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1 Four-Level Analysis Practice Sentences Michael Clay Thompson rfwp.com

2 I have had many requests from those who use the MCT texts for grammar analysis sentences in a digital form that can be used with a computer or projector. Accordingly, here are some sentences in a pdf that should work on any computer. MCT

3 PART ONE These first sentences are limited to one- and two-level analysis and are suitable for younger students who are not yet using Grammar Island.

4 ONE-LEVEL ANALYSIS

5 The big dog saw her.

6 The big dog saw her. adj. adj. n. v. pron.

7 He ate two cookies.

8 He ate two cookies. pron. v. adj. n.

9 Jane is a good friend.

10 Jane is a good friend. n. v. adj. adj. n.

11 A big dog barked loudly.

12 A big dog barked loudly. adj. adj. n. v. adv.

13 Two dogs barked at the moon.

14 Two dogs barked at the moon. adj. n. v. prep. adj. n.

15 Oh, I never wanted any soup.

16 Oh, I never wanted any soup. interj. pron. adv. v. adj. n.

17 Joe and I asked for a bigger boat.

18 Joe and I asked for a bigger boat. n. conj. pron. v. prep. adj. adj. n.

19 Alex ran up the hill, but Sarah laughed.

20 Alex ran up the hill, but Sarah laughed. n. v. prep. adj. n. conj. n. v.

21 Randolph is my best friend.

22 Randolph is my best friend. n. v. adj. adj. n.

23 The very old tree lost its leaves slowly.

24 The very old tree lost its leaves slowly. adj. adv. adj. n. v. adj. n. adv.

25 Golgrich was the very man we asked.

26 Golgrich was the very man we asked. n. v. adj. adj. n. pron. v.

27 The rude comment offended you and me.

28 The rude comment offended you and me. adj. adj. n. v. pron. conj. pron.

29 The rude comment offended you and me. adj. adj. n. v. pron. conj. pron. It must be you and me, not you and I, because a direct object uses object pronouns.

30 A slippery fish wiggled across the deck.

31 A slippery fish wiggled across the deck. adj. adj. n. v. prep. adj. n.

32 TWO-LEVEL ANALYSIS

33 Hard rain fell from the dark clouds.

34 Hard rain fell from the dark clouds. adj. n. v. prep. adj. adj. n.

35 Hard rain fell from the dark clouds. adj. n. v. prep. adj. adj. n. subj. AVP

36 Hard rain fell from the dark clouds. adj. n. v. prep. adj. adj. n. subj. AVP The object of a preposition, clouds, cannot also be a direct object. AVP means action verb predicate.

37 The big, blue wave struck the ship.

38 The big, blue wave struck the ship. adj. adj. adj. n. v. adj. n.

39 The big, blue wave struck the ship. adj. adj. adj. n. v. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O.

40 The leader of the Gauls is a warrior.

41 The leader of the Gauls is a warrior. adj. n. prep. adj. n. v. adj. n.

42 The leader of the Gauls is a warrior. adj. n. prep. adj. n. v. adj. n. subj. LVP S.C.

43 The leader of the Gauls is a warrior. adj. n. prep. adj. n. v. adj. n. subj. LVP S.C. The subject of the sentence is leader, not Gauls. The object of a preposition cannot also be the subject of the sentence. LVP means linking verb predicate. S.C. means subject complement.

44 The red dog carefully smelled the squirrel.

45 The red dog carefully smelled the squirrel. adj. adj. n. adv. v. adj. n.

46 The red dog carefully smelled the squirrel. adj. adj. n. adv. v. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O.

47 The red dog carefully smelled the squirrel. adj. adj. n. adv. v. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O. Notice that smelled is here an action verb; the dog is smelling something.

48 The blue flowers smelled good.

49 The blue flowers smelled good. adj. adj. n. v. adj.

50 The blue flowers smelled good. adj. adj. n. v. adj. subj. LVP S.C.

51 The blue flowers smelled good. adj. adj. n. v. adj. subj. LVP S.C. In this sentence smelled is a linking verb. Flowers do not have noses, and they are not performing an action. The logic of the sentence is an equation: the flowers are good in smell.

