# Civil Engineering Hydraulics Mechanics of Fluids. Flow in Pipes

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1 Civil Engineering Hydraulics Mechanics of Fluids Flow in Pipes 2 Now we will move from the purely theoretical discussion of nondimensional parameters to a topic with a bit more that you can see and feel 1

2 We don t always call the transport system a pipe, that is just common usage for a conveyance with a circular cross section that usually carries water If the system is carrying a gas and doesn t have a circular cross section, we often call it a duct 3 It the system is very small, it may be called a tube It doesn t really matter what we call it, the conditions and expressions governing the system will be essentially the same 4 2

3 Characteristics of Pipe flow can be divided into three separate flow regimes or classes based on the Reynolds number of the flow Laminar l Transitional l Turbulent l 5 Characteristics of Laminar flow is a flow in which the fluid particles flow in step No pushing and shoving Every particle moves along the stream line and doesn t get out of line A drop of dye put into the water would describe a straight line in the direction of flow 6 3

4 Characteristics of 7 Characteristics of Transitional flow is a chaotic state The flow is neither turbulent or laminar but has some of the characteristics of both 8 4

5 Characteristics of The flow could return to being laminar or could become turbulent There is some shoving and pushing between particles that could either be resolved and order restored or it could descend into bedlam 9 Characteristics of Turbulent flow is where the fluid particles are moving not only along the streamline but across streamlines There is no set vector for any individual particle A drop of dye would disperse in the direction of the flow and become completely mixed into the flow very quickly 10 5

6 Characteristics of 11 While the boundaries between each flow condition are not exact, we do make an approximation as to what the flow condition is using a non-dimensional parameter called the Reynold s Number Reynold s Number The Reynold s number (Re) for a flow is a dimensionless number that is the ratio of the Inertial forces to the Viscous forces Inertial Forces vavg D ρ vavg D Re Viscous Forces ν µ 12 6

7 Reynold s Number The symbol ν is the kinematic viscosity and that is the ratio of the mass density to the dynamic viscosity Re 13 Inertial Forces vavg D ρ vavg D Viscous Forces ν µ Reynold s Number In cases where the inertial forces dominate and the Re is large, particles tend to move in and out of the streamline so the flow regime is turbulent Re 14 Inertial Forces vavg D ρ vavg D Viscous Forces ν µ 7

8 Reynold s Number In cases where the viscous forces dominate and the Re is smaller, particles tend to stay within the streamline so the flow regime is laminar Re 15 Inertial Forces vavg D ρ vavg D Viscous Forces ν µ Reynold s Number The D is the characteristic length It has dimensions of {L} Re 16 Inertial Forces vavg D ρ vavg D Viscous Forces ν µ 8

9 Reynold s Number The Re at which the flow transitions from transitional flow to fully turbulent flow is know as the critical Reynold s number or ReCr For a circular pipe, the number is given as 4000 Re 17 Inertial Forces vavg D ρ vavg D Viscous Forces ν µ Reynold s Number As a general rule of thumb, we define flow regimes as Re < 2100 l Re > 2100 and < 4000 l Re > 4000 l 18 Laminar Transitional Turbulent 9

10 Reynold s Number If we look at a circular pipe carrying a flow of 2 ft3/min (cfm) Re Inertial Forces vavg D ρ vavg D Viscous Forces ν µ 19 Pipe Carrying 2 cfm As the pipe diameter is increased, the Re decreases. At some point, the flow would go from turbulent flow through transitional flow to laminar flow Reynolds Number Pipe Diameter (in) 20 10

11 Pipe Carrying 2 cfm 5000 Turbulent Flow Reynolds Number 4000 Transitional Flow Laminar Flow Pipe Diameter (in) 21 Effective Diameter As noted earlier, all the conveyance systems we encounter do not have circular cross sections. To better model the non-circular cross section conveyance system, we utilize a number of calculated parameters

12 Effective Diameter The effective diameter, Deff is the diameter of a circular cross section that has the same flow area as the noncircular cross section. For example, a square cross section which is 2ft on a side would have an Deff calculated by Area ( 2 ft ) 2 (D ) Area π 2 eff 4 4 ( 2 ft ) 2.26 ft π 2 Deff 23 Hydraulic Diameter The hydraulic diameter is another term used frequently in the analysis of conveyance systems. The hydraulic diameter, Dh, is the ratio of the area of flow divided by the wetted perimeter Dh 24 4A WP 12

13 Hydraulic Diameter For the square conduit considered earlier. Area ( 2 ft ) 2 (D ) Area π 2 eff 4 4 ( 2 ft ) 2.26 ft π 2 Deff 4A 4 ( 2 ft ) Dh 2 ft WP 4 ( 2 ft ) 2 25 Hydraulic Diameter One case that is frequently encountered is the circular cross section. π D2 4A 4 4 Dh D WP πd 26 13

