2 Biomes. Guiding Question: What conditions and organisms characterize the world s biomes? 6.2 LESSON PLAN PREVIEW

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "2 Biomes. Guiding Question: What conditions and organisms characterize the world s biomes? 6.2 LESSON PLAN PREVIEW"

Transcription

1 LESSON 2 Biomes Guiding Question: What conditions and organisms characterize the world s biomes? Explain how organisms are adapted to the conditions of their biomes. Strategy As you read the lesson, make a compare/contrast table that summarizes the abiotic and biotic characteristics of each major biome. Vocabulary canopy, emergent layer, understory, epiphyte, deciduous, estivation, coniferous, hibernation, permafrost 6.2 LESSON PLAN PREVIEW Inquiry Students use simple materials to explore the range of precipitation among biomes. Real World Compare local conditions to those predicted by your biome s description. Differentiated Instruction Helps English language learners visualize biomes using images from the text. 6.2 RESOURCES Outdoors Lab, Collecting Climate Data Bellringer Video, Great Migration Alaskan Caribou Real Data Online Lesson 6.2 Worksheets Lesson 6.2 Assessment Chapter 6 Overview Presentation FOCUS Watch the ABC News video Great Migration Alaskan Caribou, which describes the yearly journey that approximately 1, caribou take across the state of Alaska. Encourage students to think about reasons why animals would move from one area to another. The natural world is so complex that we can visualize it in many ways and at various scales. Zoom way in and ἀnd differences in the organisms living on the shaded side compared to the sunny side of a tree. Zoom out and ἀnd differences between the forests of New York and the forests of Virginia. Zoom even farther out, and ἀnd the differences between biomes. Tropical Rain Forest Tropical rain forests are found in Central America, South America, Southeast Asia, West Africa, and other tropical regions. Tropical regions are located close to the equator and are characterized by year-round warm temperatures and near constant 12-hour days. Tropical rain forests receive more rain than any other biome at least 2 meters (6.6 feet) per year. Nearly all nutrients present in this biome are contained in the trees, vines, and other plants not in the soil. Any available organic material is quickly recycled by decomposers and taken up by plants. As a result, many tropical rain forests cleared for farming leave behind nutrient-poor soils that can only support crops for a short time. Intact tropical rain forests contain an astonishing variety of plant life. A single square kilometer can host hundreds of tree species. Tall trees form a dense covering, called the canopy, that towers 5 to 8 meters above the ground. The tallest trees pop through the canopy and make up the top layer of the rain forest, known as the emergent layer. The canopy keeps the forest dark and damp. Shorter trees and plants that make up the understory compete for available light. Large, flat leaves are typical of understory plants as they allow maximum surface for light absorption. In addition, rainforest plants tend to have shallow roots that maximize their absorption of what little nutrients are available in the uppermost soil layers. Bumblebee dart frog 168 Lesson 2

2 Rainforest plants display a variety of adaptations that enable them to survive in a place where nutrients and light are in short supply. For example, pitcher plants and other predatory plant life trap curious animals and dissolve them, gaining nutrients in the process. Epiphytes are plants that grow on other plants instead of in soil. These plants, such as orchids, take advantage of their hosts height to gain access to sunlight. While tall plants may have an advantage competing for light, they require support to stay upright, especially when draped with vines and loaded with epiphytes. Buttresses, large aboveground roots, provide stability in the shallow rainforest soil. Another challenge for plants is reproduction. Because there is little wind to help spread pollen, many rainforest plants grow bright, attractive flowers to lure potential pollinators, such as butterflies. In addition to their dizzying variety of plants, tropical rain forests support far more animal species than any other biome. Rainforest birds, insects, amphibians, and other animals tend to be highly specialized, feeding on a particular kind of food or living on a particular sort of plant. Millions of years of evolution have resulted in animals finely tuned for life in the tropical rain forest. Monkeys, for example, have long limbs and a grasping, prehensile tail that enable them to swing easily through the canopy trees. Emergent layer Canopy Understory ANSWERS Emergent layer, canopy, understory Rainforest structure What are the major layers of the rain forest? Tropical Rain forests, famed for their biodiversity, grow where there are constant warm temperatures and a great deal of rain Moist conditions Climatograph of Bogor, Java, Indonesia, adapted from Breckle, S.W., Wild orchid Tropical rain forest, Sarawak, Malaysia Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems 169

3 ANSWERS Sample answer: Many plants lose their leaves and have deep roots; some plants store water in their tissues. Some animals estivate; many migrate. Tropical Dry ForestS experience significant seasonal variations in precipitation and relatively stable warm temperatures. Tropical Dry Forest Tropical areas that are warm year-round but where rainfall is highly seasonal give rise to tropical dry forest, or tropical deciduous forest. Tropical dry forests are widespread in India, southern North America, Central America, South America, and southeast Asia. Wet and dry seasons each span about half a year. during the wet season can be extremely heavy. Across the globe, people have converted a great deal of tropical dry forest for agriculture. Clearing the land for farming or ranching is relatively easy because vegetation is much shorter and canopies less dense than in a tropical rain forest. Organisms that inhabit tropical dry forests have adapted to seasonal fluctuations in precipitation and temperature. For instance, most trees are deciduous. Deciduous trees lose their leaves and stop photosynthesis during part of the year. Seasonal loss of leaves is beneficial in dry climates because it enables plants to seal off the area between the leaf stem and trunk, preventing water loss. Trees survive by consuming food stored in their tissues. Some plants, like the striking green giant shown here, have the ability to maintain photosynthesis even after they drop their leaves because their bark contains chlorophyll. Many plants that keep their leaves year-round have an extra coating of wax on their leaves to prevent water loss during the dry season. Roots tend to be deeper here than in a tropical rain forest, which enables trees to seek water deeper in the soil. Some plants store water in their tissues for use during the dry season. Thick bark protects trees from occasional fires. Animals, too, must cope with the lack of water during much of the year. When conditions are dry, some animals enter a deep, sleeplike period of dormancy called estivation. Animals that do not enter dormancy, including most bird species, may migrate to areas where water is more plentiful. How do the plants and animals of the tropical dry forest cope with the dry season? Indian pitta 7 Moist conditions Dry conditions Climatograph of Darwin, Australia, adapted from Breckle, S.W., 2. Ceibo tree, striking green giant Tropical dry forest, Madhya Pradesh, India 17 Lesson 2

