Name Crustal Interactions E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department

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1 Name Crustal Interactions E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department 1 Base your answer to the following question on the cross section below, which shows the paths of seismic waves traveling from an earthquake epicenter through the different layers of Earth's interior. No P-waves or S-waves are received in the shadow zone because 1) P-waves are absorbed and S-waves are refracted by Earth's outer core 2) P-waves are refracted and S-waves are absorbed by Earth's outer core 3) both the P-waves and S-waves are refracted by Earth's outer core 4) both the P-waves and S-waves are absorbed by Earth's outer core 2 Compared to Earth s continental crust, Earth s oceanic crust is 1) thinner and more dense 2) thinner and less dense 3) thicker and more dense 4) thicker and less dense 3 What is Earth s inferred interior pressure, in millions of atmospheres, at a depth of 3500 kilometers? 1) 1.9 2) 2.8 3) ) What is the inferred temperature at the boundary between Earth s stiffer mantle and outer core? 1) 2,500 C 2) 4,500 C 3) 5,000 C 4) 6,200 C 5 In which group are the zones of the Earth's interior correctly arranged in order of increasing average density? 1) crust, mantle, outer core, inner core 2) crust, mantle, inner core, outer core 3) inner core, outer core, mantle, crust 4) outer core, inner core, mantle, crust

2 6 Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which shows a cutaway view of Earth in which the interior layers are visible. The paths of earthquake waves generated at point X are shown. A, B, C, and D are locations of seismic stations on Earth's surface, and point E is located in Earth's interior. 8 The diagram below represents a cross section of a portion of the Earth's crust. Which statement about the Earth's crust is best supported by the diagram? 1) The oceanic crust is thicker than the mantle. 2) The continental crust is thicker than the oceanic crust. Both P-waves and S-waves were received at seismic stations A and B, but only P-waves were received at seismic stations C and D. Which statement best explains why this occurred? 1) S-waves are much weaker than P-waves. 2) S-waves travel faster than P-waves. 3) The liquid outer core prevents S-waves from traveling to seismic stations C and D. 4) The solid outer core prevents S-waves from traveling to seismic stations C and D. 7 An observer discovers shallow-water marine fossils in rock strata at an elevation of 5,000 meters. What is the best explanation for this observation? 1) The level of the ocean was once 5,000 meters higher. 2) Violent earthquakes caused crustal subsidence. 3) Marine organisms have evolved into land organisms. 4) Crustal uplift has occurred in this area. 3) The continental crust is composed primarily of sedimentary rock. 4) The crust is composed of denser rock than the mantle is. 9 The Himalaya Mountains are located along a portion of the southern boundary of the Eurasian Plate. At the top of Mt. Everest (29,028 feet) in the Himalaya Mountains, climbers have found fossilized marine shells in the surface bedrock. From this observation, which statement is the best inference about the origin of the Himalaya Mountains? 1) The Himalaya Mountains were formed by volcanic activity. 2) Sea level has been lowered more than 29,000 feet since the shells were fossilized. 3) The bedrock containing the fossil shells is part of an uplifted seafloor. 4) The Himalaya Mountains formed at a divergent plate boundary.

3 10 The diagram below shows land features that have been disrupted by an earthquake. 13 The map below shows the location of an earthquake epicenter in New York State. Seismic stations A, B, and C received the data used to locate the earthquake epicenter. Which type of crustal movement most likely caused the displacement of features in this area? 1) vertical lifting of surface rock 2) folding of surface rock 3) down-warping of the crust 4) movement along a transform fault 11 Which diagram of rock layers represents the best evidence of crustal movement? 1) The seismogram recorded at station A would show the 2) 3) 4) 12 An earthquake s first P-wave arrives at a seismic station at 12:00:00. This P-wave has traveled 6000 kilometers from the epicenter. At what time will the first S-wave from the same earthquake arrive at the seismic station? 1) 11:52:20 2) 12:07:40 3) 12:09:20 4) 12:17:00 1) arrival of P-waves, only 2) earliest arrival time of P-waves 3) greatest difference in the arrival times of P-waves and S-waves 4) arrival of S-waves before the arrival of P-waves 14 A seismic station is recording the seismic waves produced by an earthquake that occurred 4200 kilometers away. Approximately how long after the arrival of the first P-wave will the first S -wave arrive? 1) 1 min 05 sec 2) 5 min 50 sec 3) 7 min 20 sec 4) 13 min 10 sec 15 In 8 minutes, an earthquake P-wave travels a total distance of 1) 2,100 km 2) 4,700 km 3) 6,600 km 4) 11,300 km