52 A very funny rabbit hopped on the path.

53 A very funny rabbit hopped on the path. adj. adv. adj. n. v. prep. adj. n.

54 A very funny rabbit hopped on the path. adj. adv. adj. n. v. prep. adj. n. subj. AVP

55 A very funny rabbit hopped on the path. adj. adv. adj. n. v. prep. adj. n. subj. AVP We have an action verb, but there is no direct object because the verb does not transfer the action to anything.

56 She gave me a good book about Rome.

57 She gave me a good book about Rome. pron. v. pron. adj. adj. n. prep. n.

58 She gave me a good book about Rome. pron. v. pron. adj. adj. n. prep. n. subj. AVP I.O. D.O.

59 She gave me a good book about Rome. pron. v. pron. adj. adj. n. prep. n. subj. AVP I.O. D.O. An indirect object is a noun or object pronoun that is located between the action verb and the direct object. It does not receive the action, but it is indirect affected by the action.

60 You and I will go to the opera on Monday.

61 You and I will go to the opera on Monday. pron. conj. pron. v. v. prep. adj. n. prep. n.

62 You and I will go to the opera on Monday. pron. conj. pron. v. v. prep. adj. n. prep. n subj AVP-----

63 You and I will go to the opera on Monday. pron. conj. pron. v. v. prep. adj. n. prep. n subj AVP----- Here we see a compound subject and a future tense verb.

64 I will go to Greece if you will come too.

65 I will go to Greece if you will come too. pron. v. v. prep. n. conj. pron. v. v. adv.

66 I will go to Greece if you will come too. pron. v. v. prep. n. conj. pron. v. v. adv. subj AVP----- subj AVP

67 I will go to Greece if you will come too. pron. v. v. prep. n. conj. pron. v. v. adv. subj AVP----- subj AVP The word if is a subordinating conjunction.

68 No, we never wanted any blue flowers.

69 No, we never wanted any blue flowers. interj. pron. adv. v. adj. adj. n.

70 No, we never wanted any blue flowers. interj. pron. adv. v. adj. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O.

71 PART TWO Here are four-level analysis sentences, organized by book, for students using the MCT texts.

72

73 A big flight of ducks flies overhead.

74 A big flight of ducks flies overhead. adj. adj. n. prep. n. v. adv.

75 A big flight of ducks flies overhead. adj. adj. n. prep. n. v. adv. subj. AVP

76 A big flight of ducks flies overhead. adj. adj. n. prep. n. v. adv. subj. ----prep. phrase---- AVP

77 A big flight of ducks flies overhead. adj. adj. n. prep. n. v. adv. subj. ----prep. phrase---- AVP one clause simple sentence

78 A big flight of ducks flies overhead. adj. adj. n. prep. n. v. adv. subj. ----prep. phrase---- AVP one clause simple sentence A prepositional phrase comes between the subject and its verb: flight flies.

79 A frog ate the flea, and the fly flew away.

80 A frog ate the flea, and the fly flew away. adj. n. v. adj. n. conj. adj. n. v. adv.

81 A frog ate the flea, and the fly flew away. adj. n. v. adj. n. conj. adj. n. v. adv. subj. AVP D.O. subj. AVP

82 A frog ate the flea, and the fly flew away. adj. n. v. adj. n. conj. adj. n. v. adv. subj. AVP D.O. subj. AVP no phrase

83 A frog ate the flea, and the fly flew away. adj. n. v. adj. n. conj. adj. n. v. adv. subj. AVP D.O. subj. AVP no phrase clause clause compound sentence

84 A frog ate the flea, and the fly flew away. adj. n. v. adj. n. conj. adj. n. v. adv. subj. AVP D.O. subj. AVP no phrase clause clause compound sentence An action verb might or might not lead to a direct object.

