MANDELIAN GENETICS. Crosses that deviate from Mandelian inherintance

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "MANDELIAN GENETICS. Crosses that deviate from Mandelian inherintance"

Transcription

1 MANDELIAN GENETICS Crosses that deviate from Mandelian inherintance

2 Explain codominant alleles. TO THE STUDENTS Calculate the genotypic and phenotypic ratio (1:2:1). Explain incomplete dominant alleles. Calculate the genotypic and phenotypic ratio (1:2:1). Explain multiple alleles Explain polygenes/polygenic inheritance

3 CODOMINANT ALLELE INCOMPLETE DOMINANT ALLELES MULTIPLE ALLELES POLYGENES/POLYGENIC INHERITANCE LETHAL ALLELES LINKED GENES SEX-LINKED GENES

4 Monohybrid No. Character One Flower colour Genes/ character One Gene for flower colour Alleles/gene Two Dominant: Red (R) Recessive: White (r) Phenotype Two Red (RR, Rr) and White (rr) Genotype Three RR, Rr, rr

5 Dihybrid No. Character Genes/ character Two One/ character Seed colour Seed shape Gene of seed colour Gene for seed shape Alleles/gene Two/gene Seed colour Dominant: Green Recessive: Yellow Seed Shape Dominant: Round Recessive: Wrinkle

6 CODOMINANT ALLELE both alleles of a pair are fully expressed in a heterozygous form It occurs when both of the contributions of both alleles are visible and do not over power each other in the phenotype. Eg :MN blood group MM NN MN

7 Mendel Complete dominance x ---> Codominance x --->

8 CODOMINANT ALLELE The MN blood system is a third (in addition to the ABO and the Rh) system of blood antigens also related to proteins of the red blood cell plasma membrane. Two allele = L M and L N Ability to produce antigen M Ability to produce antigenn L M L M L M L N L N L N have only the M antigen on their red blood cells, and will be type M. Produce both antigen M and N, are type MN have only the N antigen on their red blood cells, and will be type N.

9 Inheritance of MN blood group CODOMINANT ALLELE TRUE BREEDING P : L M L M X L N L N G : L M L M L N L N F1 : L M L N self cross

10 Inheritance of MN blood group CODOMINANT ALLELE F1xF1: L M L N X L M L N G : L M L N L M L N F2 : L M L M L M L N L M L N L N L N 1 2 1

11 CODOMINANT ALLELE x Chestnut Colored Horse Cremello colored horse Palomino colored Horse golden colored coat with a white mane and tail

12 CODOMINANT ALLELE I remember codominance in the form of an example like so: red x white ---> red & white spotted x ---> a cross between organisms with two different phenotypes produces offspring with a third phenotype in which both of the parental traits appear together.

13 A cattle can be red (RR = all red hairs), white (WW = all white hairs), or roan (RW = red & white hairs together). a) Predict the phenotypic ratios of offspring when a homozygous white cow is crossed with a roan bull. b) What should the genotypes & phenotypes for parent if a farmer wanted only cattle with red fur?

14 A cross between a black cat & a tan cat produces a tabby pattern (black & tan fur together). a) What pattern of inheritence does this illustrate? b) What percent of kittens would have tan fur if a tabby cat is crossed with a black cat?

15 INCOMPLETE DOMINANT ALLELE a form of intermediate inheritance in which one allele for a specific trait is not completely dominant over the other allele x ---> Eg : Colour ofantirrhinum (snapdragon) flower

16 Mendel Complete dominance x ---> Incomplete dominance x --->

17 INCOMPLETE DOMINANT ALLELE The effect of heterozygous can be detected in the phenotype 1:2:1 ratio of red:pink:white flowers.

18 INCOMPLETE DOMINANT ALLELE I remember Incomplete Dominance in the form of an example like so: RED Flower x WHITE Flower ---> PINK Flower With incomplete dominance, a cross between organisms with two different phenotypes produces offspring with a third phenotype that is a blending of the parental traits.

19 INCOMPLETE DOMINANT ALLELE A cross between a blue blahblah bird & a white blahblah bird produces offspring that are silver. The color of blahblah birds is determined by just two alleles. a) What are the genotypes of the parent blahblah birds in the original cross? b) What is/are the genotype(s) of the silver offspring? c) What would be the phenotypic ratios of offspring produced by two silver blahblah birds?

20 INCOMPLETE DOMINANT ALLELE The color of fruit for plant "X" is determined by two alleles. When two plants with orange fruits are crossed the following phenotypic ratios are present in the offspring: 25% red fruit, 50% orange fruit, 25% yellow fruit. What are the genotypes of the parent orange-fruited plants?

21 Inheritance Definition Example Phenotype - Genotype Incomplete dominant allele Codominant allele Multiple allele Polygenic inheritance Lethal gene Linked gene Sex-linked gene

22 MULTIPLE ALLELES One gene having more than two alleles. All alleles control the same character Eg: ABO blood type ( I A, I B, I O )

23 Monohybrid No. Character One Flower colour Genes/ character One Gene for flower colour Alleles/gene Two Dominant: Red (R) Recessive: White (r) Phenotype Two Red (RR, Rr) and White (rr) Genotype Three RR, Rr, rr

24 No. Character One Human ABO blood group Genes/ character One Alleles/gene Three Gene for human blood group I A, I B, I O Phenotype Genotype Four Six A, B, O, AB I A I O, I A I A, I O I B, I B I B, I A I B, I O I O

25 MULTIPLE ALLELES

26 MULTIPLE ALLELES TRY THIS P: TYPE A X TYPE AB I A I A I A I B F1: I A I A I A I B I A I B I A I A A AB AB A

27 MULTIPLE ALLELES Brandon is blood Type O. He has an older brother with blood types A and a sister with blood group B. a) What are the genotypes of his parents with respect to this trait? b) If Brandon s sister married with a man with blood group AB, What is the percentage of their child having blood group B?

