# It s in the Cards. Introduction to the Periodic Table

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1 Middle Grades Science It s in the Cards Introduction to the Periodic Table MATERIALS AND RESOURCES EACH GROUP cards, colored pattern ABOUT THIS LESSON In this lesson, students will be given a set of cards that contain certain patterns. Students will attempt to put the cards into some logical order. They will be asked to explain their reasoning to their classmates and to construct four rules that govern the arrangement of the cards. Working in small groups, the students are then asked to predict the two missing cards. OBJECTIVES T E A C H E R P A G E S Students will: Arrange the cards in an order that is logical and systematic Formulate four rules that govern the arrangement of the cards Predict the missing two cards LEVEL Middle Grades: Chemistry i

5 Middle Grades Science It's in the Cards DATA AND OBSERVATIONS 6 CARDS: Observations will vary. 18 CARDS: Observations will vary. 12 CARDS: Observations will vary. A N S W E R K E Y Figure A. Periodic cards key v

7 Middle Grades Science It's in the Cards CONCLUSION QUESTIONS Answers given are based upon students arranging the cards in four columns and five rows. The columns colors are consistent. Students can arrange the cards in five columns and four rows and still reveal all of the patterns. Essentially, this would be like creating a periodic table that has been rotated on its side. 1. List one pattern of the cards in the final arrangement that shows a repeating or periodic pattern for each column. The colors are the same. The level of the sphere remains constant. The box size increases. The number decreases. 2. List one pattern of the cards in the final arrangement that shows a repeating or periodic pattern for each row. The quadrant in the center box stays in the same position. The sphere fills up from left to right. The box size decreases. 3. Elements in each column of the periodic table are known as a group or family and rows are called periods. Would these names also be appropriate for your arrangement of cards? Explain. Yes, these names are appropriate. It is appropriate because they share similarities like families do whereas the periods show repeating patterns or trends. 4. The atomic radius of an element is approximately the distance between the nucleus of the atom and the outermost electron cloud. If a square on the card represents the atomic radius, then describe what happens to the atomic radius when you move from left to right along the rows and down the columns. The atomic radius decreases as you move from left to right and increases as you go from top to bottom. 5. Place your finger on the thumbnail sketch at the bottom of each card and write down the numbers that you see. Do the numbers increase or decrease as you move left to right along the rows? Do the numbers increase or decrease as you move down the columns? The numbers increase as you move from left to right and increase as you move down the columns. A N S W E R K E Y vii

8 It s in the Cards Middle Grades Science Middle It s Grades in the Science Cards Introduction to the Periodic Table MATERIALS cards, colored pattern Have you ever tried to find a specific song on itunes and you cannot remember the exact title? The songs are arranged, or classified, according to the following scheme: new releases, top ten releases, and genre (rap, country, jazz, rock, or classical). All the songs in a particular section have something in common and are arranged by some pattern, whether it is alphabetically by song title, or by artist, or numerically by trending statistics. When you go to a different section, the alphabetical arrangement is repeated along with the trending statistics. In this activity, you will arrange a set of 18 out of 20 cards in rows and columns that will display certain patterns and trends, and then predict the missing two cards. You will organize the cards in a manner that simulates the chemical solitaire that led Mendeleev to devise his Periodic Table of the Elements, which is the basis of the periodic table we use today. Periodic refers to the repeating pattern of certain properties of the elements when properly arranged. For each element Mendeleev wrote the symbol, the atomic weight, and its chemical properties on a card. Mendeleev found he could arrange the then-known elements in a table based upon increasing atomic weights and similar chemical properties. As arranged, the cards made sense whether reading across the rows or down the columns. This organization of the elements into a logical table is one of the great achievements in the history of science. However, the genius of Mendeleev was that he recognized that just as in the card game Solitaire where some of the cards are hidden, so too some of the elements were hidden or undiscovered. Mendeleev left spaces for elements that he predicted should exist but had not yet been discovered. PURPOSE In this activity, you will be provided 18 cards to arrange into rows and columns. You will formulate four rules, and then apply those rules to predict two missing cards. 1

10 Middle Grades Science It s in the Cards DATA AND OBSERVATIONS 6 CARDS: 12 CARDS: 18 CARDS: 3

11 Middle Grades Science It s in the Cards ANALYSIS 1. How are the first 6 cards similar? How are the cards different? 2. Do the additional 6 cards fit into your original arrangement? What patterns did you use to arrange the 12 cards? 3. Describe the classification of your final arrangement for the 18 cards in the following manner. a. How are the cards arranged in each row? b. What patterns do the cards in a column have in common? c. What exceptions to the pattern, if any, are found in your arrangement? d. List four rules that you used for the classification of your final arrangement. 4

12 Middle Grades Science It s in the Cards ANALYSIS (CONTINUED) 4. Predict the patterns (shapes, number, color, and so on) of the missing cards. Sketch your prediction for the two missing cards in the spaces provided. 5

13 Middle Grades Science It s in the Cards CONCLUSION QUESTIONS 1. List one pattern of the cards in the final arrangement that shows a repeating or periodic pattern for each column. 2. List one pattern of the cards in the final arrangement that shows a repeating or periodic pattern for each row. 3. Elements in each column of the periodic table are known as a group or family and rows are called periods. Would these names also be appropriate for your arrangement of cards? Explain. 6

14 Middle Grades Science It s in the Cards CONCLUSION QUESTIONS (CONTINUED) 4. The atomic radius of an element is approximately the distance between the nucleus of the atom and the outermost electron cloud. If a square on the card represents the atomic radius, then describe what happens to the atomic radius when you move from left to right along the rows and down the columns. 5. Place your finger on the thumbnail sketch at the bottom of each card and write down the numbers that you see. Do the numbers increase or decrease as you move left to right along the rows? Do the numbers increase or decrease as you move down the columns? 7

15 Middle Grades Science It's in the Cards ITEM 1 BLUE PERIODIC CARDS L E S S O N C O N S U M A B L E 8

16 Middle Grades Science It's in the Cards ITEM 2 GREEN PERIODIC CARDS L E S S O N C O N S U M A B L E 9

17 Middle Grades Science It's in the Cards ITEM 3 RED PERIODIC CARDS L E S S O N C O N S U M A B L E 10

18 Middle Grades Science It's in the Cards ITEM 4 YELLOW PERIODIC CARDS L E S S O N C O N S U M A B L E 11

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