85 The noisy intruder was a small, green frog.

86 The noisy intruder was a small, green frog. adj. adj. n. v. adj. adj. adj. n.

87 The noisy intruder was a small, green frog. adj. adj. n. v. adj. adj. adj. n. subj. LVP S.C.

88 The noisy intruder was a small, green frog. adj. adj. n. v. adj. adj. adj. n. subj. LVP S.C. no phrase

89 The noisy intruder was a small, green frog. adj. adj. n. v. adj. adj. adj. n. subj. LVP S.C. no phrase one clause simple sentence

90 The noisy intruder was a small, green frog. adj. adj. n. v. adj. adj. adj. n. subj. LVP S.C. no phrase one clause simple sentence This sentence is an equation. The linking verb means that the subject and the subject complement are the same thing: the intruder IS a frog.

91 Two crickets chirped at the sleepy seagull.

92 Two crickets chirped at the sleepy seagull. adj. n. v. prep. adj. adj. n.

93 Two crickets chirped at the sleepy seagull. adj. n. v. prep. adj. adj. n. subj. AVP

94 Two crickets chirped at the sleepy seagull. adj. n. v. prep. adj. adj. n. subj. AVP prep. phrase

95 Two crickets chirped at the sleepy seagull. adj. n. v. prep. adj. adj. n. subj. AVP prep. phrase one clause simple sentence

96 Two crickets chirped at the sleepy seagull. adj. n. v. prep. adj. adj. n. subj. AVP prep. phrase one clause simple sentence The object of a preposition cannot be a direct object.

97 The white bird gave the green frog a bug.

98 The white bird gave the green frog a bug. adj. adj. n. v. adj. adj. n. adj. n.

99 The white bird gave the green frog a bug. adj. adj. n. v. adj. adj. n. adj. n. subj. AVP I.O. D.O.

100 The white bird gave the green frog a bug. adj. adj. n. v. adj. adj. n. adj. n. subj. AVP I.O. D.O. no phrase

101 The white bird gave the green frog a bug. adj. adj. n. v. adj. adj. n. adj. n. subj. AVP I.O. D.O. no phrase one clause simple sentence

102 The white bird gave the green frog a bug. adj. adj. n. v. adj. adj. n. adj. n. subj. AVP I.O. D.O. no phrase one clause simple sentence An indirect object will always be between the action verb and the direct object.

103 Yes, some frogs were sad and silly.

104 Yes, some frogs were sad and silly. interj. adj. n. v. adj. conj. adj.

105 Yes, some frogs were sad and silly. interj. adj. n. v. adj. conj. adj. subj. LVP compound S.C

106 Yes, some frogs were sad and silly. interj. adj. n. v. adj. conj. adj. subj. LVP compound S.C no phrase

107 Yes, some frogs were sad and silly. interj. adj. n. v. adj. conj. adj. subj. LVP compound S.C no phrase one clause simple sentence

108 Yes, some frogs were sad and silly. interj. adj. n. v. adj. conj. adj. subj. LVP compound S.C no phrase one clause simple sentence Two subject complements joined by a conjunction: a compound subject complement.

109 James gave you and me some fish.

110 James gave you and me some fish. n. v. pron. conj. pron. adj. n.

111 James gave you and me some fish. n. v. pron. conj. pron. adj. n. subj. AVP compound I.O D.O.

112 James gave you and me some fish. n. v. pron. conj. pron. adj. n. subj. AVP compound I.O D.O. no phrase

113 James gave you and me some fish. n. v. pron. conj. pron. adj. n. subj. AVP compound I.O D.O. no phrase one clause simple sentence

114 James gave you and me some fish. n. v. pron. conj. pron. adj. n. subj. AVP compound I.O D.O. no phrase one clause simple sentence We see a compound indirect object, right where indirect objects always are, between the action verb and the direct object.

115 The gray goose certainly smelled funny.

116 The gray goose certainly smelled funny. adj. adj. n. adv. v. adv.

117 The gray goose certainly smelled funny. adj. adj. n. adv. v. adv. subj. LVP S.C.

118 The gray goose certainly smelled funny. adj. adj. n. adv. v. adv. subj. LVP S.C. no phrase

119 The gray goose certainly smelled funny. adj. adj. n. adv. v. adv. subj. LVP S.C. no phrase one clause simple sentence

120 The gray goose certainly smelled funny. adj. adj. n. adv. v. adv. subj. LVP S.C. no phrase one clause simple sentence A subject complement is a noun, pronoun, or adjective, linked to the subject by a linking verb.