28 POLYGENES/POLYGENIC INHERITANCE an additive effect of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character. Quantitative Variation e.g: height

29 POLYGENES AABBCC - very dark AaBbCc - intermediate Aabbcc - very light

30 Differences between multiple alleles and polygenes Multiple Alleles Not influence by environmental factors genes that have multiple alleles discontinuous variation Polygene Influence by environmental factors more than one gene continuous variation/ quantitative variation

31 the interaction between two or more genes to control a single phenotype types of combs on chickens Phenotypes Walnut Rose Pea Single Genotypes R_P_ R_pp rrp_ rrpp

32 One gene masks another coat color in mice = 2 genes pigment (C) or no pigment (c) more pigment (black=b) or less (brown=b) cc = albino, no matter B allele 9:3:3:1 becomes 9:3:4 How would you know that difference wasn t random chance? Chi-square test!

33 Epitasis in Labrador retrievers 2 genes: E & B pigment (E) or no pigment (e) how dark pigment will be: black (B) to brown (b)

34 QUESTIONS 1. A dominant allele W confers black fur for mice. A mice that is homozygous recessive (ww) has white fur. David would like to know whether his pet black-furred mice is homozygous dominant (WW) or heterozygous (Ww). How might he determine his pet s genotype?

35 1. Two pairs of genes affect comb type in chickens. When both genes are recessive, a chicken has a single comb. A dominant allele of one gene, P, gives rise to pea comb. Yet a dominant allele of the other (R) gives rise to rose comb. An epistatic interaction occurs when a chicken has at least one of both dominants, P_R_, which gives rise to walnut comb. Predict the phenotypic ratios resulting from a cross between two walnut-combed chickens that are heterozygous for both genes (PpRr).

36 Given information: Single comb = pprr Pea comb = P _ Rose comb = R _ Walnut comb = P_R_

37 P : PpRr X PpRr G : PR Pr pr pr PR Pr pr pr F1 : Punnet square

38 PR Pr pr pr PR PPRR PPRr PpRR PpRr walnut walnut walnut walnut Pr PPRr PPrr PpRr Pprr walnut pea walnut pea pr PpRR PpRr pprr pprr walnut walnut rose rose pr PpRr Pprr pprr pprr walnut pea rose single 9 walnut : 3 pea : 3 rose : 1 single

Lesson #1.7-Incomplete Dominance Codominance Dihybrid Crosses

Lesson #1.7-Incomplete Dominance Codominance Dihybrid Crosses Lesson #1.7-Incomplete Dominance Codominance Dihybrid Crosses Exceptions to Mendel s principles So far, offspring have either the phenotype of one parent or the other. Sometimes, there is no dominant or

More information

6.1: Beyond Mendel s Observations of Inheritance pg. 242

6.1: Beyond Mendel s Observations of Inheritance pg. 242 6.1: Beyond Mendel s Observations of Inheritance pg. 242 Incomplete Dominance Incomplete dominance: is condition in which neither allele for a gene completely conceals the presence of the other; it results

More information

Incomplete Dominance and Codominance

Incomplete Dominance and Codominance Name: Date: Period: Incomplete Dominance and Codominance 1. In Japanese four o'clock plants red (R) color is incompletely dominant over white (r) flowers, and the heterozygous condition (Rr) results in

More information

Definition/Example Signature

Definition/Example Signature Engage: Who Remembers? Instructions: Discuss the following terms with other students. Try to find someone who can explain the term to you or give you an example of the term. Record the definition or example

More information

Extending Mendel s Law. Incomplete dominance / Codominance / Multiple alleles

Extending Mendel s Law. Incomplete dominance / Codominance / Multiple alleles Extending Mendel s Law Incomplete dominance / Codominance / Multiple alleles Incomplete Dominance Pattern of gene expression in which the phenotype of a heterozygous individual is intermediate between

More information

GENETIC CROSSES. Monohybrid Crosses

GENETIC CROSSES. Monohybrid Crosses GENETIC CROSSES Monohybrid Crosses Objectives Explain the difference between genotype and phenotype Explain the difference between homozygous and heterozygous Explain how probability is used to predict

More information

What is Genetics? Genetics is the scientific study of heredity

What is Genetics? Genetics is the scientific study of heredity What is Genetics? Genetics is the scientific study of heredity What is a Trait? A trait is a specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another. Examples: Brown hair, blue eyes, tall, curly

More information

Genetics Exam Review Questions

Genetics Exam Review Questions Name: Date: Genetics Exam Review Questions Multiple Choice: Select the best answer to complete each statement. 1. Mendel crossed pea plants with greens seeds (yy) with plants with yellow seeds (YY). The

More information

Bell Work: Friday, December 14. If red is dominant to white in flowers, how do we get pink ones?

