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1 The Earth s s Crust

2 The Earth s s Crust The earth s crust is the outside layer of the earth. It is thickest at the continents at about 40 Km (up to 70 Km) deep. It is thinnest under the oceans at about 10 Km deep. Crust is very thin (only 1% of earth s mass) and was formed when light elements floated to the surface and cooled

3 The Earth s s Crust The crust is not one continuous piece like an orange peel to an orange. Instead it is made of separate pieces like a puzzle. These pieces are called plates. As you go deeper in the crust the it gets warmer. Directly under the crust is a hot layer called the mantle

4 The Earth s s Crust The crust and upper part of the mantle together form a layer called the lithosphere Lithosphere is made of solid but moving masses of rock called lithospheric plates Each plate is km thick 12 major plates and several minor ones cover the surface of the earth Plates may contain continental crust, oceanic crust, or both Continents made of granite, an igneous rock Oceanic crust made of basalt, also igneous but denser

5 The Earth s s Crust The mantle is located under the crust and is 2900 km thick Contains iron, magnesium, and silicon denser than crust Accounts for almost 70% of the earth s mass! Partially molten (melted) upper portion is called the asthenosphere

6 The Earth s s Crust The mantle is semi liquid that move with convection. Hot material rises while cold material sinks This places pressure on the plates above and causes them to move!!

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8 The Earth s s Core Outer Core - molten iron that surrounds the solid inner core. Electrical currents generated from this area produce the earth's magnetic field km thick and 3,700 C Inner Core - A mass of solid iron and nickel Although the temperature is extremely high (would normally melt iron), the immense pressure keeps the core solid This concentration of mass is partially responsible of determining how fast the Earth rotates (spinning a fresh egg vs. a boiled egg) 1300 km thick and 4,300 C

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10 Diagram of the Interior of the Earth Crust 0 to 40 km 0 C Upper Mantle 40 to 670 km 1,000 C Lower Mantle 670 to 2,890 km 2,000 C Outer Core 2,890 to 5,150 km 3,700 C Inner Core 5,150 to 6,370 km 4,300 C

11 The Rock Cycle The rock cycle illustrates the three mechanisms rocks are formed in the earth s crust. There are three major groups of rocks: Sedimentary rocks: made from sediments or pieces of other rocks Igneous rock: when any type of rock is melted and then solidifies, it becomes an igneous rock Metamorphic rock: When any type of rock is put under extreme pressure and heat, it becomes a metamorphic rock

12 The Rock Cycle Igneous rock: when any type of rock is melted and then solidifies, it becomes an igneous rock Rock melts under the lower crust, becoming magma Weight of the rock above forces magma through weak points in the crust Magma flowing out as a liquid = lava Magma blown out of volcano in small particles = ash Eg: basalt, obsidian, pumice Magma cools beneath the surface = plutonic rock Eg: granite (makes up Coastal Mountains)

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14 The Rock Cycle Sedimentary rocks: made from sediments or pieces of other rocks Fragments originate from weathering physical or chemical breakdown from water, wind, and ice Fragments carries to ocean floor and settle as layers of sediment Over time, the fragments are squeezed and cemented together Eg: chalk, limestone, sandstone, clay and shale Sedimentary rocks cover 75% of the Earth's surface

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16 The Rock Cycle Metamorphic rock: When any type of rock is put under extreme pressure and heat, it becomes a metamorphic rock Shale (sedimentary) slate (metamorphic) Limestone (sedimentary) marble (sedimentary)

17 The Rock Cycle The rocks in the crust are continuously changing from one form to another. These processes are either very very slow or sometimes fast.

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19 Movement Within the Cycle

20 Here is another version of the Rock Cycle

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22 Geological Structures Read p. 261 Make your own notes under the heading above Include each of the bold terms Fracture Fault Dike Fold Erosion surface Strata

23 Geological structures Fractures: cracks in a body of rock Faults: fractures along which there has been movement Results in earthquakes Dikes: igneous rocks formed in fractures when magma is squeezed upward and cools

24 Geological structures Folds: layers of sedimentary rock are squeezed and buckle Erosion surfaces: rock exposed in the past to weathering and erosion and is then reburied Strata: layers Common in sedimentary rock from settling of different sizes and kinds of sediment

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