121 The fancy fish swam slowly up the stream.

122 The fancy fish swam slowly up the stream. adj. adj. n. v. adv. prep. adj. n.

123 The fancy fish swam slowly up the stream. adj. adj. n. v. adv. prep. adj. n. subj. AVP

124 The fancy fish swam slowly up the stream. adj. adj. n. v. adv. prep. adj. n. subj. AVP -----prepositional phrase-----

125 The fancy fish swam slowly up the stream. adj. adj. n. v. adv. prep. adj. n. subj. AVP -----prepositional phrase one clause simple sentence

126 The fancy fish swam slowly up the stream. adj. adj. n. v. adv. prep. adj. n. subj. AVP -----prepositional phrase one clause simple sentence Remember that the object of a preposition can never be a direct object.

127 Sam saw Sue, but Sid was sad.

128 Sam saw Sue, but Sid was sad. n. v. n. conj. n. v. adj.

129 Sam saw Sue, but Sid was sad. n. v. n. conj. n. v. adj. subj. AVP D.O. subj. LVP S.C.

130 Sam saw Sue, but Sid was sad. n. v. n. conj. n. v. adj. subj. AVP D.O. subj. LVP S.C. no phrase

131 Sam saw Sue, but Sid was sad. n. v. n. conj. n. v. adj. subj. AVP D.O. subj. LVP S.C. no phrase clause clause compound sentence

132 Sam saw Sue, but Sid was sad. n. v. n. conj. n. v. adj. subj. AVP D.O. subj. LVP S.C. no phrase clause clause compound sentence This is one sentence. It has two clauses, each with its own subject and verb.

133

134 He gave his book to the curious mayor.

135 He gave his book to the curious mayor. pron. v. adj. n. prep. adj. adj. n.

136 He gave his book to the curious mayor. pron. v. adj. n. prep. adj. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O.

137 He gave his book to the curious mayor. pron. v. adj. n. prep. adj. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O prep. phrase

138 He gave his book to the curious mayor. pron. v. adj. n. prep. adj. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O prep. phrase one clause simple sentence

139 He gave his book to the curious mayor. pron. v. adj. n. prep. adj. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O prep. phrase one clause simple sentence The object of a preposition can never also be a direct object or indirect object.

140 The collection of poems is brilliant.

141 The collection of poems is brilliant. adj. n. prep. n. v. adj.

142 The collection of poems is brilliant. adj. n. prep. n. v. adj. subj. LVP S.C.

143 The collection of poems is brilliant. adj. n. prep. n. v. adj. subj. LVP S.C prep. phrase----

144 The collection of poems is brilliant. adj. n. prep. n. v. adj. subj. LVP S.C prep. phrase one clause simple declarative sentence

145 The collection of poems is brilliant. adj. n. prep. n. v. adj. subj. LVP S.C prep. phrase one clause simple declarative sentence Note that the verb IS agrees with the subject COLLECTION, not with the object of the preposition.

146 The wretched elf grew tulips in the dell.

147 The wretched elf grew tulips in the dell. adj. adj. n. v. n. prep. adj. n.

148 The wretched elf grew tulips in the dell. adj. adj. n. v. n. prep. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O.

149 The wretched elf grew tulips in the dell. adj. adj. n. v. n. prep. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O prep. phrase-----

150 The wretched elf grew tulips in the dell. adj. adj. n. v. n. prep. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O prep. phrase one clause simple declarative sentence

151 The wretched elf grew tulips in the dell. adj. adj. n. v. n. prep. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O prep. phrase one clause simple declarative sentence This sentence has a good feature: the verb is right next to the subject. That always makes a sentence clearer. A DELL is a small, wooded valley.