Bell Work: Friday, December 14. If red is dominant to white in flowers, how do we get pink ones? Bell Work: Friday, December 14 If red is dominant to white in flowers, how do we get pink ones? 1 Review We have discussed human traits that have two completely different phenotypes (physical appearances)

More information

Genetics Worksheet. Name

Genetics Worksheet. Name Genetics Worksheet Name Section A: Vocabulary 1. Identify if the alleles are homozygous (Ho) or heterozygous (He). a. DD c. Yy e. Ee b. Tt d. hh f. KK 2. For each genotype below, determine the phenotype.

More information

Opening Activity: Latin Root Word: Review of Old Information:

Opening Activity: Latin Root Word: Review of Old Information: Section: 3.4 Opening Activity: Latin Root Word: Review of Old Information: Name: 1. In seals, the allele for long whiskers (L) is dominant and the allele for short whiskers (l) is recessive. What are the

More information

Genetics Problems Part I: Monohybrid/One-Factor Crosses

Genetics Problems Part I: Monohybrid/One-Factor Crosses Genetics Problems Part I: Monohybrid/One-Factor Crosses 1. In humans, curly hair is dominant over straight hair. A woman who is heterozygous for hair curl marries a man with straight hair and they have

More information

Chapter 11 Genetics. STATE FRAMEWORKS 3. Genetics

Chapter 11 Genetics. STATE FRAMEWORKS 3. Genetics STATE FRAMEWORKS 3. Genetics Chapter 11 Genetics Central Concepts: Genes allow for the storage and transmission of genetic information. They are a set of instructions encoded in the nucleotide sequence

More information

INHERITANCE & VARIATION 22 APRIL 2015 Section A: Summary Content Notes

INHERITANCE & VARIATION 22 APRIL 2015 Section A: Summary Content Notes INHERITANCE & VARIATION 22 APRIL 2015 Section A: Summary Content Notes Monohybrid Crosses Incomplete Dominance and Co-dominance Incomplete dominance: when the dominant gene allele is not able to completely

More information

Not all traits are simply inherited by dominant and recessive alleles (Mendelian Genetics). In some traits, neither allele is dominant or many

Not all traits are simply inherited by dominant and recessive alleles (Mendelian Genetics). In some traits, neither allele is dominant or many Not all traits are simply inherited by dominant and recessive alleles (Mendelian Genetics). In some traits, neither allele is dominant or many alleles control the trait. Below are different ways in which

More information

Genetics Problem Set

Genetics Problem Set AP Biology Name: Genetics Problem Set Independent Assortment Problems 1. One gene has alleles A and a. Another has alleles B and b. For each genotype listed, what type(s) of gametes will be produced? (Assume

More information

Mendel & the Gene Idea, Part II

Mendel & the Gene Idea, Part II Mendel & the Gene Idea, Part II Chapter 4, pp. 262-285 Lecture Outline Laws of probabilities govern Mendelian inheritance Beyond Mendel complex inheritance patterns Incomplete dominance Codominance and

More information

Notes: Types of Inheritance

Notes: Types of Inheritance Notes: Types of Inheritance Think about it You have a purple flower, you know purple is the dominate allele, but you do not know the genotype of the plant. How could you figure out it s genotype? Assume

More information

INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE

INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE DOMINANCE INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE Pattern of gene expression in which the phenotype of a heterozygous individual is intermediate between those of the parents. Cases in which one allele is not completely dominant

More information

11.1 The Work of Gregor Mendel

11.1 The Work of Gregor Mendel 11.1 The Work of Gregor Mendel Lesson Objectives Describe Mendel s studies and conclusions about inheritance. Describe what happens during segregation. Lesson Summary The Experiments of Gregor Mendel The

More information

Multiple Choice Review - Heredity

Multiple Choice Review - Heredity Questions #1-3 refer to the following situation: Multiple Choice Review - Heredity In humans, detached earlobes (D) is dominant to attached earlobes (d). Alison and her father have attached earlobes. Her

More information

Ch.12 Reading and Concept Review Packet /20

Ch.12 Reading and Concept Review Packet /20 Name: Period: Date: Ch.12 Reading and Concept Review Packet /20 Term Chapter 12 Reading and Concept Review: page 308-333. Directions: Link the various terms into coherent sentence or two that connects

More information

Genetic Problems (I) SINGLE GENE INHERITANCE

Genetic Problems (I) SINGLE GENE INHERITANCE Genetic Problems (I) SINGLE GENE INHERITANCE 1. What are the expected phenotypic and genotypic ratios in the F1 generation? a. P= Pure bred black mated with white b. P= Hybrid black mated with white c.

More information

Heredity. Sarah crosses a homozygous white flower and a homozygous purple flower. The cross results in all purple flowers.

Heredity. Sarah crosses a homozygous white flower and a homozygous purple flower. The cross results in all purple flowers. Heredity 1. Sarah is doing an experiment on pea plants. She is studying the color of the pea plants. Sarah has noticed that many pea plants have purple flowers and many have white flowers. Sarah crosses

More information

Genetics Packet ~ Punnett Square Practice KEY

Genetics Packet ~ Punnett Square Practice KEY Basics Name: Date: Block: Genetics Packet ~ Punnett Square Practice KEY 1. The following pairs of letters represent alleles of different genotypes. Indicate which pairs are Heterozygous and which are Homozygous.

