particular physical environment that contains a characteristic group of plants and animals. B. Climate and Microclimate 1.

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1 Land Biomes

2 A. A biome is a particular physical environment that contains a characteristic group of plants and animals. B. Climate and Microclimate 1. Climate is described by a climatograph. Two of the main factors in determining climate are temperature and precipitation. Climatographs show both temperature and precipitation. 2. The climate in a small area that differs significantly from the rest of the climate is called a microclimate.

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4 C. Major Biomes biomes: a. tropical rain forest b. tropical dry forest, c. tropical savanna d. desert e. temperate grassland f. temperate woodland and shrubland g. temperate forest h. northwestern coniferous forest i. boreal forest (taiga) j. tundra k. mountains and ice caps

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6 2. biomes are defined by abiotic and biotic factors

7 a. abiotic 1) climate- primarily temperature and precipitation, sometimes wind is a factor 2) soil type 3) other factors; such as frequent fires, volcanic eruptions, flooding, etc.

8 b. biotic 1) characteristic ecological community; the plants and animals.

9 3. Survey of major biomes their characteristics:

10 a. Tropical rain forest

11 1) Abiotic a) Hot and wet, poor soil 2) Biotic a) Broad-leaved trees, ferns, orchids and bromeliads b) Sloth, capybaras, jaguars, anteaters, monkeys, birds, insects, frogs, snakes and lizards. 3) Geographical distribution a) Central and South American b) Southeast Asia c) Parts of Africa, Southern India, and of Australia

12 b. Tropical dry forest

13 b. Tropical dry forest 1) Abiotic a) warm, wet and dry season, rich soil but much erosion. 2) Biotic a) Deciduous trees, orchids and bromeliads that can withstand the dry season, succulents b) Tigers, monkeys, elephants, rhinoceros, hog deer, birds, insects and reptiles.

14 3) Geographical distribution a) Parts of Africa, South and Central America, Mexico, India, Australia and tropical islands

15 c. Tropical Savanna

16 c. Tropical savanna 1) Abiotic a) Warm, seasonal rainfall, compact soil, lightning fires common 2) Biotic a) Lions, leopards, cheetahs, hyenas and jackals b) Elephants, giraffes, antelopes and zebras c) Baboons, birds and insects 3) Geographical distribution a) Eastern Africa, southern Brazil, Northern Australia

17 d. Desert

18 1) Abiotic a) Little precipitation <25 cm/year, soils rich in minerals but lacking organic matter. Hot and cold temperatures common. 2) Biotic a) Cacti, succulents b) Mountain lions, gray foxes, bobcats, mule deer, antelope, bighorn sheep, kangaroo rats, bats, owls, hawks, roadrunners, insects, snakes, lizards and turtles.

19 3) Geographical distribution a) Asia, Middle East, United States, Mexico, South America and Australia

20 e. Temperate Grassland

21 e. Temperate Grassland 1) Abiotic a) Seasonal temperatures and precipitation, rich soils 2) Biotic a) Grasses and herbs b) Coyotes and badgers, wolves, grizzly bears, deer, antelope, rabbits, prairie dogs, bison, birds, hawks, owls, bobwhite, prairie chicken, snakes, insects

22 3) Geographical distribution a) Asia, North America, Australia, Europe and South America

23 f. Woodland and Shrubland

24 f. Temperate Woodland and Shrubland 1) Abiotic a) Hot and dry summers, cool moist winter, poor soils, periodic fires 2) Biotic a) Woody evergreen shrubs, herbs that grow during the winter and die in the summer b) Coyotes, foxes, bobcats, mountain lions, deer, rabbits, squirrels, mice, hawks, quail, warblers, lizards, snakes, insects, and spiders.

25 3) Geographical distribution a) Western coast of North and South America, b) Mediterranean Sea c) South Africa and d) Australia

26 f. Temperate Forest

27 g. Temperate Forest 1) Abiotic a) Cold winters, warm summers, year-round precipitation, fertile soils 2) Biotic a) Broadleaf deciduous trees, some conifers, flowering shrubs, herbs, mosses and ferns b) Deer, black bears, bobcats, squirrels, raccoons and skunks, birds, turkeys.

28 3) Geographical distribution a) Eastern U.S., b) SE Canada, c) most of Europe, d) parts of Japan, China and Australia

29 h. Northwest Coniferous forest

30 h. Northwestern Coniferous Forest 1) Abiotic a) Mild temperatures; abundant precipitation during fall, winter and spring; relatively cool, dry summers; rocky, acidic soils 2) Biotic a) Firs, spruce, hemlocks, redwoods. b) Bears, elk and deer, beavers, owls, bobcats, & weasels.

31 3) Geographical distribution a) Pacific coast of NW U.S. and Canada

32 i. Boreal Forest (Taiga)

33 1) Abiotic a) Long, cold winters; short, mild summers; moderate precipitation, high humidity; acidic, nutrient-poor soils 2) Biotic a) Coniferous trees, spruce, firs and broadleaf deciduous trees, small berry-bearing shrubs b) Lynx, wolves, weasels, moose, beavers, and birds

34 3) Geographical distribution a) N. America, Asia, and northern Europe

35 j. Tundra

36 1) Abiotic a) Strong winds, low precipitation, short and soggy summers, long, cold and dark winter; poorly developed soils; permafrost. 2) Biotic a) Mosses, lichens, sedges, and short grasses b) Birds, musk ox, foxes caribou, lemmings and small rodents.

37 3) Geographical distribution Northern America, Asia and Europe

38 Ten Major Biomes Biome Precipitation Temperature Soil Diversity Trees Grasses Tropical Rain high hot poor high dense sparse Forest Tropical Dry Forest variable mild rich moderate medium medium Tropical Savanna variable mild clay moderate sparse dense Desert low variable poor moderate sparse sparse Temperate moderate summer hot rich moderate absent dense Grassland Temperate woodland and Shrubland summer low, winter moderate summer hot poor low medium medium Temperate Forest moderate summer moderate, winter cold rich high dense sparse Northwestern Coniferous Forest high summer mild, winter cold Boreal Forest moderate summer mild, winter cool Tundra low summer mild, winter cold rocky, acidic low dense sparse poor, acidic moderate dense sparse poor low absent medium

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