Fred Hantelmann LINUX. Start-up Guide. A self-contained introduction. With 57 Figures. Springer

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1 Fred Hantelmann LINUX Start-up Guide A self-contained introduction With 57 Figures Springer

2 Contents Contents Introduction Linux Versus Unix Kernel Architecture Guide Typographical Conventions 8 Development of Unix Academic Versions Commercial Breakthrough PC Unix Variants Free Unix Distributions 15 Operating Linux Login, Logout, Shutdown Virtual Consoles Quick Lead-in Command Interpreter Command Syntax Environment Variables Editing the Command Line Wildcards Redirecting the Input and Output Command Sequences and Background Processes Pipelines User Profiles Online Help 35 VII

3 Contents Programs and Processes Process Monitoring ps top time Creating Processes Process Signals Independent Processes Process Priority Daemons Interval Controlled Daemons Signal Controlled Daemons 51 Files and File Systems File Systems The Directory Tree File Types File Attributes Device Files Device Administration Keyboard Adaption Graphics Mode Hard Disk Administration CD-ROM Operation Diskette (Floppy) Operation Magnetic Tape Drives Serial Connections Printer Administration Ethernet Configuration Audio Configuration 81 File Oriented Commands Changing the Working Directory: cd Displaying the Working Directory: pwd Creating and Removing Creating Directories: mkdir 86

4 6.2.2 Removing Directories: rmdir Creating Files Removing Files: rm Displaying Contents Information on File Systems: mount and df Directory Information: lsanddu File Type Identification: file Displaying Files: cat, head and tail Displaying Text Files: more Displaying Binary Files: od, nm and strings Renaming Entries Changing Attributes Changing Access Permissions: chmod Changing File Owners: chown Changing the Group Identification: chgrp Modifying Time Stamps: touch Copying, Saving, Reloading Copying Files: cp Archive Programs: cpio and tar. Ill Copying and Converting: dd Saving Files and File Systems: dump Restoring Files and File Systems: restore Searching, Comparing, Sorting Searching for File Names: find Searching for File Contents: grep Comparing File Contents: cmp and diff Sorting Text Files: sort Formatting Files Preparing Printer Output: pr Tab Conversion: expand and unexpand Breaking Text Lines: fold Merging Text Files: paste Cutting Columns: cut List Processing: awk Character Translation: tr Data Compression LZC Compression: compress and uncompress LZ77 Compression: gzip and gunzip 140 Contents IX

5 Contents 6 10 Regular Expressions 142 -"-" Basic Regular Expressions Range Information Word and Line Limits Repetitions Chaining Regular Expressions 144 X Editors The Stream Editor sed sed Addresses sed Commands The Screen Editor vi Starting and Quitting vi vi Operation Modes Input and Replacement Modes Moving the Cursor Deleting, Replacing, Copying Marks, Keyboard Sequences, Abbreviations ex Commands Searching and Replacing vi Options GNUEmacs Starting and Quitting Emacs Basic Commands Moving the Cursor Deleting Marking Searching Replacing Restoring Loading and Saving Files Switching Buffers Window Commands Command Sequences Repeat Execution Abbreviations Online Help 177

6 Modes 178 j,contents ; Application Packages 179! Miscellaneous The GNU Emacs as an X Application 183 Shell Programs Linux Shells bash and ksh Variables Input and Output Branches Loops Functions Starting Shell Programs Signals Shell Internal Functions External Help Programs tcsh Programs tcsh Variables Input and Output Branches Loops Jump Command Signals 217 Networked Systems Network Topologies Protocol Families OSI TCP/IP System Addresses Internet Addresses Domain Addresses Network Services Network Configuration Serial Login 235 XI

7 Contents 972 SLIP Connections :^--! PPP Connections 236 TCP/IP Applications Network Analysis telnet Berkeley r Utilities rlogin Remote Login rsh Remote Shell rep Remote Copy Terminal Emulators File Transfer ftp Anonymous ftp Electronic Mail Mail Protocols Linux MTAs Linux MUAs Graphic Linux MUAs Mailbox Systems News Linux News Clients Off-line News Dialog Programs talk and ytalk Internet Relay Chat Information Systems FTP Search Help Gopher World Wide Web 271 XII X Window System Window Systems Architecture of XI Widgets Working with XI1 283

8 Starting and Killing the X Server X Server Addresses and Access Permissions MIT X Clients X Resources X Fonts X Colors 294 X Window Manager Tab Window Manager twm and c twm twm Decorations and Functions twm Configuration Variable Section Binding Section Menu Section OpenLook WMs olwm and olvwm olwm Decorations and Functions olwm Configuration F(?) Virtual Window Manager fvwm fvwm Decorations and Functions fvwm Configuration Color Information General Parameters Path Names Style Options Function Definitions Menu Definitions Keyboard and Mouse Bindings Module Options 318 Bibliography 319 Index 321 XIII

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