4 Savanna Tropical regions with less rain than tropical dry forests, but more rain than deserts, are called savanna, or tropical grasslands. Here, grasses are interspersed with clusters of acacias or other trees. Frequent fires and strong winds discourage much tree growth. The savanna biome is found today across stretches of Africa, South America, Australia, India, and other dry, tropical regions. in savannas usually arrives during distinct rainy seasons. Savanna soil is very porous, so water drains through it quickly, making it even more difficult for organisms to find water during the dry season. To cope with the frequent dry periods, savanna plants tend to be deciduous and extra waxy coatings are common. Plants here also tend to grow quickly, enabling them to recover quickly from fire damage and to make the most of available water. Deep roots help plants access water, and thick bark protects plant tissues from fire. Some plants, like the baobab tree, or tree of life, store water for the dry season. As protection against herbivory, some plants develop bitter tastes, rough texture, or thorns that make them less appetizing. Elephants drink 1 liters (3 5 gallons) of water every day. When water is scarce, they dig for water using their massive ivory tusks. Elephants cause significant damage to baobob trees by using their tusks to reach the water stored in the trunks. Grazing animals, such as zebras, wildebeest, gazelles, and giraffes migrate in search of water and usually gather near widely spaced water holes. Predators such as lions, hyenas, and leopards follow their migrating prey. Some small animals burrow to avoid predation and remain dormant during the dry season. Many animals give birth only in the rainy season, when food and water are abundant. ANSWERS Animals need to move around in search of available water. Caption From about mid-october to mid-march SavannaS are grasslands with clusters of trees. They experience slight seasonal variation in temperature but significant variation in rainfall. Interpret Graphs According to the graph below, when is Zimbabwe s rainy season? Why is migration so common in the savanna? Moist conditions Dry conditions Climatograph of Harare, Zimbabwe, adapted from Breckle, S.W., African elephant Savanna, near Mount Kenya, Kenya Baobab tree with damage caused by African elephants Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems 171

5 ANSWERS Less than 25 cm per year DesertS are dry year-round, but they are not always hot. can arrive in intense, widely spaced storm events. Desert Deserts are the driest biome on Earth. Most deserts receive well under 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) of precipitation per year, much of it during isolated storms that occur months or even years apart. Depending on rainfall, deserts vary greatly in the amount of vegetation they support. Some, such as the Sahara and Namib deserts of Africa, are mostly bare sand dunes; others, such as the Sonoran Desert of Arizona and northwest Mexico, are home to a great diversity of plants. Without a lot of water, desert air tends to be very dry. Sunlight quickly heats up dry air in the daytime, but the heat is quickly lost at night. As a result, temperatures vary widely from day to night and across seasons of the year. Because there is not very much plant life in the desert, soils here contain very little organic matter. Desert animals and plants have many adaptations that enable them to survive their harsh climate. Desert animals get most of the water they need from the food they eat, and they tend to release very concentrated urine, to conserve water. Many desert animals are nocturnal, meaning they are active only in the cool of night. Gila monsters can spend days at a time in their cool, underground burrows. Desert mammals, like the kangaroo rat, tend to be small. Exaggerated appendages, such as large ears, help them get rid of excess body heat. Many Australian desert birds are nomadic, wandering long distances to find areas of recent rainfall and plant growth. Desert plants tend to have thick, leathery leaves to reduce water loss. Many desert plants, called succulents, store water in their tissues. Cacti and aloe vera are examples of succulents. The sharp, tough spines of cacti are modified leaves that discourage herbivores desperate for the precious water contained within their tissues. Cacti and many other desert plants have green stems and trunks that enable the plants to perform photosynthesis without broad leaves. The roots of desert plants tend to be shallow and spread out over a large area, enabling the plant to quickly gather any available water. Plants such as the mesquite tree, however, take advantage of water deep underground. Although they also have roots near the surface, mesquite trees send taproots deep into the ground in search of water. Scientists discovered one mesquite tree with roots stretching 5 meters (164 feet) below ground. How much precipitation do deserts receive in a year? Dry conditions Climatograph of Cairo, Egypt, adapted from Breckle, S.W., Gila monster Desert, Arizona, United States Aloe vera 172 Lesson 2

6 Temperate Rain Forest Temperate rain forests occur in regions with heavy rainfall and year-round moderate temperatures. The largest extent of this biome occurs in the Pacific Northwest coast of the United States. However, small bits (too small to show up on our biome map) can be found in South America and Asia. Cedars, spruces, hemlocks, and Douglas fir trees grow very tall in the temperate rain forest. These types of trees are called evergreen trees because they do not annually lose their leaves. Many evergreen species in the temperate rainforest are coniferous trees, trees that produce seed-bearing cones. Coniferous trees, also known as conifers, have needlelike leaves that are coated in a thick, waxy substance that helps minimize moisture loss. Coniferous trees are so common in this biome that it is sometimes called the northwestern coniferous forest. Plants in the temperate forest compete for sunlight, so being tall is an advantage. Indeed, trees here are among the world s tallest. Temperate rain forests can produce large volumes of commercially important forest products, such as lumber and paper. The abundance of rainfall and tall trees causes the forest interior to be shaded and damp. These are perfect conditions for moss, which blankets most of the forest floor. Moisture-loving animals such as the bright yellow banana slug and numerous amphibian species are common. Squirrels, deer, elk, and birds have varied diets that enable them to eat whatever food is available. BIG QUESTION How does the environment affect where and how an organism lives? Interpretation Have students write a short story (about one page in length) that is set in a temperate rain forest. The main character should be a living thing found in the forest. Encourage students to add details to their stories about the living and nonliving parts of the temperate rain forest and how they interact. Have students share their completed stories with the class. ANSWERS Evergreen trees do not lose their leaves annually, but deciduous trees do. What is the difference between an evergreen and deciduous tree? Temperate Rain forests receive a great deal of precipitation and feature moist, mossy interiors. Moss Banana slug Moist conditions Climatograph of Nagasaki, Japan, adapted from Breckle, S.W., Temperate rain forest, Washington, United States Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems 173

7 ANSWERS Animals hibernate to avoid food shortages and cold conditions in the winter. Temperate ForestS experience relatively stable seasonal precipitation but more varied seasonal temperatures. Temperate Forest Broad-leafed deciduous trees characterize the temperate forests that cover most of Europe, eastern Asia, and the eastern United States. Seasonal loss of leaves enables plants to avoid damage during harsh winter freezes. When longer days and warmer temperatures return, leaves regrow and plants resume photosynthesis. Oaks, beeches, and maples are a few of the most abundant types of deciduous trees in these forests. Annual leaf drop enriches the soil of the deciduous forest with nutrients through decomposition. Temperate forests occur in areas where precipitation is spread relatively evenly throughout the year. Organisms that live in the temperate forest experience a range of temperature conditions throughout the seasons, from quite hot in the summer to very cold in the winter. Temperate forest animals have a variety of adaptations that enable them to deal with the shifting temperatures. Some animals, like most birds, migrate to warmer areas until the winter passes. Instead of moving to avoid the winter, some animals, like black bears and some snake species, hibernate. Hibernation is a deep, sleeplike state that an animal enters for most of the winter. Note the similarity between estivation and hibernation. The only difference is the type of condition that triggers the period of inactivity: lack of water for estivation, and cold for hibernation. By hibernating, animals avoid expending energy looking for food in the coldest months. Instead, they live off stored fat. Animals that remain active all winter, like deer mice and eastern chipmunks, prepare for food shortages in the winter by building up their own fat reserves and hiding food for later consumption. Others, such as white-tailed deer and eastern cottontail rabbits, survive in the winter by eating the little food that is available, such as moss and tree bark. Camouflage helps animals that are active in the winter avoid predation when the lack of leaves makes them more exposed. Why do animals hibernate? Maple leaves Moist conditions Climatograph of Washington, D.C., USA, adapted from Breckle, S.W., American black bear Temperate forest, Connecticut, United States 174 Lesson 2