152 A weary mason grew bored with the task.

153 A weary mason grew bored with the task. adj. adj. n. v. adj. prep. adj. n.

154 A weary mason grew bored with the task. adj. adj. n. v. adj. prep. adj. n. subj. LVP S.C.

155 A weary mason grew bored with the task. adj. adj. n. v. adj. prep. adj. n. subj. LVP S.C prep. phrase

156 A weary mason grew bored with the task. adj. adj. n. v. adj. prep. adj. n. subj. LVP S.C prep. phrase one clause simple declarative sentence

157 A weary mason grew bored with the task. adj. adj. n. v. adj. prep. adj. n. subj. LVP S.C prep. phrase one clause simple declarative sentence This is tricky. In this sentence GREW is a linking verb. It is not action: the mason is not growing anything, he is just getting bored. TO GROW is often a linking verb.

158 The gang of thieves makes him an offer.

159 The gang of thieves makes him an offer. adj. n. prep. n. v. pron. adj. n.

160 The gang of thieves makes him an offer. adj. n. prep. n. v. pron. adj. n. subj. AVP I.O. D.O.

161 The gang of thieves makes him an offer. adj. n. prep. n. v. pron. adj. n. subj. AVP I.O. D.O prep. phrase----

162 The gang of thieves makes him an offer. adj. n. prep. n. v. pron. adj. n. subj. AVP I.O. D.O prep. phrase one clause simple declarative sentence

163 The gang of thieves makes him an offer. adj. n. prep. n. v. pron. adj. n. subj. AVP I.O. D.O prep. phrase one clause simple declarative sentence The verb MAKES agrees with the subject GANG, not with the noun beside it.

164 When the ship hit the rock, Max was afraid.

165 When the ship hit the rock, Max was afraid. conj. adj. n. v. adj. n. n. v. adj.

166 When the ship hit the rock, Max was afraid. conj. adj. n. v. adj. n. n. v. adj. subj. AVP D.O. subj. LVP S.C.

167 When the ship hit the rock, Max was afraid. conj. adj. n. v. adj. n. n. v. adj. subj. AVP D.O. subj. LVP S.C. no phrase

168 When the ship hit the rock, Max was afraid. conj. adj. n. v. adj. n. n. v. adj. subj. AVP D.O. subj. LVP S.C. no phrase dependent clause independent clause a D,I complex declarative sentence

169 When the ship hit the rock, Max was afraid. conj. adj. n. v. adj. n. n. v. adj. subj. AVP D.O. subj. LVP S.C. no phrase dependent clause independent clause a D,I complex declarative sentence The comma is required when the dependent clause comes first. D,I expresses the punctuation rule. Note that each clause has its own subject and simple predicate.

170 Scrubbing the deck, James was a good sailor.

171 Scrubbing the deck, James was a good sailor. adj. adj. n. n. v. adj. adj. n.

172 Scrubbing the deck, James was a good sailor. adj. adj. n. n. v. adj. adj. n. subj. LVP S.C.

173 Scrubbing the deck, James was a good sailor. adj. adj. n. n. v. adj. adj. n participial phrase subj. LVP S.C.

174 Scrubbing the deck, James was a good sailor. adj. adj. n. n. v. adj. adj. n participial phrase subj. LVP S.C independent clause a simple declarative sentence

175 Scrubbing the deck, James was a good sailor. adj. adj. n. n. v. adj. adj. n participial phrase subj. LVP S.C independent clause a simple declarative sentence This is a classic introductory participial phrase, modifying the subject, and set off by a comma. The phrase is part of the clause--is inside the clause.

176 Scrubbing the deck, James was a good sailor. adj. adj. n. n. v. adj. adj. n participial phrase subj. LVP S.C independent clause a simple declarative sentence This is a classic introductory participial phrase, modifying the subject, and set off by a comma. The phrase is part of the clause--is inside the clause.

177 Scrubbing the deck was an odious task.

178 Scrubbing the deck was an odious task. n. adj. n. v. adj. adj. n.

179 Scrubbing the deck was an odious task. n. adj. n. v. adj. adj. n subj LVP S.C.

180 Scrubbing the deck was an odious task. n. adj. n. v. adj. adj. n subj LVP S.C gerund phrase

181 Scrubbing the deck was an odious task. n. adj. n. v. adj. adj. n subj LVP S.C gerund phrase independent clause a simple declarative sentence

182 Scrubbing the deck was an odious task. n. adj. n. v. adj. adj. n subj LVP S.C gerund phrase independent clause a simple declarative sentence Here the phrase is a gerund phrase acting as the subject of the verb. This is a classic, very common structure

