Answer the following questions on notebook paper, to be collected and graded for correctness.

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1 nswer the following questions on notebook paper, to be collected and graded for correctness. 1. Name the following binary acids: a. HCl hydrochloric acid b. HF hydrofluoric acid c. H 2 S hydrosulfuric acid d. HCN hydrocyanic acid 2. Name the following oxyacids: a. H 2 sulfuric acid b. H 3 PO 4 phosphoric acid c. HC 2 H 3 O 2 acetic acid d. HNO 3 nitric acid e. H 2 SO 3 sulfurous acid f. HNO 2 nitrous acid g. HClO 4 perchloric acid h. HClO hypochlorous acid 3. Write formulas for the following acids: a. Perbromic acid HrO 4 b. Chlorous acid HClO 2 c. Phosphoric acid H 3 PO 4 d. Hypochlorous acid HClO 4. What is the difference between monoprotic, diprotic, and triprotic acids and give 2 examples of each. Monoprotic acids are acids with 1 H +1 or 1 H 3 O +1 ion/molecule. (HCl, HF) Diprotic acids are acids with 2 H +1 or 2 H 3 O +1 ions/molecule. (H 2, H 2 S, H 2 CO 3 ) Triprotic acids are acids with 3 H +1 or 3 H 3 O +1 ions/molecule. (H 3 PO 4, H 3 so 4 ) 5. Write the equation showing the 2-step ionization of sulfuric acid in dilute aqueous solution. Step 1) H 2 + H 2 O H 3 O +1 + Step 2) + H 2 O H 3 O +1 +

2 Net eq) H H 2 O 2 H 3 O Explain why HCl(aq) which is monoprotic is a stronger acid than H 3 PO 4 (aq), which is triprotic. HCl (aq) ionizes nearly 100% while H 3 PO 4 has a low % ionization, meaning that there are more hydronium ions in solution with the solution of HCl than with the phosphoric acid solution. 7. Write the formula equation, total ionic equation, and net ionic equation for the reaction between Ca(OH) 2(s) and HCl (aq). Ca(OH) 2(s) + 2 HCl (aq) CaCl 2(aq) + 2 H 2 O ( ) Ca (aq) + 2 (OH) (aq) + 2 H +1 (aq) + 2 Cl (aq) Ca +2 (aq) + 2 Cl (aq) + 2 H 2 O ( ) H +1 (aq) + (OH) (aq) H 2 O ( ) 8. Name the following bases: a. NaOH Sodium hydroxide b. Ca(OH) 2 Calcium hydroxide c. Li(OH) Lithium hydroxide d. l(oh) 3 luminum hydroxide e. Mg(OH) 2 Magnesium hydroxide 9. Explain why Mg(OH) 2 is weaker that NaOH, even though it contains more hydroxide ions per molecule. Saturated solutions of both of the above solutions will end up with more moles of hydroxide ions produced by the dissociation of sodium hydroxide as it is more soluble in water than magnesium hydroxide. In order to be an aqueous base, there must be hydroxide ions present and the hydroxide ions are not present in their ionic state unless they are DISSOLVED in water. 10. Dilute HCl (aq) and KOH (aq) are mixed in chemically equivalent quantities. Write the following: a. Formula equation for the reaction: HCl (aq) + KOH (aq) H 2 O ( ) + KCl (aq) b. overall ionic equation: H +1 (aq) + Cl (aq) + K +1 (aq) + (OH) (aq) H 2 O ( ) + K +1 (aq) + Cl (aq) c. net ionic equation:

3 H +1 (aq) + (OH) (aq) H 2 O ( ) 11. What is a conjugate base? The species that remains after a ronsted-lowry acid has given up a proton. 12. What is a conjugate acid? The species that is formed after the ronsted-lowry base gains a proton. 13. Determine the conjugate acid for each: C C H 2 O H 3 O +1 F HF HCO 3 H 2 CO 3 OH H 2 O -3 PO 4 HPO 4 H 2 PO 4 H 3 PO 4 Cl HCl ClO 4 HClO 4 CH 3 COO CH 3 COOH SH H 2 S CN HCN H 2 NH 3 +1 NH Determine the conjugate base for each: C C H 2 O OH HF F HCO 3 CO 3-3 PO 4 OH O HPO 4 H 3 PO 4 H 2 PO 4 HCl Cl HrO 2 ro 2 CH 3 COOH CH 3 COO H 2 S HS HOCN OCN NH 3 NH 2 Use the table below to identify the proton donor (ronsted-lowry acid), identify the proton acceptor (ronsted-lowry base). Use arrows to show the conjugate acid-base pairs and circle the arrow showing the correct direction of the proton transfer reaction. 15. a. CH 3 COOH (aq) + H 2 O ( ) H 3 O +1 (aq) + CH 3 COO (aq) cid ase C C b. HCl (aq) + NH 3(g) +1 NH 4 (aq) + Cl (aq) cid ase C C c. NH 3(g) + H 2 O ( ) NH 2 (aq) + H 3 O +1 (aq) cid ase C C

4 d. HCO 3 (aq) + H 2 O ( ) H 2 CO 3(aq) + OH (aq) ase cid C C 16. What is the term used to refer to any substance that can be an acid or a base? amphoteric What are two examples of such a substance? 1. Water H 2 O 2. mmonia NH Complete the matching section below testing your general knowledge on acids & bases = cid / = cids & ases / / S = cids, ases & Salts = ase / S = cids & Salts S = Salt / S = ases & Salts S Has the Hydroxide ion (OH - ) as its only anion. Ionizes in water to produce hydronium ions. Does not contain a H + or OH - ion. Tastes sour (examples are vinegar and citrus fruits). Can change the color of indicators. S Feels slippery (example being soaps). CaCO 3 is an example (chalk). Dissociates in water to produce hydroxide ions. Has a ph > (greater than) 7. Has a ph < (less than) 7. Is a proton (H+) acceptor. Is a proton (H+) donor. Is an electron pair acceptor. Is an electron pair donor. S Can be corrosive. 18. What is the product of all Neutralization reaction between aqueous acids and bases? Water is always produced in neutralization reactions. 19. What is the product of all acid anhydrides and basic anhydrides? cid anhydrides (nonmetal oxide) produce an acid when re-hydrated. asic anhydrides (metal oxide) produce a base when re-hydrated.

5 20. Show that carbon dioxide is an acid anhydride of carbonic acid. CO 2(g) + H 2 O ( ) H 2 CO 3(aq) 21. Show that magnesium oxide is a basic anhydride of magnesium hydroxide. MgO 2(s) + H 2 O ( ) Mg(OH) 2(s) 22. Complete the following neutralization reactions, making certain the balance the end product. a. 3 HNO 3(aq) + l(oh) 3(s) 3 HOH ( ) + l(no 3 ) 3(aq) b. 2 H 3 PO 4(aq) + 3 Mg(OH) 2(s) 6 HOH ( ) + Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2(s) c. 2 HCl (aq) + Ca(OH) 2(aq) 2 HOH ( ) + CaCl 2(aq)

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