8 Temperate Grassland Temperate grasslands, sometimes called prairies or steppes, occur in areas with moderate seasonal precipitation, but not enough precipitation to support the large trees common in temperate forests. s in the grassland also tend to be more extreme than the temperate forest. Periodic fires and droughts are common here. Temperate grasslands used to cover most of the central and midwestern United States. However, like most of the world s temperate grasslands, this region has been almost entirely converted for agriculture to take advantage of the rich, fertile soil. The soil s fertility comes from the tendency for grassland plants to die in the winter. While roots remain, the bulk of the plant dies off, contributing its organic content to the soil. Grasses have many adaptations that enable them to thrive in temperate grasslands. In fact, they are so successful and common that they give the biome its name! Grasses, unlike most plants, grow from their bases, not their tips. This enables grasses to continue growing after being grazed by wildlife or harmed by drought or fire. The roots of grasses also form thick mats that help capture moisture and nutrients and avoid damage in harsh conditions. Like most grassland plants, grasses use wind to disperse their seeds. On the open plains, strong winds that could damage tall trees do not harm grassland grasses and shrubs. Without trees and taller vegetation, animals in the temperate grassland have few places to hide. Some animals, such as the prairie dog, burrow underground to limit their exposure to predators such as owls, coyotes, and foxes. Some animals survive by being the biggest thing around. Not much bothers the herds of great American bison, for example, that migrate south in the winter in search of exposed grass. ANSWERS The soil that underlies grassland is very fertile. Temperate GrasslandS experience temperature variations throughout the year and too little precipitation for many trees to grow. Why has so much grassland been converted for agriculture? Grass, showing roots Coyote Moist conditions Dry conditions 1 Climatograph of Odessa, Ukraine, adapted from Breckle, S.W., Temperate grassland, Wisconsin, United States Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems 175

9 ANSWERS Fire can clear away dead vegetation, help recycle nutrients, and help seeds germinate. Caption They might trample and uproot shrubs and eat plants. Chaparral is a highly seasonal biome dominated by shrubs, influenced by marine weather, and dependent on fire. In many ways, the chaparral climate is similar to that of the savanna though the vegetation types are different. As elephants disrupt the landscape, grassland plants may move in to areas of chaparral before eventually giving way to shrubs again. Infer How might elephants alter chaparral landscapes? Chaparral Conditions in the chaparral biome are highly seasonal, with mild, wet winters and warm, dry summers. This type of climate is common near oceans and is found around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe and Africa (in fact, chaparral is sometimes described as the Mediterranean biome ). Chaparral is also located along the coasts of California, Chile, southern Australia, and southern Africa. Soils in the chaparral are often thin and not rich in nutrients. Plant life in the chaparral must be able to withstand periods of drought. The most common types of vegetation are shrubs, such as the common sagebrush, and small trees, such as olive trees and blue oaks. Most plants have thick waxy leaves that help prevent water loss during the lengthy dry season. Some chaparral plants have hairs on their leaves that help gather moisture. South Africa s succulent thicket ecosystem, found in Addo Elephant National Park, features a number of succulent plants that withstand the dry season by holding water in their tissues. Succulents make up a little more than 1 percent of a typical elephant s diet within the reserve. Chaparral communities experience frequent fire due to prolonged periods of hot temperatures and dry conditions. Plant species here are adapted to live with, or resist, fire. Many have thick bark and deep roots that can survive fire exposure, while a few plant species actually benefit from it. For these species, fire can help seeds to germinate, clear away dead vegetation, or help recycle nutrients. Some plants of the chaparral, such as sage, eucalyptus, and thyme, contain oily, flammable compounds that deter herbivores, but also encourage the spread of fire. Animals living in the chaparral also need to cope with hot, dry conditions. Many animals, such as the pocket mouse or Mediterranean gecko, are nocturnal, which enables them to avoid the hottest temperatures of the day. Burrowing is a common behavior here, as it enables animals to avoid daytime heat and times of fire. Some animals, such as jackrabbits, have long legs and ears that help them to regulate their body temperature. African elephants lack sweat glands, so heat regulation would be a real problem if it weren t for their oversized ears that radiate excess heat. How does fire help some chaparral plants? Jackrabbit Moist conditions Dry conditions Climatograph of Los Angeles, California, USA, adapted from Breckle, S.W., Sagebrush with forget-me-not flower Chaparral, California, United States 176 Lesson 2

10 Boreal Forest The boreal forest, or taiga, stretches in a broad band across much of Canada, Alaska, Russia, and Scandinavia. These forests develop in cooler, drier regions than do temperate forests. They experience long, cold winters and short, cool summers. Soils are typically nutrient-poor and somewhat acidic. Species diversity is low in the boreal forest. Huge stretches of forest may consist of just a few species of coniferous trees, such as black spruce. Conifers are well adapted to the harsh boreal-forest climate. Their conical shape sheds snow so it does not pile up on tree branches. Waxy needles avoid excess water loss, which is important when the ground is frozen and the trees roots cannot take up water. Since they do not shed their needles all at once, conifers can undergo photosynthesis as soon as conditions allow. There is no waiting period while leaves regrow. Many conifers have symbiotic relationships with fungi that enable them to make use of scarce nutrients. As a result of the strong seasonal variation in day length, temperature, and precipitation, many animals compress a year s worth of feeding, breeding, and rearing of young into the few warm, wet months. Year-round residents of boreal forests include mammals such as moose, wolves, bears, lynx, and many burrowing rodents. Boreal forest animals tend to have small extremities and thick insulation (such as fat, fur, or feathers) to avoid losing heat. Some boreal forest dwellers change color to avoid predation in the winter. Snowshoe hares and ermines, for example, grow white coats when cold temperatures bring the snow, but are mostly covered in brown fur during the summer. Other animals come to the boreal forest only for the short, mild summer. Many insect-eating birds, for example, migrate from the tropics to breed in the boreal forest once warm temperatures bring about an influx of insects to feed on. When temperatures drop again, however, they return to warmer climates in the tropics. ANSWERS Their conical shape sheds snow so it does not pile up on tree branches; their waxy needles prevent excess water loss; they do not shed leaves annually so they can start photosynthesis as soon as conditions allow; many conifers have symbiotic relationships with fungi that enable them to make use of scarce resources. Boreal Forest is characterized by long, cold winters, relatively cool summers, and moderate precipitation. Explain how conifers are well adapted to the boreal-forest environment. Black spruce Ermine, in winter coat 3 6 Moist conditions Climatograph of Archangelsk, Russia, adapted from Breckle, S.W., 2. 8 Boreal forest, Newfoundland, Canada Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems 177