183 Scrubbing the deck was an odious task. n. adj. n. v. adj. adj. n subj LVP S.C gerund phrase independent clause a simple declarative sentence Here the phrase is a gerund phrase acting as the subject of the verb. This is a classic, very common structure

184 Two bluebirds wanted to eat some bugs.

185 Two bluebirds wanted to eat some bugs. adj. n. v. n. adj. n.

186 Two bluebirds wanted to eat some bugs. adj. n. v. n. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O

187 Two bluebirds wanted to eat some bugs. adj. n. v. n. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O infinitive phrase

188 Two bluebirds wanted to eat some bugs. adj. n. v. n. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O infinitive phrase independent clause a simple declarative sentence

189 Two bluebirds wanted to eat some bugs. adj. n. v. n. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O infinitive phrase independent clause a simple declarative sentence Here is an infinitive phrase acting as a noun and as the direct object.

190 Two bluebirds wanted to eat some bugs. adj. n. v. n. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O infinitive phrase independent clause a simple declarative sentence Here is an infinitive phrase acting as a noun and as the direct object.

191 The bird told the bug a story as the sun set.

192 The bird told the bug a story as the sun set. adj. n. v. adj. n. adj. n. conj. adj. n. v.

193 The bird told the bug a story as the sun set. adj. n. v. adj. n. adj. n. conj. adj. n. v. subj. AVP I.O. D.O. subj. AVP

194 The bird told the bug a story as the sun set. adj. n. v. adj. n. adj. n. conj. adj. n. v. subj. AVP I.O. D.O. subj. AVP no phrase

195 The bird told the bug a story as the sun set. adj. n. v. adj. n. adj. n. conj. adj. n. v. subj. AVP I.O. D.O. subj. AVP no phrase independent clause dependent clause an ID complex declarative sentence

196 The bird told the bug a story as the sun set. adj. n. v. adj. n. adj. n. conj. adj. n. v. subj. AVP I.O. D.O. subj. AVP no phrase independent clause dependent clause an ID complex declarative sentence Because the dependent clause comes second, we do not use a comma between the clauses.

197

198 The gray dog looked old, like a shaggy wolf.

199 The gray dog looked old, like a shaggy wolf. adj. adj. n. v. adj. prep. adj. adj. n.

200 The gray dog looked old, like a shaggy wolf. adj. adj. n. v. adj. prep. adj. adj. n. subj. LVP S.C.

201 The gray dog looked old, like a shaggy wolf. adj. adj. n. v. adj. prep. adj. adj. n. subj. LVP S.C prep. phrase

202 The gray dog looked old, like a shaggy wolf. adj. adj. n. v. adj. prep. adj. adj. n. subj. LVP S.C prep. phrase independent clause a simple declarative sentence

203 The gray dog looked old, like a shaggy wolf. adj. adj. n. v. adj. prep. adj. adj. n. subj. LVP S.C prep. phrase independent clause a simple declarative sentence In this case the dog is not looking at anything; looked is not an action verb here. The sentence means that the dog was old in looks. Like is a preposition of similarity.

204 The very curious boy has a talking turtle.

205 The very curious boy has a talking turtle. adj. adv. adj. n. v. adj. adj. n.

206 The very curious boy has a talking turtle. adj. adv. adj. n. v. adj. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O.

207 The very curious boy has a talking turtle. adj. adv. adj. n. v. adj. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O. no phrase, but talking is a participle

208 The very curious boy has a talking turtle. adj. adv. adj. n. v. adj. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O. no phrase, but talking is a participle independent clause a simple declarative sentence

209 The very curious boy has a talking turtle. adj. adv. adj. n. v. adj. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O. no phrase, but talking is a participle independent clause a simple declarative sentence Why is the little verb has not a linking verb? It does not link. It does not say that the boy IS a turtle. If it does not link the two, it is not linking. To have a turtle is not to be a turtle.

