What causes Earth s surface to change?

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1 Lesson 1 Earth s Landforms Lesson 2 Plate Tectonics Lesson 3 Volcanoes Lesson 4 Earthquakes What causes Earth s surface to change? Lesson 5 Shaping Earth s Surface

2 landform relief map topographical map atmosphere hydrosphere crust mantle outer core inner core

3 What are landforms? mountain waterfall inlet ocean plateau tributary cliff coast canyon river hill valley plain estuary delta desert lake beach dune

4 What are the features of the ocean floor? continent sea mount rift valley continental shelf continental slope mid-ocean ridge trench abyssal plain continental rise

5 How are Earth s features mapped? Relief Map of Nunviak Island, AK Topographical Map of Nunviak Island, AK

6 What are Earth s layers? atmosphere hydrosphere crust upper mantle inner core outer core lower mantle

7 Main Idea What are Earth s layers? atmosphere hydrosphere crust upper mantle lower mantle outer core inner core

8 Vocabulary The layer of Earth s interior below the crust is called the. All of Earth s liquid and solid water makes up its. The is made of solid metals. A is a physical feature on Earth s surface. The rocky layer of Earth s surface is called the. crust hydrosphere inner core landform mantle

9 Vocabulary The includes all of the gases around Earth. A map that uses shading to show elevations is called a. The is made of liquid metals. A topographical map uses lines to show elevation. atmosphere outer core relief map topographical map

10 Classify Which features of the ocean floor angle downward and which angle upward? Upward seamount mid-ocean ridge Downward continental slope continental rise continental shelf trenches submarine canyon End of Lesson

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20 geologist plate tectonics magma fault

21 Is Earth s crust moving? 225 million years ago 200 million years ago Present Day

22 What causes the ocean floor to spread? Scientists have developed a theory called plate tectonics to explain how forces deep within Earth can cause ocean floors to spread and continents to move.

23 How do mountains form? Folded Mountains Fault-Block Mountains

24 Main Idea Is Earth s crust stationary or moving? moving

25 Vocabulary The theory of explains how forces deep within Earth can cause ocean floors to spread and continents to move. Deep cracks in Earth s crust are called. A is a scientist who examines rocks to find out Earth s history and structure. Magma is hot, melted rock. faults geologist magma plate tectonics

26 Cause and Effect What causes the ocean floor to spread? magma flows up magma pushes ocean rock up magma breaks through ocean floor rock pushes outward in opposite directions End of Lesson

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31 volcano lava shield volcano cinder-cone landslide volcano composite volcano island chain hot spot island arc

32 Where are volcanoes found?

33 How do volcanoes build land? dike laccolith batholith sill

34 How do volcanoes build islands? Kauai Oahu Molokai Maui ocean direction of plate movement Hawaii hot spot magma

35 Main Idea What is a volcano? A place where magma reaches and flows onto Earth s surface.

36 Vocabulary Shield volcanoes are built by thinner, fluid lava that spreads out over a large area. A stationary pool of magma is called a. Once magma reaches Earth s surface, it is called. Cinder-cone volcanoes are built by thick lava that is thrown high into the air and falls as chunks or cinders. cinder-cone volcanoes hot spot lava shield volcanoes

37 Vocabulary Composite volcanoes are built by layers of ash and cinders sandwiched between layers of hardened lava. In areas where an ocean-floor plate is pushed under another ocean-floor plate, an is formed. A is an opening in Earth s crust. An is a line of volcanic mountains. composite volcanoes island arc island chain volcano

38 Infer Where will the next Hawaiian Island be located? area closest to the hot spot The islands are in a line from oldest to youngest. The next island will be located past the youngest. End of Lesson

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47 earthquake focus epicenter magnitude tsunami

48 What is an earthquake? fault epicenter An earthquake is a sudden movement of Earth s crust. focus

49 What waves do earthquakes make? outer core lower mantle inner core Key S waves P waves

50 How is an earthquake s energy measured?

51 How can people prepare? Buildings in San Francisco have been designed to resist damage from earthquakes.

52 Main Idea What is an earthquake? An earthquake is a sudden movement of Earth s crust.

53 Vocabulary When the waves reach Earth s surface, they spread out from a point called the. An is a sudden movement of Earth s crust. The place where the slipping begins is called the earthquake s. When an earthquake occurs underneath the ocean, it can produce a huge wave called a. Magnitude is a measure of the amount of energy released by an earthquake. earthquake epicenter focus magnitude tsunami

54 Draw Conclusions What can you conclude has happened if a tsumani strikes a shore? A tsumani strikes the shore. An earthquake has occurred on the ocean floor. End of Lesson

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60 weathering erosion glacier deposition landslide meander sediment floodplain

61 What is weathering? Weathering is the process through which rocks or other materials are broken down.

62 What is erosion? Erosion is the process through which weathered rock is moved from one place to another.

63 What is deposition? The process by which eroded materials, such as sediments, are dropped off in another place is called deposition.

64 How are shorelines changed? When water collects on land that is normally dry, it is called a flood.

65 How can shorelines be protected? Fences and grasses help keep sand dunes from being eroded by wind. Some barricades may be built to prevent large waves from causing floods.

66 Main Idea What processes break down and build up land? Weathering and erosion break down land, and deposition builds up land.

67 Vocabulary A is a large mass of slowly flowing ice. Particles of soil and rock that are carried along in water are called. Weathering is the process through which rocks or other materials are broken down. A is a place that is easily flooded when river water rises. floodplain glacier sediment weathering

68 Vocabulary Erosion is the process through which weathered rock is moved from one place to another., Meanders or gentle loops, sometimes form in rivers with slow-moving water. The process by which eroded materials are dropped off in another place is called. deposition erosion meanders

69 Problem and Solution If you needed to prevent waves from eroding a beech what would you do? beach erosion find cause of erosion levees, fences, grasses End of Lesson

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continent convection current core one of the main landmasses on Earth, such as Africa, Asia, or North America

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