11 ANSWERS Because of harsh winds, nutrient-poor soils, and freezing temperatures Real Data 1. Location A: temperature declines from October to June and then climbs from July to October. Location B declines from January to June and then climbs from July to December. 2. Because the temperatures for these locations are lowest in June and July, which is winter in the southern hemisphere 3. The elephants must live near Location B, because Location A is a desert. The desert would not be able to provide enough water for the elephants to survive. Tundra is a cold, damp biome found near the poles and atop high mountains at lower latitudes. Tundra Nearly as dry as a desert, tundra occurs at very high latitudes along the northern edges of Alaska, Canada, Scandinavia, and Russia. Due to its position near the North Pole, extremely cold, dark winters and moderately cool, bright summers characterize this biome s climate. In the winter, when this part of Earth is angled away from the sun, days are short and temperatures very cold. When it is angled toward the sun in the summer, days are long and temperatures relatively mild. Harsh winds, nutrient-poor soils, and freezing temperatures limit plant growth. Tundra supports no tall trees, only low, scrubby vegetation and ground-hugging mosses and lichens. Some trees, such as willows, have dwarf forms that grow close to the ground. Most seed dispersal happens by wind. Some plants have symbiotic relationships with bacteria on their roots that enable them to gain additional nutrients. Because of the cold climate, underground soil remains frozen year-round, and is called permafrost. During the long, cold winters, the surface soils freeze as well. When the weather warms, the ice in the soil melts and produces seasonal accumulations of surface water that make ideal habitats for mosquitoes and other biting insects. The swarms of insects benefit bird species that migrate long distances to breed during the brief but productive summer. Every year, thousands of caribou migrate to the tundra to breed, feeding on vast fields of lichens. Caribou are well adapted to the cold tundra. They have thick coats packed with insulating air spaces and wide hooves that enable them to move easily across mud and snow. Even caribou, however, leave this harsh environment for the winter. Only a few animals, such as polar bears and musk oxen, can survive year-round in this extreme climate. Why do plants of the tundra tend to be short? Dwarf willow Moist conditions Climatograph of Vaigach, Russia, adapted from Breckle, S.W., Musk oxen Tundra, Yukon Territory, Canada 178 Lesson 2

12 Real Data Which Biome? Average monthly temperature data from two diἀerent biomes are shown in the graph. Location A has a total annual precipitation of 13.5 cm. Location B has a total annual precipitation of 69.1 cm. Use this information and the graph to answer the questions that follow. Average Jan Average Monthly s Location A Location B Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1. Interpret Graphs Describe the annual temperature trends in both locations included in the graph. 2. Interpret Graphs Based only on the graph, it is obvious that Locations A and B are both in the Southern Hemisphere. Why? 3. Infer Both Location A and Location B are cities in Africa. One of them is a city near a large elephant reserve. Given the data in the graph and the annual precipitation at each location, which location do you think is near the elephant reserve? Explain your reasoning. Polar Ice What could be colder than a biome that has permanently frozen ground? How about a place where the ground is ice? Polar areas extend from tundra to the poles. In the Northern Hemisphere, where polar bears roam, there is actually no land beneath the ice. Ice in the Southern Hemisphere, where penguins live, sits atop the continent of Antarctica. Soil here has very little organic content since it is permanently covered in ice. Polar ice caps are not considered a biome. They do not have a typical assortment of plants and animals, and much of the life does not live on land, but in the water. There are very few plants in polar regions, though some algae do grow on snow and ice. Despite these limitations, communities of life thrive in the waters of both poles. Living in near-freezing water is certainly a challenge, and some fish have evolved amazing adaptations to cope with the conditions. In the southern polar region, a group of fish called notothenioids thrive. These fish have antifreeze proteins that prevent their blood from freezing. Mammals such as seals and whales have the advantage of thick fur or blubber to keep them warm. Polar Ice covers the North and South poles of Earth. Most large forms of life here are aquatic. Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems 179

13 Mountains As any hiker or skier knows, climbing in elevation causes a much more rapid change in climate than moving the same distance on flat ground. Like the climate, plant communities change along mountain slopes. It is often said that hiking up a mountain in the southwestern United States is like walking from Mexico to Canada. A hiker climbing up one of southern Arizona s higher mountains would begin in the Sonoran Desert or desert grassland and proceed through oak woodland, pine forest, and finally spruce fir forest the equivalent of passing through several biomes. A hiker scaling one of the great peaks of the Andes in Ecuador could begin in tropical rain forest and end amid glaciers in alpine tundra! Why do you think mountains are not typically classified as a biome? Tundra Boreal forest Mountains host a variety of communities. As altitude increases, vegetation changes in ways similar to the ways it changes as one moves toward the poles. Climbing a mountain in southern Arizona, as pictured here, takes the hiker through the local equivalent of several biomes. Temperate forest Chaparral Elevation Grassland ANSWERS Because climate and plant communities change as you go up a mountain Lesson 2 Assessment For answers to the Lesson 2 Assessment, see page A 9 at the back of the book. Desert 2 1. Apply Concepts Select any three of the major biomes and describe their climates. ἀ en, give an example of a plant adaptation and an animal adaptation found in each, and explain how the adaptation benefits the organism. 2. Compare and Contrast Explain how climbing a mountain is similar to hiking from the equator to one of the poles. 3. Explore the BIGQUESTION Tundra and deserts both receive very little annual precipitation. Explain why the organisms in these biomes are so different. 18 Lesson 2

Quick Video:

Quick Video: Earth s Major Biomes Primary biomes: 1. tropical rain forest 2. Tropical dry forest 3. savanna 4. desert 5. temperate rain forest 6. temperate forest 7. temperate grassland 8. chaparral 9. Tundra 10.Coniferous

More information

Use the terms in the vocabulary box to fill in the blanks. Use each term only once.

Use the terms in the vocabulary box to fill in the blanks. Use each term only once. Use with textbook pages 8 28. Biomes and ecosystems Vocabulary abiotic adaptations behavioural biome biotic climatograph elevation latitude ocean currents physiological precipitation structural temperature

More information

What are eight kinds of land biomes? What kinds of organisms live in each land biome?

What are eight kinds of land biomes? What kinds of organisms live in each land biome? CHAPTER 20 1 Land Biomes SECTION The Earth s Ecosystems BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are eight kinds of land biomes? What kinds of organisms

More information

3 Temperate and Polar Zones

3 Temperate and Polar Zones Name CHAPTER 17 Class Date Climate SECTION 3 Temperate and Polar Zones BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What biomes are found in the temperate

More information

Biomes. Lesson Overview. Lesson Overview. 4.4 Biomes

Biomes. Lesson Overview. Lesson Overview. 4.4 Biomes Lesson Overview Lesson Overview 4.4 THINK ABOUT IT Why does the character of biological communities vary from one place to another? Why, for example, do temperate rain forests grow in the Pacific Northwest

More information

World Environment facts

World Environment facts World Environment facts On the following pages you can find the answers to all the questions from the World environments activity. When you ve checked your scores, carry on reading to find out more about

More information

A. A biome is a particular physical environment that contains a characteristic group of plants and animals. B. Climate and Microclimate 1.

A. A biome is a particular physical environment that contains a characteristic group of plants and animals. B. Climate and Microclimate 1. Land Biomes A. A biome is a particular physical environment that contains a characteristic group of plants and animals. B. Climate and Microclimate 1. Climate is described by a climatograph. Two of the

More information

Thursday, April 3. Bell Work: What are 3 differences between primary and secondary succession?

Thursday, April 3. Bell Work: What are 3 differences between primary and secondary succession? Thursday, April 3 Bell Work: What are 3 differences between primary and secondary succession? 1 Individual plant and animal species have adaptations that let them thrive only in certain biomes. A biome

More information

Shallow, wide roots since soil is so thin and poor in nutrients

Shallow, wide roots since soil is so thin and poor in nutrients 1 2 3 4 World Biomes Tropical Rainforest Abiotic factors high biodiversity and biomass both hot and moist; ideal for bacteria and other microorganisms; they quickly decompose matter on the forest floor

More information

Holt Ch. 6 Biomes. Section 6.1 pg # 1-6

Holt Ch. 6 Biomes. Section 6.1 pg # 1-6 Holt Ch. 6 Biomes Section 6.1 pg 153-155 # 1-6 1. Describe how plants determine the name of a biome. Scientists name biomes after their vegetation because the plants that grow in an area determine what

More information

Describe what defines a biome. List and describe eight major terrestrial biomes.