More information

Easter School Life Sciences Grade 12. Genetics: Inheritance and Terminology 26 March 2013

Easter School Life Sciences Grade 12. Genetics: Inheritance and Terminology 26 March 2013 Genetics: Inheritance and Terminology 26 March 2013 Key Concepts Genetics is a science and specific terms are used. Make sure that you know and understand the following terms before you continue. Terminology

More information

Biology Chapter 7 Beyond Mendel Notes

Biology Chapter 7 Beyond Mendel Notes Biology Chapter 7 Beyond Mendel Notes Phenotype: Genotype: What is Mendelian inheritance controlled by? Incomplete Dominance:. Example of Incomplete Dominance: Example Number 2 When green betta fish (B

More information

4.6 Dihybrid Crosses. offspring produced from such a cross are heterozygous for both the yellow and round genotypes. YYRR. YR YR yr.

4.6 Dihybrid Crosses. offspring produced from such a cross are heterozygous for both the yellow and round genotypes. YYRR. YR YR yr. (a) Indicate the genotypes and phenotypes of the F generation from the mating of a heterozygous Himalayan rabbit with an albino rabbit. (b) The mating of a full-coloured rabbit with a light-grey rabbit

More information

Text Reference, Campbell v.8, chapter 14 BEYOND MENDEL INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE CODOMINANCE:

Text Reference, Campbell v.8, chapter 14 BEYOND MENDEL INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE CODOMINANCE: AP BIOLOGY Text Reference, Campbell v.8, chapter 14 ACTIVITY 1.21 NAME DATE HOUR BEYOND MENDEL INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE CODOMINANCE: ABO BLOOD GROUPS Blood Type A B AB O Genotype RBC Antigen Plasma Antibodies

More information

2. In humans, brown eye color (B) is dominant over blue eye color (b). What are the phenotypes of the following genotypes? A. BB B. bb C.

2. In humans, brown eye color (B) is dominant over blue eye color (b). What are the phenotypes of the following genotypes? A. BB B. bb C. Name: Period: Genetics Packet The Basics 1. The following pairs of letters represent alleles of different genotypes. Indicate which pairs are Heterozygous and which are Homozygous. Also indicate whether

More information

Name: Period: Genetics Problems

Name: Period: Genetics Problems Name: Period: Genetics Problems Basics 1. The following pairs of letters represent alleles of different genotypes. Indicate which pairs are Heterozygous and which are Homozygous. Also indicate whether

More information

Genetics. The study of heredity. discovered the. Gregor Mendel (1860 s) garden peas.

Genetics. The study of heredity. discovered the. Gregor Mendel (1860 s) garden peas. GENETICS Genetics The study of heredity. Gregor Mendel (1860 s) discovered the fundamental principles of genetics by breeding garden peas. Genetics Alleles 1. Alternative forms of genes. 2. Units that

More information

2. Which hereditary rule explains why a self-fertilizing parent that is heterozygous for the A locus (Aa) can produce offspring that are AA or aa?

2. Which hereditary rule explains why a self-fertilizing parent that is heterozygous for the A locus (Aa) can produce offspring that are AA or aa? Heredity 1. Technology Enhanced Questions are not available in Word format. 2. Which hereditary rule explains why a self-fertilizing parent that is heterozygous for the A locus (Aa) can produce offspring

More information

GENETICS PROBLEMS Genetics Problems Lab 17-1

GENETICS PROBLEMS Genetics Problems Lab 17-1 GENETICS PROBLEMS Introduction: One of the facts of life involves the different types of offspring that can be produced as a result of sexual reproduction. Offspring may have traits of one parent, both

More information

REVIEW OF GENETIC CROSSES

REVIEW OF GENETIC CROSSES REVIEW OF GENETIC CROSSES COMPLETE DOMINANCE - MONOHYBRID / ONE-TRAIT CROSSES 1. In pea plants, round seeds (R) are completely dominant to wrinkled seeds (r). In a genetic cross of two plants that are

More information

3. Mating two organisms produces a 3:1 ratio of the phenotype in progeny. The parental genotypes are

3. Mating two organisms produces a 3:1 ratio of the phenotype in progeny. The parental genotypes are 1. In dihybrid crosses, the ratio 9:3:3:1 indicates A. codominance. B. independent assortment. C. intermediate dominance. D. three alleles for each trait. 2. Mating of two organisms produces a 1:1 ratio

More information

Mendelian Genetics and Inheritance Problems

Mendelian Genetics and Inheritance Problems Biology 211 Mendelian Genetics and Inheritance Problems Mendel discovered and described many of the basic rules of genetics after studying the pattern of how inheritable traits were passed from generation

More information

Dihybrid Cross. Dihybrid Cross. Incomplete Dominance

Dihybrid Cross. Dihybrid Cross. Incomplete Dominance Dihybrid Cross Dihybrid Cross Cross involving two traits Mendel Observed that the genes for the different characters he studied were passed on independently of one another Genes for these characters resided

More information

Complex Inheritance. Mendel observed monogenic traits and no linked genes It s not usually that simple.

Complex Inheritance. Mendel observed monogenic traits and no linked genes It s not usually that simple. Complex Inheritance Mendel observed monogenic traits and no linked genes It s not usually that simple. Other Types of Inheritance Incomplete Dominance The phenotype of the heterozygote is intermediate

More information

3. If a heterozygous fire-breathing dragon is crossed with one that does not breathe fire, how many offspring will be fire breathers?