210 Rory is the very man who gave Ed the fish.

211 Rory is the very man who gave Ed the fish. n. v. adj. adj. n. pron. v. n. adj. n.

212 Rory is the very man who gave Ed the fish. n. v. adj. adj. n. pron. v. n. adj. n. subj. LVP S.C. subj. AVP I.O. D.O.

213 Rory is the very man who gave Ed the fish. n. v. adj. adj. n. pron. v. n. adj. n. subj. LVP S.C. subj. AVP I.O. D.O. no phrase

214 Rory is the very man who gave Ed the fish. n. v. adj. adj. n. pron. v. n. adj. n. subj. LVP S.C. subj. AVP I.O. D.O. no phrase independent clause dependent clause an ID complex declarative sentence

215 Rory is the very man who gave Ed the fish. n. v. adj. adj. n. pron. v. n. adj. n. subj. LVP S.C. subj. AVP I.O. D.O. no phrase independent clause dependent clause an ID complex declarative sentence In this sentence very is an adjective because it modifies a noun. The dependent clause is an adjective clause modifying the noun man. Adjective clauses follow the nouns that they modify.

216 Climbing the icy slope was the fulfillment of his dream.

217 Climbing the icy slope was the fulfillment of his dream. n. adj. adj. n. v. adj. n. prep. adj. n.

218 Climbing the icy slope was the fulfillment of his dream. n. adj. adj. n. v. adj. n. prep. adj. n subj LVP S.C.

219 Climbing the icy slope was the fulfillment of his dream. n. adj. adj. n. v. adj. n. prep. adj. n subj LVP S.C gerund phrase prep. phrase----

220 Climbing the icy slope was the fulfillment of his dream. n. adj. adj. n. v. adj. n. prep. adj. n subj LVP S.C gerund phrase prep. phrase independent clause a simple declarative sentence

221 Climbing the icy slope was the fulfillment of his dream. n. adj. adj. n. v. adj. n. prep. adj. n subj LVP S.C gerund phrase prep. phrase independent clause a simple declarative sentence Here is a typical gerund phrase used as the subject of the verb. This is one of the most common patterns that we see.

222 Climbing the icy slope was the fulfillment of his dream. n. adj. adj. n. v. adj. n. prep. adj. n subj LVP S.C gerund phrase prep. phrase independent clause a simple declarative sentence Here is a typical gerund phrase used as the subject of the verb. This is one of the most common patterns that we see.

223 Like a little child, my father loved opening presents.

224 Like a little child, my father loved opening presents. prep. adj. adj. n. adj. n. v. n. n.

225 Like a little child, my father loved opening presents. prep. adj. adj. n. adj. n. v. n. n. subj. AVP D.O

226 Like a little child, my father loved opening presents. prep. adj. adj. n. adj. n. v. n. n prep. phrase subj. AVP D.O gerund phrase------

227 Like a little child, my father loved opening presents. prep. adj. adj. n. adj. n. v. n. n prep. phrase subj. AVP D.O gerund phrase independent clause a simple declarative sentence

228 Like a little child, my father loved opening presents. prep. adj. adj. n. adj. n. v. n. n prep. phrase subj. AVP D.O gerund phrase independent clause a simple declarative sentence Here we see a gerund phrase used as the direct object. Gerund phrases are nouns, so we always see them in the normal noun places. The noun presents is the object of the gerund opening.

229 Like a little child, my father loved opening presents. prep. adj. adj. n. adj. n. v. n. n prep. phrase subj. AVP D.O gerund phrase independent clause a simple declarative sentence Here we see a gerund phrase used as the direct object. Gerund phrases are nouns, so we always see them in the normal noun places. The noun presents is the object of the gerund opening.

230 Max always wanted to row the boat on the river.

231 Max always wanted to row the boat on the river. n. adv. v. n. adj. n. prep. adj. n.

232 Max always wanted to row the boat on the river. n. adv. v. n. adj. n. prep. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O

233 Max always wanted to row the boat on the river. n. adv. v. n. adj. n. prep. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O infinitive phrase prep. phrase----

234 Max always wanted to row the boat on the river. n. adv. v. n. adj. n. prep. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O infinitive phrase prep. phrase independent clause a simple declarative sentence

235 Max always wanted to row the boat on the river. n. adv. v. n. adj. n. prep. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O infinitive phrase prep. phrase independent clause a simple declarative sentence Here we see an infinitive phrase--which has a prepositional phrase attached to it-- acting as a noun and as the basis of the direct object. An infinitive is one word.