Describe what defines a biome. List and describe eight major terrestrial biomes. Objectives Describe what defines a biome. List and describe eight major terrestrial biomes. Key Terms biome tropical rain forest savanna desert chaparral temperate grassland temperate deciduous forest

More information

UNIT 4: SUSTAINABILITY OF ECOSYSTEMS Worksheet #11: BIOMES

UNIT 4: SUSTAINABILITY OF ECOSYSTEMS Worksheet #11: BIOMES SCIENCE 1206 UNIT 4: SUSTAINABILITY OF ECOSYSTEMS Worksheet #11: BIOMES There are two major types of ecosystems: Aquatic Terrestrial Each can be subdivided further based upon the predominant vegetation,

More information

15.3 Biomes Bell Ringer

15.3 Biomes Bell Ringer Bell Ringer Study for Vocabulary Quiz, Pass bell ringers to the front! KEY CONCEPT Biomes are land-based, global communities of organisms. Earth has six major biomes. Can be divided into specific zones

More information

Tropical Dry Forest. Tropical Rain Forest. What I Discovered at the Zoo Name of animal that lives in this biome:

Tropical Dry Forest. Tropical Rain Forest. What I Discovered at the Zoo Name of animal that lives in this biome: Tropical Rain Forest Tropical rain forests are home to more species than all other land biomes combined. The leafy tops of tall trees extending up to 70 meters above the forest floor form a dense covering

More information

The Biosphere Study Guide

The Biosphere Study Guide ANSWER KEY Name The Biosphere Study Guide Period Directions: Read pg. 572-588 in Science Explorer. Answer the following questions. Land Biomes 1. What is a biome? a group of ecosystems with similar organisms

More information

Ecosystems: Biomes. Ecosystems and biomes. EVPP 111 Dr. Largen

Ecosystems: Biomes. Ecosystems and biomes. EVPP 111 Dr. Largen 1 : Ecosystems: Biomes EVPP 111 Dr. Largen 2 Ecosystems & Biomes Ecosystem similar physical environments lead to evolution of organisms similar in form and function similar ecosystems known as rule of

More information

Land Biomes Of the World. Tropical Rain Forest Desert Grassland Temperate Forest Boreal Forest Tundra

Land Biomes Of the World. Tropical Rain Forest Desert Grassland Temperate Forest Boreal Forest Tundra Land Biomes Of the World Tropical Rain Forest Desert Grassland Temperate Forest Boreal Forest Tundra Climate: It rains almost everyday. Very warm (humid) Tropical Rainforests Consumers: Tigers, leopards,

More information

Ecology & Biome Vocabulary

Ecology & Biome Vocabulary Ecology & Biome Vocabulary Create a table in your lab notebook with these headings. You will use the front and back of a page. There are vocabulary words underlined, the definition column should be the

More information

Section 3: Grassland, Desert, and Tundra Biomes

Section 3: Grassland, Desert, and Tundra Biomes Section 3: Grassland, Desert, and Tundra Biomes Preview Classroom Catalyst Objectives Grassland, Desert, and Tundra Biomes Savannas Temperate Grasslands Threats to Temperate Grasslands Section 3: Grassland,

More information

Biomes. Environments are grouped into BIOMES group of ecosystems that have same climate & dominant communities

Biomes. Environments are grouped into BIOMES group of ecosystems that have same climate & dominant communities Biomes Environments are grouped into BIOMES group of ecosystems that have same climate & dominant communities TROPICAL RAIN FOREST has most species, BIODIVERSITY canopy = top understory = below canopy

More information

4. Which choice below lists the biomes in order from lowest precipitation amounts to highest precipitation amounts?

4. Which choice below lists the biomes in order from lowest precipitation amounts to highest precipitation amounts? Ecosystems and Biomes 1. All of the living organisms in a forest plus their environment is an example of A. a biome. B. a community. C. a population. D. an ecosystem. 2. Which of the following best describes

More information

Chapter 6: Biomes. Name: Date: Env. Science Period: Section 1: What is a Biome? What is a Biome?

Chapter 6: Biomes. Name: Date: Env. Science Period: Section 1: What is a Biome? What is a Biome? Name: Date: Env. Science Period: Section 1: What is a Biome? What is a Biome? Chapter 6: Biomes Biomes are large regions characterized by a The of a region determines what type of biome can exist in that

More information

TROPICAL CLIMATE. It is found near the Tropics. Always dense and green with many different species of animals and

TROPICAL CLIMATE. It is found near the Tropics. Always dense and green with many different species of animals and SM-UNIT2lesson4.Activity3 CLIMATE WORLDWIDE TROPICAL CLIMATE It is found near the Tropics - Temperatures are always hot, between 24ºC-27ºC - Rainfall is abundant all year. - Two seasons; the dry and the

More information

Ecosystems and Nutrient Cycles Chapter 6

Ecosystems and Nutrient Cycles Chapter 6 Ecosystems and Nutrient Cycles Chapter 6 Ecology The study of living organisms in the natural environment How they interact with one another How they interact with their non-living environment Organization

More information

Biome. Before You Read. What is a biome? What are Earth s biomes like?

Biome. Before You Read. What is a biome? What are Earth s biomes like? Biomes Textbook pages 8 33 Section 1.1 Summary Before You Read A biome includes large regions that have similar living and non-living components. Tundra and desert are two examples of biomes. What other

More information

Name period date assigned date due date returned

Name period date assigned date due date returned Name period date assigned date due date returned Vocabulary Match the vocabulary word to the correct definition. 1. biotic 2. abiotic 3. biodiversity 4. biome 5. sustainability 6. habitat 7. species 8.

More information

Grassland, Desert and Tundra Biomes Chapter 6, Section 3

Grassland, Desert and Tundra Biomes Chapter 6, Section 3 Grassland, Desert and Tundra Biomes Chapter 6, Section 3 Biomes and Precipitation In areas with lower precipitation, forest biomes are replaced by Savanna, Grassland and Chaparral If rainfall is even lower,

More information

Ecosystems and Communities practice test

Ecosystems and Communities practice test Name: answers Score: 0 / 37 (0%) [14 subjective questions not graded] Ecosystems and Communities practice test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers

More information

Energy flow & Biomes. Pay particular attention to the diagrams

Energy flow & Biomes. Pay particular attention to the diagrams Energy flow & Biomes Pay particular attention to the diagrams Bacteria feed at EVERY trophic level! Energy Movement Remember that organisms store energy to be used Stored energy is then taken by an organism

More information

Plant Adaptations. Location. Climate. Biome: Tropical Rainforest Animal Adaptations. Threats. Belt around earth, near equator

Plant Adaptations. Location. Climate. Biome: Tropical Rainforest Animal Adaptations. Threats. Belt around earth, near equator Belt around earth, near equator Always humid and warm(~26 C), 200-450cm/year of rain Deforestation ( once 20% now down to 7%) Loss of Native Cultures Exotic Animal trade >100 species per hectare Mutualism

More information

Plant Adaptations. This cactus displays light-colored hair that helps shade the plant. Copyright

Plant Adaptations. This cactus displays light-colored hair that helps shade the plant. Copyright Plant Adaptations Plants have adaptations to help them survive (live and grow) in different areas. Adaptations are special features that allow a plant or animal to live in a particular place or habitat.