3. If a heterozygous fire-breathing dragon is crossed with one that does not breathe fire, how many offspring will be fire breathers? Mrs. Davisson Name Chapter 11: Genetics Per. Row Part I. Monohybrid Crosses - Complete Dominance For each of the following genetics problems, follow these steps in reaching a complete answer: Show all

More information

Name: Period: Date: PAP Meiosis, Genetics & Heredity Test Review KEY

Name: Period: Date: PAP Meiosis, Genetics & Heredity Test Review KEY Name: Period: Date: PAP Meiosis, Genetics & Heredity Test Review KEY 1. How are an organism s complex traits determined? DNA contains codes for proteins which are necessary for growth an functioning in

More information

2. For example, tall plant, round seed, violet flower, etc. are dominant characters in a pea plant.

2. For example, tall plant, round seed, violet flower, etc. are dominant characters in a pea plant. Principles of Inheritance and Variation Class 12 Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation Exercise Solutions Exercise : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 93 Q1 : Mention the advantages of

More information

Phenotypes and Genotypes of Single Crosses

Phenotypes and Genotypes of Single Crosses GENETICS PROBLEM PACKET- Gifted NAME PER Phenotypes and Genotypes of Single Crosses Use these characteristics about plants to answer the following questions. Round seed is dominant over wrinkled seed Yellow

More information

Mendelian Genetics Problems

Mendelian Genetics Problems BIO 181 Lab Fall 2015 Name: Mendelian Genetics Problems 1) Do your own work. These problems are similar to what will occur on the second lecture exam, final exam and lab quizzes. Do not share or work with

More information

AP Biology Genetics Problems Practice

AP Biology Genetics Problems Practice AP Biology Genetics Problems Practice Name: Date: Period: Terms and Basics 1. Mendel proposed Three Laws of Genetics. They are: a. Independent Assortment, Relativity, Natural Selection b. Dominance, Allelic

More information

EXTENSIONS OF MENDELIAN INHERITANCE.

EXTENSIONS OF MENDELIAN INHERITANCE. CHAPTER 4: EXTENSIONS OF MENDELIAN INHERITANCE. Many crosses do not yield simple Mendelian ratios. Instead, the ratios are modified. These modifications reflect complexities in gene expression not complexities

More information

MODULE 11: MENDELIAN GENETICS 1

MODULE 11: MENDELIAN GENETICS 1 PEER-LED TEAM LEARNING INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY MODULE 11: MENDELIAN GENETICS 1 JOSEPH G. GRISWOLD, PH.D. (City College of New York, CUNY) I. Introduction In sexually reproducing animals, genetic information

More information

Biology 3 Mendelian Inheritance (CH 7)

Biology 3 Mendelian Inheritance (CH 7) Biology 3 Mendelian Inheritance (CH 7) Dr. Terence Lee Genetics Genetics 1 2.20 DNA holds the genetic information to build an organism. 2.21 RNA is a universal translator, reading DNA and directing protein

More information

Name Date Period. Genetics Review

Name Date Period. Genetics Review Name Date Period Genetics Review MULTIPLE CHOICE: Circle the answer that best completes the sentence. The Austrian monk whose experiments with pea plants were the beginning of our understanding of genetics

More information

BASIC GENETICS VOCABULARY

BASIC GENETICS VOCABULARY Name: Date: Period: Genetics Problem Sets Introduction: How do organisms come to look and act the way they do? How are characteristics passed from generation to generation? Genetics, the study of inheritance,

More information

Name Date Period. Review on Incomplete Dominance/ Codominance and Multiple Alleles

Name Date Period. Review on Incomplete Dominance/ Codominance and Multiple Alleles Pollen Name DatePeriod Review on Incomplete Dominance/ Codominance and Multiple Alleles 1. In snapdragon flowers, the red (C R ) and white (C W ) flower color alleles exhibit incomplete dominance. Flowers

More information

Example: TtRr X TtRr What is the probability of getting a short smooth offspring? Short? Smooth?

Example: TtRr X TtRr What is the probability of getting a short smooth offspring? Short? Smooth? ! Rule of Multiplication (aka Product Rule) how do we determine the chance that two or more independent events will occur together in a specific combination? Example: TtRr X TtRr What is the probability

More information

A trait is a variation of a particular character (e.g. color, height). Traits are passed from parents to offspring through genes.

A trait is a variation of a particular character (e.g. color, height). Traits are passed from parents to offspring through genes. 1 Biology Chapter 10 Study Guide Trait A trait is a variation of a particular character (e.g. color, height). Traits are passed from parents to offspring through genes. Genes Genes are located on chromosomes

More information

Today s Objectives. Probability rules apply to inheritance at more than one locus

Today s Objectives. Probability rules apply to inheritance at more than one locus Figure 14.8 Segregation of alleles and fertilization as chance events Today s Objectives Use rules of probability to solve genetics problems Define dominance, incomplete dominance, and co-dominance Extend

More information

Genetics Practice. 1. The diagram below shows the chromosomes from a cell after they were photographed under a microscope.

Genetics Practice. 1. The diagram below shows the chromosomes from a cell after they were photographed under a microscope. Name: Date: 1. The diagram below shows the chromosomes from a cell after they were photographed under a microscope. Which of the following questions may best be answered by studying an organism s chromosomes?.

More information

LAB 9: Genetics Take-Home Lab

LAB 9: Genetics Take-Home Lab LAB 9: Genetics Take-Home Lab The science of genetics touches every aspect of our lives. Agriculture, industry, medicine, criminology, conservation, materials science and many other fields employ the concepts

More information

Problems 1-6: In tomato fruit, red flesh color is dominant over yellow flesh color, Use R for the Red allele and r for the yellow allele.