236 Max always wanted to row the boat on the river. n. adv. v. n. adj. n. prep. adj. n. subj. AVP D.O infinitive phrase prep. phrase independent clause a simple declarative sentence Here we see an infinitive phrase--which has a prepositional phrase attached to it-- acting as a noun and as the basis of the direct object. An infinitive is one word.

237 Arthur, the aging architect, drew new plans yesterday.

238 Arthur, the aging architect, drew new plans yesterday. n. adj. adj. n. v. adj. n. adv.

239 Arthur, the aging architect, drew new plans yesterday. n. adj. adj. n. v. adj. n. adv. subj. AVP D.O.

240 Arthur, the aging architect, drew new plans yesterday. n. adj. adj. n. v. adj. n. adv. subj. AVP D.O appositive phrase

241 Arthur, the aging architect, drew new plans yesterday. n. adj. adj. n. v. adj. n. adv. subj. AVP D.O appositive phrase independent clause a simple declarative sentence

242 Arthur, the aging architect, drew new plans yesterday. n. adj. adj. n. v. adj. n. adv. subj. AVP D.O appositive phrase independent clause a simple declarative sentence The appositive phrase is enclosed in commas.

243 As the sun began to set, Kate seemed worried.

244 As the sun began to set, Kate seemed worried. conj. adj. n. v. n. n. v. adj.

245 As the sun began to set, Kate seemed worried. conj. adj. n. v. n. n. v. adj. subj. AVP D.O. subj. LVP S.C.

246 As the sun began to set, Kate seemed worried. conj. adj. n. v. n. n. v. adj. subj. AVP D.O. subj. LVP S.C. no phrase

247 As the sun began to set, Kate seemed worried. conj. adj. n. v. n. n. v. adj. subj. AVP D.O. subj. LVP S.C. no phrase dependent clause independent clause a D,I complex declarative sentence

248 As the sun began to set, Kate seemed worried. conj. adj. n. v. n. n. v. adj. subj. AVP D.O. subj. LVP S.C. no phrase dependent clause independent clause a D,I complex declarative sentence We see an infinitive, but not an infinitive phrase.

249 Eating the orange carrots is a pleasant activity.

250 Eating the orange carrots is a pleasant activity. n. adj. adj. n. v. adj. adj. n.

251 Eating the orange carrots is a pleasant activity. n. adj. adj. n. v. adj. adj. n subj LVP S.C.

252 Eating the orange carrots is a pleasant activity. n. adj. adj. n. v. adj. adj. n subj LVP S.C gerund phrase

253 Eating the orange carrots is a pleasant activity. n. adj. adj. n. v. adj. adj. n subj LVP S.C gerund phrase independent clause a simple declarative sentence

254 Eating the orange carrots is a pleasant activity. n. adj. adj. n. v. adj. adj. n subj LVP S.C gerund phrase independent clause a simple declarative sentence Here is a gerund phrase as the subject of the sentence. Notice that the verb is agrees with the gerund, not with the object of the gerund.

255 Arthur built the knight a castle on the mountain.

256 Arthur built the knight a castle on the mountain. n. v. adj. n. adj. n. prep. adj. n.

257 Arthur built the knight a castle on the mountain. n. v. adj. n. adj. n. prep. adj. n. subj. AVP I.O. D.O.

258 Arthur built the knight a castle on the mountain. n. v. adj. n. adj. n. prep. adj. n. subj. AVP I.O. D.O prep. phrase

259 Arthur built the knight a castle on the mountain. n. v. adj. n. adj. n. prep. adj. n. subj. AVP I.O. D.O prep. phrase independent clause a simple declarative sentence

260 Arthur built the knight a castle on the mountain. n. v. adj. n. adj. n. prep. adj. n. subj. AVP I.O. D.O prep. phrase independent clause a simple declarative sentence We find the indirect object right where it always is, betwen the AVP and the D.O.

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