4 16 Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which shows models of two types of earthquake waves. Model A best represents the motion of earthquake waves called 1) P-waves (compressional waves) that travel faster than S-waves (shear waves) shown in model B 2) P-waves (compressional waves) that travel slower than S-waves (shear waves) shown in model B 3) S-waves (shear waves) that travel faster than P-waves (compressional waves) shown in model B 4) S-waves (shear waves) that travel slower than P-waves (compressional waves) shown in model B 17 the Earth Science Reference Tables and the map and seismograms below. The map shows seismic stations in Chicago, Denver, Oklahoma City, and Tampa that recorded data from an earthquake. Seismograms A, B, C, and D show, in Greenwich time, the arrival times of the earthquake waves at the four stations. What is the minimum number of seismic stations needed to locate most earthquake epicenters? 1) 1 2) 2 3) 3 4) 4 18 How far from an earthquake epicenter is a city where the difference between the P-wave and S -wave arrival times is 6 minutes and 20 seconds? 1) km 2) km 3) km 4) km 19 The Mariana Trench was most likely created by the 1) convergence of the Pacific and Philippine Plates 2) divergence of the Eurasian and Philippine Plates 3) sliding of the Pacific Plate past the North American Plate 4) movement of the Pacific Plate over the Hawaii Hot Spot

5 20 The diagram below represents three seismograms showing the same earthquake as it was recorded at three different seismic stations, A, B, and C. Which statement correctly describes the distance between the earthquake epicenter and these seismic stations? 1) A is closest to the epicenter, and C is farthest from the epicenter. 2) B is closest to the epicenter, and C is farthest from the epicenter. 3) C is closest to the epicenter, and A is farthest from the epicenter. 4) A is the closest to the epicenter, and B is the farthest from the epicenter.

6 21 Base your answer to the following question on the diagram and map below. The diagram shows three seismograms of the same earthquake recorded at three different seismic stations, X, Y, and Z. The distances from each seismic station to the earthquake epicenter have been drawn on the map. A coordinate system has been placed on the map to describe locations. The map scale has not been included. On the map, which location is closest to the epicenter of the earthquake? 1) E 5 2) G 1 3) H 3 4) H 8

7 22 Base your answer to the following question on the map and table of the Modified Mercalli Scale below. The map shows the intensities of the earthquake that occurred slightly southwest of New Madrid, Missouri, on December 16, The numbered areas on the map were determined from the Modified Mercalli Scale according to the observed effects of the earthquake. Which city would have issued the report: "Heavy furniture moved, everyone felt the earthquake, and many people were frightened and ran outdoors"? 1) Cincinnati 2) Pittsburgh 3) Syracuse 4) Boston

8 Base your answer to questions 23 and 24 on the diagram below which shows the magnetic orientation of igneous rock on the seafloor on the east (right) side of a mid-ocean ridge. The pattern on the west (left) side of the ridge has been omitted. The age of the igneous rock and its distance from the ridge center are shown. 23 Which diagram below best represents the pattern of magnetic orientation in the seafloor on the west (left) side of the ocean ridge? 1) 2) 3) 4) 24 As distance from the center of the ridge increases, the age of the rocks 1) decreases 2) increases 3) remains the same

9 25 Base your answer to the following question on on the diagram below, which shows a seismograph that recorded seismic waves from an earthquake located 4000 kilometers from this seismic station. How long does the first S-wave take to travel from the earthquake epicenter to this seismograph?

10 Answer Key Plate Tectonic Review Any response from 12 min 30 sec to 12 min 50 sec

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