Problems 1-6: In tomato fruit, red flesh color is dominant over yellow flesh color, Use R for the Red allele and r for the yellow allele. Genetics Problems Name ANSWER KEY Problems 1-6: In tomato fruit, red flesh color is dominant over yellow flesh color, Use R for the Red allele and r for the yellow allele. 1. What would be the genotype

More information

Genetics: The Science of Heredity

Genetics: The Science of Heredity Chapter 3 Genetics: The Science of Heredity Objectives Describe the results of Mendel's Experiment. Identify the role of alleles in controlling the inheritance of traits. Page 70 This Baby Koala What is

More information

Bb Tt Ll Aa Hh Ee. 6. Use the code to DRAW (build) A PICTURE OF WHAT THIS SNOWBABY WILL LOOK LIKE.

Bb Tt Ll Aa Hh Ee. 6. Use the code to DRAW (build) A PICTURE OF WHAT THIS SNOWBABY WILL LOOK LIKE. Snowman (Snowpeople) GENETICS NAME The GENOTYPE for your parent Snowperson is: Bb Tt Ll Aa Hh Ee 1. This parent is for all of its alleles. homozygous heterozygous 2. What is its PHENOTYPE? 3. Draw (build)

More information

CHAPTER 13 Beyond Mendel

CHAPTER 13 Beyond Mendel CHAPTER 13 Beyond Mendel In the 20th century, geneticists have extended Mendelian principles not only to diverse organisms, but also to patterns of inheritance more complex than Mendel described. In fact,

More information

Single-Gene Inheritance (Learning Objectives) Review the presence of homologous chromosomes in diploid organisms that reproduce sexually, the

Single-Gene Inheritance (Learning Objectives) Review the presence of homologous chromosomes in diploid organisms that reproduce sexually, the Single-Gene Inheritance (Learning Objectives) Review the presence of homologous chromosomes in diploid organisms that reproduce sexually, the definitions of karyotype, autosomes and sex chromosomes. Recognize

More information

Monday, December 17. Bell Work:

Monday, December 17. Bell Work: Bell Work: Monday, December 17 What would be the genotypic and phenotypic ratio of a cross between a Green Betta Fish and a Royal Blue betta fish? Use your packet to find genotypes. 1 This was only the

More information

TEST NAME: Genetics unit test TEST ID: GRADE:07 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: School Assessment

TEST NAME: Genetics unit test TEST ID: GRADE:07 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: School Assessment TEST NAME: Genetics unit test TEST ID: 437885 GRADE:07 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: School Assessment Genetics unit test Page 1 of 12 Student: Class: Date: 1. There are four blood

More information

Genetics. The connection between Gene expression and Genetics. Genotype is the genetic make up of an organism (gene), which codes for a protein.

Genetics. The connection between Gene expression and Genetics. Genotype is the genetic make up of an organism (gene), which codes for a protein. Genetics The connection between Gene expression and Genetics Genotype is the genetic make up of an organism (gene), which codes for a protein. The protein has a specific function which produces a trait.

More information

GENERAL BIOLOGY LAB 1 (BSC1010L) Lab #8: Mendelian Genetics

GENERAL BIOLOGY LAB 1 (BSC1010L) Lab #8: Mendelian Genetics GENERAL BIOLOGY LAB 1 (BSC1010L) Lab #8: Mendelian Genetics OBJECTIVES: Understand Mendel s laws of segregation and independent assortment. Differentiate between an organism s genotype and phenotype. Recognize

More information

Chapter 2: Traits and How They Change

Chapter 2: Traits and How They Change Table of Contents Chapter 2: Traits and How They Change Section 2: Genetics Heredity x Genetics Mendel s experiments Punnett Square REVIEW: Genes are sections of DNA Genes have different Alleles A gene

More information

Assessment Schedule 2013 Biology: Demonstrate understanding of genetic variation and change (91157)

Assessment Schedule 2013 Biology: Demonstrate understanding of genetic variation and change (91157) NCEA Level 2 Biology (91157) 2013 page 1 of 5 Assessment Schedule 2013 Biology: Demonstrate understanding of genetic variation and change (91157) Assessment Criteria with with Excellence Demonstrate understanding

More information

Name: 4. A typical phenotypic ratio for a dihybrid cross is a) 9:1 b) 3:4 c) 9:3:3:1 d) 1:2:1:2:1 e) 6:3:3:6

Name: 4. A typical phenotypic ratio for a dihybrid cross is a) 9:1 b) 3:4 c) 9:3:3:1 d) 1:2:1:2:1 e) 6:3:3:6 Name: Multiple-choice section Choose the answer which best completes each of the following statements or answers the following questions and so make your tutor happy! 1. Which of the following conclusions

More information

CHAPTER : Beyond Mendelian Genetics

CHAPTER : Beyond Mendelian Genetics CHAPTER 12.2 12.6: Beyond Mendelian Genetics Incomplete Dominance 1. In radishes, the gene that controls color exhibits incomplete dominance. Pure-breeding red radishes crossed with pure-breeding white

More information

A. Multiple alleles B. Polygenic traits C. Incomplete dominance D. Autosomal inheritance

A. Multiple alleles B. Polygenic traits C. Incomplete dominance D. Autosomal inheritance 1. When neither allele is dominant, so that a heterzygote has a phenotype that is a blending of each of the homozygous phenotypes (such as one red color allele and one white color allele producing pink