14 Hydraulic Radius And finally, there is the hydraulic radius π D2 A D rh 4 WP π D 4 27 Back to Reynold s Number The D in the Reynold s number expression is actually not the physical diameter of the pipe but an equivalent hydraulic diameter and is usually given with the symbol Dh Re 28 Inertial Forces vavg Dh ρ vavg Dh Viscous Forces ν µ 14

15 Example Problem 29 A rectangular duct has inside dimensions of 12 by 18 in. What is the hydraulic diameter of the duct? If 3 ft3/ min of air at 71 F flows through the duct, determine the Reynolds number. Example Problem A rectangular duct has inside dimensions of 12 by 18 in. What is the hydraulic diameter of the duct? If 3 ft3/min of air at 71 F flows through the duct, determine the Reynolds number. On the original on the board in class the conversion units from lbf were incorrect. The correct conversion is 1 lbf 1 slug * 1 ft/ sec2 not 1 slug / (1 ft *sec2) 30 15

16 Flow Profiles 31 If you look at flow moving through a pipe and plot the velocities of the streamlines you would have a distribution of velocities approximating Flow Profiles The velocity is not the same across the cross section of the pipe The flow velocity at the wall of the pipe will be equal to 0 The velocity at any distance from the centerline of the flow can be approximated by an empirical equation

17 Flow Profile and Flow Regime 33 Flow Characteristics 34 To determine a true velocity in the pipe, we could integrate the flow profile across the pipe but rather than do that, we take the average velocity across the profile and use that in our calculation 17

18 Flow Characteristics While we typically model pipe flow considering that the velocity profile is completely developed, when there is a disruption in the flow, it takes some time (distance downstream) for the profile to become stable. This time (distance) is based on the flow regime in the conveyance. 35 Development of flow profiles 36 When a flow moves from one cross sectional area to another, there is a transition until a consistent velocity profile (along the flow direction) is developed 18

19 Development of flow profiles 37 In this case, we have a fluid entering a pipe from a region with a much larger diameter Development of flow profiles 38 The flow in the first profile has an almost constant distribution across the section but as the flow travels along the pipe, the velocity distributes until it assumes the recognized parabolic distribution 19

20 Development of flow profiles 39 The recognition that the profile does not develop instantly is important when designing measurements in stream channels and other flow systems Development of flow profiles 40 If you base you analysis on an assumption of the parabolic fully developed velocity profile, taking velocity measurements in the flow in the entrance regions can significantly skew your results 20

21 Development of flow profiles 41 There are expressions for estimating the length of the entrance region based on what the flow regime will be when the flow is fully developed Development of flow profiles 42 In laminar flow, because of the limited mixing radially to the streamline, it takes longer for the velocity profile to fully develop 21

22 Development of flow profiles An estimation of the distance is given by Lh,laminar 0.06 ( Re) ( Dh ) 43 Development of flow profiles Notice that this is a linear function of Re so as the transition zone is approached, the distance will become significantly longer Lh,laminar 0.06 ( Re) ( Dh ) 44 22

23 Development of flow profiles At the approximate boundary of Re2100, the length to develop would be 126 times the pipe hydraulic diameter Lh,laminar 0.06 ( Re) ( Dh ) 45 Development of flow profiles Due to the mixing effects during turbulent flow, the time and therefore the distance it takes to develop the flow profile is less Lh,turbulent 4.4 ( Re) ( Dh )

24 Number of Pipe Diameters Laminar Flow Turbulent Flow Reynold's Number 47 Example Problem 48 A concentric circular annulus conveys benzene at 0.2 m3/s. The annulus is made up of two tubes. The inside diameter of the outer tube is 20 cm and the outside diameter of the inner tube is 10 cm. Determine the hydraulic diameter and the Reynolds number. 24

25 Homework 17-1 Propylene glycol flows from a tank into a 2nominal, schedule 80 pipe. Measurements indicate that the flow becomes fully developed 25 diameters downstream. Determine the volume flow rate through the pipe in cubic meters per second (a) if laminar conditions exist and (b) if turbulent conditions exist. 49 Homework A rectangular duct is 1 in. tall and is to be constructed so that its effective diameter equals its hydraulic diameter. What is the required width of the duct (or can t this be done)? 25

26 Homework An annular duct is formed by an outer tube with an inside diameter of 10 cm and an inner tube with an outside diameter of 5 cm. Calculate (a) effective diameter, (b) hydraulic diameter, and (c) hydraulic radius. 26

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