More information

6.4 Taigas and Tundras

6.4 Taigas and Tundras 6.4 Taigas and Tundras In this section, you will learn about the largest and coldest biomes on Earth. The taiga is the largest land biome and the tundra is the coldest. The taiga The largest land biome

More information

How do abiotic factors affect the distribution of organisms?

How do abiotic factors affect the distribution of organisms? How do abiotic factors affect the distribution of organisms? Why aren t Kangaroos in N. America? Factors affecting the distribution of organisms can be divided in to biotic and abiotic categories. Biotic

More information

Biology Review Chapter 1

Biology Review Chapter 1 Science 10 Biology Review Chapter 1 Name: 1. A multi-million dollar experiment called the Biosphere II was built in Tucson Arizona. This building enclosed several mechanically maintained environments.

More information

What is an Ecosystem?

What is an Ecosystem? ECOSYSTEMS What is an Ecosystem? Ecosystem- a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment. There are many types of ecosystems and they can be small or large in size. Example

More information

S7L4-6. A. Southeast. B. Midwest. C. Northwest. D. Southwest.

S7L4-6. A. Southeast. B. Midwest. C. Northwest. D. Southwest. S7L4-6 1. Grasslands and savannas are biomes that are very valuable as areas for farming and grazing livestock. In the United States, these biomes are mostly found in the A. Southeast. B. Midwest. C. Northwest.

More information

The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens

The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens Zoo and Botanical Gardens Biome Contract Overview Students will investigate biotic and abiotic factors of different biomes by preparing a

More information

What is a biome? A BIOME is the largest geographic biotic unit, a major community of. similar life forms and environmental conditions.

What is a biome? A BIOME is the largest geographic biotic unit, a major community of. similar life forms and environmental conditions. Biomes of the World What is a biome? A BIOME is the largest geographic biotic unit, a major community of plants and animals with similar life forms and environmental conditions. How are biomes formed?

More information

Introduction to Ecology

Introduction to Ecology Introduction to Ecology What is Ecology? Ecology is the study of the interactions between organisms and their environments (biotic and abiotic). Ecologists seek to understand: the patterns of abundance

More information

Chapter 7 Part III: Biomes

Chapter 7 Part III: Biomes Chapter 7 Part III: Biomes Biomes Biome: the major types of terrestrial ecosystems determined primarily by climate 2 main factors: Depends on ; proximity to ocean; and air and ocean circulation patterns

More information

Land Biomes. Biome- geographic areas that have similar climates and ecosystems

Land Biomes. Biome- geographic areas that have similar climates and ecosystems Land Biomes Land Biomes Biome- geographic areas that have similar climates and ecosystems Land Biomes The 6 most common biomes are: Tundra Taiga Temperate Deciduous Forest Tropical Rain Forest Grassland

More information

Tropical Rain Forest Tropical Rain Forest

Tropical Rain Forest Tropical Rain Forest Plant Adaptations Tropical Rain Forest Tropical Rain Forest Temperate Deciduous Forest Temperate Deciduous Forest Grassland Temperate Rain Forest Grassland Temperate Rain Forest Names of biomes/areas where

More information

The New York Botanical Garden

The New York Botanical Garden Biome Survival Grade: 3 rd through 5 th Aim: To extend students understanding about the characteristics of different biomes, and ways that these factors affect how animals are adapted to survive in these

More information

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY

GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY YEAR 1, PART 1 www.vicensvives.es Contents 01 Our planet Earth 02 The representation of the Earth: maps 03 The Earth s relief 04 Rivers and seas 05 Weather and climate 06 Climates

More information

Communities and Biomes

Communities and Biomes Communities and Biomes Section 3.1 Communities Observe and Infer List changes that occur in your neighborhood in a year. Include changes that you have observed in plants, temperatures, or rainfall. Explain

More information

Outline. Ecology: Major Biomes. Biomes cover wide geographic areas. Biomes: terrestrial ecosystems within specific climatic regions

Outline. Ecology: Major Biomes. Biomes cover wide geographic areas. Biomes: terrestrial ecosystems within specific climatic regions Ecology: Major Biomes Biomes: terrestrial ecosystems within specific climatic regions Outline 1. Key concepts 2. The sun and its effects on climate 3. Atmospheric circulation and its effects on climate

More information

Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Section 1: Community Ecology Section 2: Terrestrial Biomes Section 3: Aquatic Ecosystems Click on a lesson name to select. 3.1 Community Ecology Communities A biological

More information

Key Idea 2: Ecosystems

Key Idea 2: Ecosystems Key Idea 2: Ecosystems Ecosystems An ecosystem is a living community of plants and animals sharing an environment with non-living elements such as climate and soil. An example of a small scale ecosystem

More information

Deciduous Forest. Courtesy of Wayne Herron and Cindy Brady, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service

Deciduous Forest. Courtesy of Wayne Herron and Cindy Brady, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Deciduous Forest INTRODUCTION Temperate deciduous forests are found in middle latitudes with temperate climates. Deciduous means that the trees in this forest change with the seasons. In fall, the leaves

More information

Habitat Comparison at the Garden

Habitat Comparison at the Garden Habitat Comparison at the Garden Several types of habitats are represented at the Atlanta Botanical Garden: tropical rainforest, desert, temperate deciduous forest and wetlands. During this activity students

More information

Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems

Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Communities, Biomes, and Ecosystems Before You Read Before you read the chapter, respond to these statements. 1. Write an A if you agree with the statement. 2. Write a D if you disagree with the statement.

More information

Grasslands. Savannas are tropical grasslands that support scattered trees and shrubs. They often form a transitional biome

Grasslands. Savannas are tropical grasslands that support scattered trees and shrubs. They often form a transitional biome Grasslands INTRODUCTION About 25% of Earth s land surface is covered by temperate grassland. These large expanses of flat or hilly country cover much of North America, as well as large areas of Europe,

More information

Environmental Science 101 Biodiversity. Fall Lecture Outline: Terms You Should Know: Learning Objectives: Reading Assignment:

Environmental Science 101 Biodiversity. Fall Lecture Outline: Terms You Should Know: Learning Objectives: Reading Assignment: Environmental Science 101 Biodiversity Fall 2012 1 Lecture Outline: 5. ECOLOGY A. The Structure of Ecosystems B. Definition and Examples of Ecosystems C. Biotic Structure Terms You Should Know: Biota Ecotone

More information

Tropical Rainforest. Animal adaptation Because there are so many animals competing for food, many animals have adapted by learning to eat a

Tropical Rainforest. Animal adaptation Because there are so many animals competing for food, many animals have adapted by learning to eat a Tropical Rainforest The tropical rainforest is a hot, moist biome found near Earth's equator. The world's largest tropical rainforests are in South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia. Tropical rainforests

More information

The Tundra. The coldest of all biomes. By: Ashley Laveriano, 7th grade, Mrs. Bateman

The Tundra. The coldest of all biomes. By: Ashley Laveriano, 7th grade, Mrs. Bateman The Tundra The coldest of all biomes. By: Ashley Laveriano, 7th grade, Mrs. Bateman Types of Flowers: The most known flowers and plants of the tundra are BearBerry, Arctic Moss, Arctic Willows, Caribou

More information

Geography Fieldwork at Birmingham Botanical Gardens. Key Stages 3 & 4

Geography Fieldwork at Birmingham Botanical Gardens. Key Stages 3 & 4 Geography Fieldwork at Birmingham Botanical Gardens Key Stages 3 & 4 Introduction These worksheets have been designed so that you can select from them in order to create your own booklet, tailored to your

More information

Name Date Hour. Plants grow in layers. The canopy receives about 95% of the sunlight leaving little sun for the forest floor.

