Natural Vegetation. Of India

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1 Natural Vegetation Of India

2 Natural Vegetation It is that vegetation which grows without the interference of man, and adapts itself to the limitations of the natural environment.

3 Forests in India 1. Tropical Evergreen Forests 2. Tropical Deciduous or Monsoon Forests 3. Tropical Dry Forests 4. Delta or Tidal Forests 5. Mountain Forests

4 Tropical Evergreen Forests Rainfall more than 200 cms. Average Temp. 24⁰C and 27⁰C. Different trees germinate, grow and wither at different times, allowing the entire vegetation to look like evergreen forests. Thick growth, sunlight does nt penetrate. Does nt occur in pure stands. Produce valuable hardwoods.

5 Tropical Evergreen Forests Species: Bamboo Rosewood Ebony Mahogany

6 Tropical Evergreen Forests Areas: Andaman and Nicobar islands Western slopes of Western Ghats North East India West Bengal

7 Tropical Deciduous or Monsoon Forests Rainfall 100 to 200 cms. Deciduous trees - shed their leaves for about 6 to 8 weeks in summer to cope with water scarcity. Tend to occur in pure stands. Economically important.

8 Tropical Deciduous Species Teak Sandalwood Neem

9 Tropical Deciduous Areas Bihar, M.P, Chattisgarh, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Assam, Andhra Pradesh.

10 Tropical Dry Forests Rainfall less than 25 cms. Avg. Temp ⁰C.

11 Tropical Dry Forests Adaptaion: Trees have long roots, small leaves, hard thorns and sharp spines to help in the dry climate and protect them from animals.

12 Tropical Dry Forests Species Acacia

13 Tropical Dry Forests Uses: Babul - yields gum, and its bark provides material for tanning hides and skins. Babul Tree

14 Tropical Dry Forests Areas: Rajasthan Kutch and Saurashtra in Gujarat SW ern Punjab, Haryana.

15 Tidal or Delta Forests Dense and impenetrable. Trunks supported by stilted roots which are underwater during high tide and exposed during low tide.

16 Adaptation: Tidal or Delta Forests The tangled root system is a wonderful adaptation for survival in soft and shifting mud.

17 Tidal or Delta Forests Areas Continuous stretch along the deltas of the Ganga, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri. Along the coasts of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In West Bengal, they are called Sunderbans after the Sundari trees.

18 Uses : Tidal or Delta Forests The wood is hard, strong and resistant to water and is used to make boats. These are also valuable source of firewood. Sundari Tree

19 Tidal or Delta Forests Gorjan Hintal

20 Mountain Forests Trees varies from tropical to alpine. Vegetation varies from mixed to deciduous and coniferous types depending on elevation and rainfall. Chir Pine: Extraction of resin and turpentine. Used to make tea chests. Found in Kashmir, UP and Punjab

21 Mountain Forests Silver Fir: Soft, white wood used for pulp, paper matches, packing cases and planking. Found in NW ern and E ern Himalayas Deodar: Wood is durable and oily. Used for making railway sleepers and house construction. Found in HP and Kashmir.

22 Forests in India

23 Need for Conservation Decline in forest cover has occurred due to: Rapid Population growth leads to increased demand for: - agricultural land - forest items like timber. - land for urbanization. Over-grazing Submergence of forests by hep projects.

24 Need for Conservation Depletion of forest leads to: Increase in Carbon di oxide Less rainfall Increase in soil erosion Less water in the rivers Deviation in climate Increase in greenhouse effect. Thus forest is vital for the survival and prosperity if mankind.

25 Conservation Measures Increasing area under forest. Stop indiscriminate felling of trees. Using alternative sources of energy. Establishing corridors between different reserve forests. Proper legislation and its implementation. People s participation.

26 Social Forestry Refers to the management and protection of forests and afforestation on barren lands with the purpose of helping in the environmental, social and rural development. It is also known as vanamahotsava, recreation forestry, urban forestry, extension forestry.

27 Agro-forestry Part of social forestry and represents the intermediate stage between forestry and agriculture. It is different from traditional forestry in that: a. Not vulnerable to population stresses. b. Created in accordance with the socio-cultural practices of the popultion.

28 Social Forestry Agro-Forestry 1. Definition 2. Ensuring local people s participation 3. Ensuring sustainable forestry and quick benefits. 4. Make use of unused and fallow lands. 1. Definition 2. Reduce pressure on natural forests for obtaining timber. 3. To maintain ecological balance. 4. To check soil erosion.

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