Background. April 13, July 4, Virginia lawyer, governor, and planta=on owner. Married to Martha Jefferson; 6 children (2 survived)

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1 Thomas Jefferson

2 Background April 13, July 4, 1826 Virginia lawyer, governor, and planta=on owner Married to Martha Jefferson; 6 children (2 survived) Main author of the Declara=on of Independence Heavily influenced religious freedom in the U.S.

3 The Third President Jefferson served as Vice President to John Adams despite their difference in poli=cal par=es. In 1800, he ran for President and chose Aaron Burr to run as VP. The Federalists campaign called Republicans godless and Republicans argued that Federalists would bring back monarchy.

4 The Duel When Jefferson and Burr =ed, Alexander Hamilton urged Congress to choose Jefferson, saying that he was by far not so dangerous a man. The Twel\h Amendment changed vo=ng so that electors cast separate ballots for president and vice president. Burr blamed Hamilton for his loss (twice) and challenged him to a duel. Hamilton was shot in the belly and died a few days later.

5 Neutrality In 1803, the peace that Adams had nego=ated with France was broken as France and England went to war. Each country began to a^ack American ships. Remaining neutral became even harder as England began impressing, or kidnapping, American soldiers to serve in the Bri=sh navy. War fever in America mounted again, only this =me it was against Britain.

6 Pirates American ships were also under a^ack by pirates off the coast of North Africa. By the =me Jefferson took office, the U.S. had already paid two million in tribute to the Barbary State. Jefferson hated war, but he hated paying tribute even more. He sent a small fleet of warships to the Mediterranean to protect American shipping. Eventually, American and European forces were able to destroy the pirate bases.

7 Foreign Policy Although Jefferson was able to solve the problem with the pirates, he s=ll had France and Britain to deal with. Between 1803 and 1807, they had seized at least 1,500 American ships. Jefferson decided to impose an embargo- a complete halt in trade with other na=ons. He hoped that the embargo would hurt France and Britain s economy enough that they would agree to leave American ships alone. Unfortunately, that did not happen.

8 Westward Expansion In the early 1800s, United States territory only extended west to the Mississippi River. The land on the other side belonged to Spain and then France. Hoping to ensure trade in the area would not be restricted, Jefferson sent a representa=ve to France, who was informed that the land was for sale. Jefferson hesitated because nothing in the Cons=tu=on authorized him to purchase the land and he had always emphasized strict interpreta=on.

9 The Louisiana Purchase Jefferson s advisors urged him to make the deal to purchase the territory for fi\een million before Napoleon changed his mind. Ul=mately, he decided that the government s treaty- making powers allowed the purchase of the land. Jefferson was hoping this land would expand American trade and provide plenty of cheap and fer=le land for farmers.

10 Lewis and Clark Since very li^le was actually known about the land, Jefferson decided to sponsor an expedi=on to explore the new territory. He chose Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to assemble a crew. The expedi=on le\ in 1804, working their way up the Mississippi to start. It took eighteen months and nearly 4,000 miles before Lewis and Clark reached the Pacific ocean.

11 Sacagawea All along their way, Lewis and Clark encountered Na=ve American groups. One young Shoshone woman named Sacagawea joined their group as a guide. She had been kidnapped as a girl but she spoke Shoshone and served as a translator.

12 End Of An Era I have done for my country, and for all mankind, all that I could do, and I now resign my soul, without fear, to my God, my daughter to my country. I find that the harder I work, the more luck I seem to have. When the government fears the people, there is liberty. When the people fear the government, there is tyranny.

13 Death Of A Legend By June 1826, Jefferson s health had deteriorated so much that he was confined to his bed. He spent his =me there going over his finances and debts. A\er sleeping most of the day on July 3rd, Jefferson awoke and asked his doctor Is it the fourth yet? These were his last words; he passed away during the early hours of the fi\ieth anniversary of the Declara=on of Independence.

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