Name Date Hour. Plants grow in layers. The canopy receives about 95% of the sunlight leaving little sun for the forest floor. Name Date Hour Directions: You are to complete the table by using your environmental text book and the example given here. You want to locate all the abiotic (non-living) and biotic (living) factors in

More information

Rainforest Grassland

Rainforest Grassland By Susan Martin What is a Biome? Scientists have developed the term Biome to describe areas on the earth with similar climate, plants, and animals. The plants and animals that live in a specific biome

More information

tundra desert coniferous forest deciduous forest rainforest grassland aquatic biome habitat environment ecosystem species

tundra desert coniferous forest deciduous forest rainforest grassland aquatic biome habitat environment ecosystem species Science Unit 6: Vocabulary List One tundra desert coniferous forest deciduous forest rainforest grassland aquatic biome habitat environment ecosystem species The coldest of the biomes, located at the top

More information

3 Types of Interactions

3 Types of Interactions CHAPTER 1 3 Types of Interactions SECTION Interactions of Living Things BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What determines an area s carrying capacity?

More information

6.1 Climates and Biomes

6.1 Climates and Biomes CHAPTER 6 BIOMES 6.1 Climates and Biomes Imagine someone gave you an airplane ticket to travel to Africa to see Serengeti National Park in Tanzania. If you like adventures, you might say Great! When do

More information

Unit. Terrestrial Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems

Unit. Terrestrial Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems Unit 1 Terrestrial Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems Today s Objective: Describe characteristic biotic and abiotic components of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Fossil evidence suggests that the frozen

More information

Soil. Temperature. Elevation. Moisture

Soil. Temperature. Elevation. Moisture Vegetation Basics Basically, vegetation is a name for the plant life of a region. it can also refer to the ground cover provided by plants. When there is a large area of similar plant life, people call

More information

Plant Adaptations/Variations

Plant Adaptations/Variations Plant Adaptations/Variations Plants have adaptations to help them survive and thrive in different environments. Adaptations are special features that allow a plant or animal to live in a particular place

More information

4 th Grade Science Unit B: Life Sciences Chapter 3: Flow of Energy and Matter Lesson 1: How does energy flow?

4 th Grade Science Unit B: Life Sciences Chapter 3: Flow of Energy and Matter Lesson 1: How does energy flow? 4 th Grade Science Unit B: Life Sciences Chapter 3: Flow of Energy and Matter Lesson 1: How does energy flow? ecosystem Ecosystem is the living and nonliving things and the way they interact in an environment.

More information

Terrestrial Biomes: Deserts, Grasslands, and Forests

Terrestrial Biomes: Deserts, Grasslands, and Forests Terrestrial Biomes: Deserts, Grasslands, and Forests Name Period Teacher 1. Biomes are best described as: a. Regions that support animal life. b. Regions of characteristic vegetation. c. Regions with climates

More information

Climates Climate Zones

Climates Climate Zones Climates Climate Zones Climates Climate Zones The Earth s surface is made up of many different climates. To help them organize it all, climatologists (scientists who study climates) have grouped climates

More information

Biology Keystone (PA Core) Quiz Ecology - (BIO.B.4.1.1 ) Ecological Organization, (BIO.B.4.1.2 ) Ecosystem Characteristics, (BIO.B.4.2.

Biology Keystone (PA Core) Quiz Ecology - (BIO.B.4.1.1 ) Ecological Organization, (BIO.B.4.1.2 ) Ecosystem Characteristics, (BIO.B.4.2. Biology Keystone (PA Core) Quiz Ecology - (BIO.B.4.1.1 ) Ecological Organization, (BIO.B.4.1.2 ) Ecosystem Characteristics, (BIO.B.4.2.1 ) Energy Flow 1) Student Name: Teacher Name: Jared George Date:

More information

Chapter 21. Table of Contents. Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes. Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems. Ecosystems

Chapter 21. Table of Contents. Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes. Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems. Ecosystems Ecosystems Table of Contents Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes Section 2 Aquatic Ecosystems Section 1 Terrestrial Biomes Objectives Identify the eight major biomes. Compare tundra with taiga. Compare the different

More information

The Arctic Tundra Biome

The Arctic Tundra Biome The Arctic Tundra Biome Lesson Overview: The lesson explores the characteristics of the Arctic Tundra biome and analyzes the factors influencing the climate, soils, natural vegetation and fauna of the

More information

THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes

THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes Biomes The Ecosystem - Biomes Side 2 THE ECOSYSTEM - Biomes By the end of this topic you should be able to:- SYLLABUS STATEMENT ASSESSMENT STATEMENT CHECK NOTES 2.4 BIOMES 2.4.1 Define the term biome.

More information

Plant Adaptations By Cindy Grigg

Plant Adaptations By Cindy Grigg Plant Adaptations By Cindy Grigg 1 What's the strangest place you've ever seen a plant growing? It sometimes seems as though plants can grow everywhere. You see them growing in your house, in your yard,

More information

Climate, Vegetation, and Landforms

Climate, Vegetation, and Landforms Climate, Vegetation, and Landforms Definitions Climate is the average weather of a place over many years Geographers discuss five broad types of climates Moderate, dry, tropical, continental, polar Vegetation:

More information

Characteristics of Terrestrial Ecosystems

Characteristics of Terrestrial Ecosystems Characteristics of Terrestrial Ecosystems Terrestrial ecosystems are land-based ecosystems. Rainforests, deciduous forests, and grasslands are all examples of terrestrial ecosystems. The Earth has many

More information

Grasslands. Environmental Science Chapters 8

Grasslands. Environmental Science Chapters 8 Grasslands Environmental Science Chapters 8 Grassland Biome A grassland ecosystem is an area that receives more rainfall than a desert, but not enough to support the trees of a forest. These usually exist

More information

Part 1.3 Ecosystems Biomes

Part 1.3 Ecosystems Biomes Dr. D. McShaffrey Biology 102L - Organisms and Ecosystems May 2, 2004 Page 1 of 8 Based on Mader, Sylvia S. 1993. Biology - 4th Ed. WCB and Levine, J.S. and K.R. Miller. Biology: Discovering Life D.C.

More information

E: too cold for trees. C: long summer Freezeline A: never freezes. General location of major climate types. GEO 101, April 1, 2014.