More information

Answers to Mendelian genetics questions BI164 Spring, 2007

Answers to Mendelian genetics questions BI164 Spring, 2007 Answers to Mendelian genetics questions BI164 Spring, 2007 1. The father has normal vision and must therefore be hemizygous for the normal vision allele. The mother must be a carrier and hence the source

More information

Heredity - Patterns of Inheritance

Heredity - Patterns of Inheritance Heredity - Patterns of Inheritance Genes and Alleles A. Genes 1. A sequence of nucleotides that codes for a special functional product a. Transfer RNA b. Enzyme c. Structural protein d. Pigments 2. Genes

More information

Genetics. PART I: Mitosis & Meiosis prerequisites for inheritance. A. Mitosis. Review: A closer look inside of the nucleus: DNA: chromatin:

Genetics. PART I: Mitosis & Meiosis prerequisites for inheritance. A. Mitosis. Review: A closer look inside of the nucleus: DNA: chromatin: Genetics PART I: Mitosis & Meiosis prerequisites for inheritance A. Mitosis Review: A closer look inside of the nucleus: DNA: chromatin: chromosome: parts: chromatid: centromere: telomere: 1 Mitosis &

More information

CCR Biology - Chapter 7 Practice Test - Summer 2012

CCR Biology - Chapter 7 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Name: Class: Date: CCR Biology - Chapter 7 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A person who has a disorder caused

More information

Mendelian Genetics. I. Background

Mendelian Genetics. I. Background Mendelian Genetics Objectives 1. To understand the Principles of Segregation and Independent Assortment. 2. To understand how Mendel s principles can explain transmission of characters from one generation

More information

Multiple Choice Review Mendelian Genetics & Inheritance Patterns

Multiple Choice Review Mendelian Genetics & Inheritance Patterns Multiple Choice Review Mendelian Genetics & 1. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck introduced a theory about inheritance in the early 1800s. Which of the following accurately describes his Theory of Acquired Characteristics?

More information

Question #1. How many different kinds of gametes could the following individuals produce? 1. aabb 2. CCDdee 3. AABbCcDD 4. MmNnOoPpQq 5.

Question #1. How many different kinds of gametes could the following individuals produce? 1. aabb 2. CCDdee 3. AABbCcDD 4. MmNnOoPpQq 5. GENETIC PROBLEMS Question #1 How many different kinds of gametes could the following individuals produce? 1. aabb 2. CCDdee 3. AABbCcDD 4. MmNnOoPpQq 5. UUVVWWXXYYZz Question #1 Remember the formula 2

More information

Genetics: Punnett Squares Practice Packet: Ness PAP Biology

Genetics: Punnett Squares Practice Packet: Ness PAP Biology 100 Points Name: Date: Period: Genetics: Punnett Squares Practice Packet: Ness PAP Biology Most genetic traits have a stronger, dominant allele and a weaker, recessive allele. In an individual with a heterozygous

More information

Science 103: Practice Questions for Exam 3

Science 103: Practice Questions for Exam 3 Science 103: Practice Questions for Exam 3 SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS: 1. An individual lost his father to Huntington s disease. His mother is healthy and in her 60 s. (a) What is the probability that the

More information

Ex) A tall green pea plant (TTGG) is crossed with a short white pea plant (ttgg). TT or Tt = tall tt = short GG or Gg = green gg = white

Ex) A tall green pea plant (TTGG) is crossed with a short white pea plant (ttgg). TT or Tt = tall tt = short GG or Gg = green gg = white Worksheet: Dihybrid Crosses U N I T 3 : G E N E T I C S STEP 1: Determine what kind of problem you are trying to solve. STEP 2: Determine letters you will use to specify traits. STEP 3: Determine parent

More information

BISC403 Genetic and Evolutionary Biology Spring 2011

BISC403 Genetic and Evolutionary Biology Spring 2011 BISC403 Genetic and Evolutionary Biology Spring 2011 February 22, 2011 Summary of requirements for Exam 1 (to be given on March 1) plus first exam from fall of 2010 The primary responsibility is for any

More information

Chapter 9 Patterns of Inheritance

Chapter 9 Patterns of Inheritance Bio 100 Patterns of Inheritance 1 Chapter 9 Patterns of Inheritance Modern genetics began with Gregor Mendel s quantitative experiments with pea plants History of Heredity Blending theory of heredity -

More information

HOW TO SOLVE GENETICS PROBLEMS

HOW TO SOLVE GENETICS PROBLEMS HOW TO SOLVE GENETICS PROBLEMS 1. Read the problem. 2. Determine what traits are dominant and which are recessive. Often you must marshal background knowledge to do this which may not be explicitly mentioned

More information

Directed Reading B. Section: Traits and Inheritance A GREAT IDEA

Directed Reading B. Section: Traits and Inheritance A GREAT IDEA Skills Worksheet Directed Reading B Section: Traits and Inheritance A GREAT IDEA 1. What is the ratio that Mendel found for dominant to recessive traits? a. 1 to 1 c. 3 to 1 b. 2 to 1 d. 4 to 1 2. What

More information

Fundamentals of Genetics. Chapter 9

Fundamentals of Genetics. Chapter 9 Fundamentals of Genetics Chapter 9 Heredity: the transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next. Genes: Provide continuity between generations that is essential for life Control to