E: too cold for trees. C: long summer Freezeline A: never freezes. General location of major climate types. GEO 101, April 1, 2014. GEO 101, April 1, 2014 General location of major climate types Finish climates A: Tropical climates E: too cold for trees Treeline D: long winter H : arid C: long summer Freezeline A: never freezes Hypothetical

More information

Algae Plankton Arctic Cod Seals Polar Bears

Algae Plankton Arctic Cod Seals Polar Bears Why is Climate Change such a Hot issue for the North Pole? Student Handout Scientists expect northern regions to warm up more than other parts of the world as the Earth s climate changes. If you have flown

More information

Worksheet 1: Abiotic and Biotic Factors

Worksheet 1: Abiotic and Biotic Factors Science 10 Worksheet 1: Abiotic and Biotic Factors Additional Practice Questions Directions: Select the best answer for each of the following questions. Answers are found at the end of this document. Life

More information

CHAPTER 20 COMMUNITY ECOLOGY

CHAPTER 20 COMMUNITY ECOLOGY CHAPTER 20 COMMUNITY ECOLOGY MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The relationship between a predator and its prey is best illustrated by a. a snake eating a bird. c. a lion eating a zebra. b. a fox eating a mouse. d. a

More information

Desert Communities Third Grade Core: Standard 2 Objective 2 Describe the interactions between living and nonliving things in a small environment.

Desert Communities Third Grade Core: Standard 2 Objective 2 Describe the interactions between living and nonliving things in a small environment. Desert Communities Third Grade Core: Standard 2 Objective 2 Describe the interactions between living and nonliving things in a small environment. (Discovering Deserts NatureScope: page 40, 43, 44) Objective:

More information

Name BIOMES: OUR EARTH S MAJOR LIFE ZONES PRE-TEST

Name BIOMES: OUR EARTH S MAJOR LIFE ZONES PRE-TEST 1 PRE-TEST True or False Directions: Label each statement with a T if it is true or F if it is false. 1. The word biome is a name to define an area that has a major community of plants and animals. 2.

More information

Weather, Climate, and Adaptations How do we survive?

Weather, Climate, and Adaptations How do we survive? Weather, Climate, and Adaptations How do we survive? Name: 1 Before you start What do you already know about weather, climate, and adaptations? 1. What is the difference between weather and climate? 2.

More information

Biomes. (because plants that grow in an are determine the other organisms that can live there).

Biomes. (because plants that grow in an are determine the other organisms that can live there). Biomes Similar ecosystems grouped together A large region characterized by a specific type of climate and certain types of plants and animal communities. Defined/described by their climate & vegetation

More information

Animals of the Desert

Animals of the Desert Animals of the Desert (NatureScope Discovering Deserts page 26-27) Third Grade Core: Standard 2 Objective 2 Describe the interactions between living and nonliving things in a small environment. Teach a

More information

Lesson 10 Succession. Overview. Students will: Content Background. Ti m e : 2 Cl a s s Pe r i o d s

Lesson 10 Succession. Overview. Students will: Content Background. Ti m e : 2 Cl a s s Pe r i o d s Lesson 10 Succession Overview Now that students have learned about the diversity of life and the complexity and differences in ecosystems and biomes, they will observe what happens when an ecosystem is

More information

World Climate Regions

World Climate Regions World Climate Regions A HuMAn PerSPeCTIve Songs have been written celebrating April in Paris. Springtime there is mild, with temperatures in the 5F range. But no songs have been written about April in

More information

World Rainfall Patterns

World Rainfall Patterns World Rainfall Patterns Wet Regions 0-10 o Lat. Doldrums Wet Regions East Coasts, 10-25 o Lat. Trade Winds Wet Regions East Coasts, 25-40 o Lat. Warm Ocean Current Wet Regions West Coasts, 40-60 o Lat.

More information

Way Up in the Arctic by Jennifer Ward

Way Up in the Arctic by Jennifer Ward Way Up in the Arctic by Jennifer Ward Arctic north pole Arizona 32º latitude Arctic Arizona 5,800,000 square miles 114,000 square miles Arctic Hare Arctic Fox Arctic Tern Arctic Wolf Arctic Seal Beluga

More information

Ecology: An Explanation

Ecology: An Explanation Ecology: An Explanation Define Ecology - study of the interactions that take place among Biosphere - part of Earth that supports life, including the top portion of Earth's crust, the atmosphere, and all

More information

Teacher Notes A Teacher Background Information handout is available for additional teaching notes.

Teacher Notes A Teacher Background Information handout is available for additional teaching notes. Forest Types Grade Level Grade 5 Main Idea Like many other species, all forests are different. Like a chocolate cake they have layers and like animal they have different types. When all elements are combined,

More information

Ecosystems. Ecologists organize ecosystems into four major levels. These levels are: population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere.

Ecosystems. Ecologists organize ecosystems into four major levels. These levels are: population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere. Ecosystems Ecologists organize ecosystems into four major levels. These levels are: population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere. Population A population is a group of individuals of the same species

More information

POND SUCCESSION

POND SUCCESSION Name period date assigned date due date returned Directions: Carefully cut out the cards for each example of succession. Only cut out the six to eight cards for each type at one time. Match the picture

More information

DESCRIBING DESERT, TAIGA, AND TUNDRA BIOMES

DESCRIBING DESERT, TAIGA, AND TUNDRA BIOMES Lesson B5 1 DESCRIBING DESERT, TAIGA, AND TUNDRA BIOMES Unit B. Science and Technology in Wildlife Management Problem Area 5. Desert, Taiga, and Tundra Biomes National Academic Standard. NS.9-12.1 Science

More information

What is a Biome? Biomes are the largest divisions of the biosphere. "biosphere" refers to anywhere on Earth living things

What is a Biome? Biomes are the largest divisions of the biosphere. biosphere refers to anywhere on Earth living things Chapter 1 Student Guided Notes 1.1 BIOMES Student Notes The Eden Project The Eden Project is one of the most popular tourist sites in the United Kingdom which WAS an abandoned mining site the size of 30

More information

Tropical Rain Forest. Tropical Dry Forest. Tropical Savanna. Adapted from Prentice Hall Biology: Miller, Levine.

Tropical Rain Forest. Tropical Dry Forest. Tropical Savanna.  Adapted from Prentice Hall Biology: Miller, Levine. Tropical Rain Forest Tropical Dry Forest Tropical Savanna Desert www.middlewaymom.com Adapted from Prentice Hall Biology: Miller, Levine. Tropical Savanna Characterized by a cover of grasses. Spotted with

More information

Matter and Energy in Ecosystems

Matter and Energy in Ecosystems Matter and Energy in Ecosystems The interactions that take place among biotic and abiotic factors lead to transfers of energy and matter. Every species has a particular role, or niche, in an ecosystem.

More information

How are ecosystems different?

How are ecosystems different? Lesson 1 Cycles in Ecosystems Lesson 2 Changes in Ecosystems Lesson 3 Biomes Lesson 4 Water Ecosystems How are ecosystems different? water cycle evaporation condensation precipitation watershed runoff

More information

WEATHER, CLIMATE AND ADAPTATIONS OF ANIMALS TO CLIMATE

WEATHER, CLIMATE AND ADAPTATIONS OF ANIMALS TO CLIMATE 7 WEATHER, CLIMATE AND ADAPTATIONS OF ANIMALS TO CLIMATE TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Q.1. Why weather changes so frequently? Ans. All changes in the weather are caused by the sun. The movement of the

More information

2.3 Mapping Earth s Physical Features A world physical features map shows information about. Physical Features. canyon. Word Bank

2.3 Mapping Earth s Physical Features A world physical features map shows information about. Physical Features. canyon. Word Bank Read Section 2.3. Write one or two sentences describing the type of thematic map you read about. Then match the physical features in the Word Bank to their correct locations on the illustration. An example

More information