More information

PSI Biology Mendelian Genetics & Inheritance Patterns

PSI Biology Mendelian Genetics & Inheritance Patterns Mendelian Genetics & Mendelian Genetics Classwork 1. Sexual reproduction takes a very significant toll on those species that utilize this process. What is the benefit that sexual reproduction offers for

More information

MODULE 12: MENDELIAN GENETICS 2

MODULE 12: MENDELIAN GENETICS 2 PEER-LED TEAM LEARNING INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY MODULE 12: MENDELIAN GENETICS 2 JOSEPH G. GRISWOLD, PH.D.* AND DAVID L. WILSON, PH.D.+ (*City College of New York, CUNY; +Univ. of Miami, FL) I. Introduction

More information

INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS USING TOBACCO (Nicotiana tabacum) SEEDLINGS

INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS USING TOBACCO (Nicotiana tabacum) SEEDLINGS INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS USING TOBACCO (Nicotiana tabacum) SEEDLINGS By Dr. Susan Petro Based on a lab by Dr. Elaine Winshell Nicotiana tabacum Objectives To apply Mendel s Law of Segregation To use Punnett

More information

Copyright 2014 Edmentum - All rights reserved.

Copyright 2014 Edmentum - All rights reserved. Biology Heredity Blizzard Bag 2014-2015 Copyright 2014 Edmentum - All rights reserved. 1. Many serious diseases can be passed from parent to offspring through genes. In which case given below is a recessive

More information

Mendelian and Non-Mendelian Heredity Grade Ten

Mendelian and Non-Mendelian Heredity Grade Ten Ohio Standards Connection: Life Sciences Benchmark C Explain the genetic mechanisms and molecular basis of inheritance. Indicator 6 Explain that a unit of hereditary information is called a gene, and genes

More information

Codominance, Incomplete Dominance, and Multiple Alleles!

Codominance, Incomplete Dominance, and Multiple Alleles! Codominance, Incomplete Dominance, and Multiple Alleles! Name Block Date Let s try our luck at some problems involving codominance and incomplete dominance! Remember that codominance is when we see 2 alleles

More information

Mendelian Genetics. Lab Exercise 13. Contents. Objectives. Introduction

Mendelian Genetics. Lab Exercise 13. Contents. Objectives. Introduction Lab Exercise Mendelian Genetics Contents Objectives 1 Introduction 1 Activity.1 Forming Gametes 2 Activity.2 Monohybrid Cross 3 Activity.3 Dihybrid Cross 4 Activity.4 Gene Linkage 5 Resutls Section 8 Objectives

More information

Solutions to Genetics Problems

Solutions to Genetics Problems Solutions to Genetics Problems This chapter is much more than a solution set for the genetics problems. ere you will find details concerning the assumptions made, the approaches taken, the predictions

More information

SHOULD THIS DOG BE CALLED SPOT?

SHOULD THIS DOG BE CALLED SPOT? SHOULD THIS DOG BE CALLED SPOT? Imagine this microscopic drama. A sperm cell from a male dog fuses with an egg cell from a female dog. Each dog s gamete carries 39 chromosomes. The zygote that results

More information

Mendel s Laws. Patterns of Gene Inheritance. Gregor Mendel. What We Know Now. Gene locus. The Inheritance of a Single Trait.

Mendel s Laws. Patterns of Gene Inheritance. Gregor Mendel. What We Know Now. Gene locus. The Inheritance of a Single Trait. Mendel s Laws Patterns of Gene Inheritance Gregor Mendel - Austrian monk Developed laws of heredity Worked with pea plants Investigated genetics at organism level Gregor Mendel What Mendel Said: 1. Characteristics

More information

Foundations of Genetics. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display

Foundations of Genetics. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display Foundations of Genetics 8.1 Mendel and the Garden Pea The tendency for traits to be passed from parent to offspring is called heredity Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) The first person to systematically study

More information

BIOL101H Sp 12 Dr. Young. Genetics Problems Answer Key. Please do the following problems on separate sheets of paper and attach them to this sheet.

BIOL101H Sp 12 Dr. Young. Genetics Problems Answer Key. Please do the following problems on separate sheets of paper and attach them to this sheet. BIOL101H Sp 12 Dr. Young Name Genetics Problems Answer Key Please do the following problems on separate sheets of paper and attach them to this sheet. 1. If a child has type O (ii) blood and the father

More information

7A The Origin of Modern Genetics

7A The Origin of Modern Genetics Life Science Chapter 7 Genetics of Organisms 7A The Origin of Modern Genetics Genetics the study of inheritance (the study of how traits are inherited through the interactions of alleles) Heredity: the

More information

MENDELIAN GENETICS. genes and their interactions with the environment. Human height and intelligence are among these complex polygenic characters.

MENDELIAN GENETICS. genes and their interactions with the environment. Human height and intelligence are among these complex polygenic characters. Name: Dr. Gonzalez BSC2005 In-Class Worksheet MENDELIAN GENETICS Introduction In sexually reproducing animals, genetic information is passed from the parents to offspring by means of haploid gametes (egg

More information

Dr. Young. Genetics Problems Set #1 Answer Key

Dr. Young. Genetics Problems Set #1 Answer Key BIOL276 Dr. Young Name Due Genetics Problems Set #1 Answer Key For problems in genetics, if no particular order is specified, you can assume that a specific order is not required. 1. What is the probability

More information