NATURAL SELECTION AND GENE FREQUENCY

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1 NATURAL SELECTION AND GENE FREQUENCY BY WOLFGANG RUBI CATALAN, MARNELLE MAC DULA, LIANNE UMALI, ERICA WILEY, & CHRIS YOUNG Student ID # s:

2 WHAT IS THAT? Natural selection is a key mechanism of evolution. It is the process in which individuals with certain heritable traits survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals without those traits. These traits allow them to adapt to various environmental pressures, favoring their survival and passing on of Gene frequency demonstrates the occurrence of an allele compared to other alleles of the same gene in a population. The Hardy-Weinberg Principle states allele frequencies will remain the same through generations in a population: with extremely large in size, that randomly

3 The Natural Selection Experiment Purpose: The natural selection lab aims to simulate the process by which biological traits become more or less prevalent in a population that has a changing environment. The natural selection lab will also attempt to show the relationship between predators and prey. Hypothesis: We predict that the predator will naturally pick out the prey that is most contrasting in color to its The Hardy Weinberg Experiment Purpose: To create a population and demonstrate how consistent Hardy- Weinberg's principle really is. To observe the survival rates in genotypes and phenotypes of a population over a span of 6 generations. Hypothesis: Since there are mutations, certain allele frequencies will decrease dramatically due to the circumstances of the mutation

4 SPECIMENS & The Natural Selection MATERIALS The Hardy Weinberg Experiment Experiment Specimens: 40 small colored paper dots which represent the prey One clawed and double Materials: clawed predators that kill the 1 plastic species. cup for the dead dots 2 distinct fabric mats which represented different environments for your dots Specimens: Red, white, and black beads which represented alleles. Materials: Red beads were used to represent red alleles. Black beads were used to represent black alleles. White beads were used to represent white alleles. 6 cups to place different allele combination in.

5 NATURAL SELECTION METHODS 1. Provided by the instructor, obtain one of the bottles of colored dots and gather 40 paper colored dots of one color per each individual in your group. 2. The instructor will then provide a fabric board that will serve as an environment for your species. 3. Place your colored species around the board in any order. Next, designate a predator for each group and send them to another environment where they will simulate the killing of a species by eating them for an allotted time set by the instructor. 4. After the event has occurred, calculate how

6 NATURAL SELECTION RESULTS

7 NATURAL SELECTION ANALYSIS The different colored dots represented the genetic variation between species. We predicted that those species that stood out from their environment were less likely to survive. Those species that adapted to their environment over time had a better chance at survival. Predators play a role in enforcing evolution and natural selection because they choose which populations survive and which do not. Those species newly introduced thrive because the predators are not yet familiar with them as shown in the previous slide the newly introduced dark green dots thrived more than any of the other populations. When a population is brought into a new environment their survival may be affected. Those that once were able to successfully survive in the old

8 HARDY WEINBERG METHODS Case Gather all materials and count out 50 white beads and 50 red beads. 2. Put the red and white beads into a single cup so that the beads will mix. 3. Have 3 separate cups available for your RR, Rw, and ww bead combinations. 4. Have a member of the group randomly grab two beads at a time and put the appropriate bead combinations into its corresponding cup. 5. Once the team member has randomly picked all the beads, have someone count and record on your excel document how many of each combination was acquired. 6. Depending on which case you re doing have a team member calculate the amount of white beads

9 GENE FREQUENCY RESULTS: Mutation Effects

10 GENE FREQUENCY RESULTS: Population Percent

11 GENE FREQUENCY ANALYSIS Our hypotheses were validated because the mutations affected allele frequencies significantly. The positive mutations led to an increase in population % whereas the negative mutations lead to a decrease in population %. Also, new species emerged with the introduction of the dominant black In this population, the red allele is dominant while the white allele is recessive. The dominant phenotype allele of producing red is selected favored for, represented phenotypes by of the homozygous dominant RR and heterozygous black and dark dominant red. Rw. This favored trait is passed on to more offspring, increasing its allele frequency. In both cases of 67% survival and 0% survival of the white allele, its frequency decreased dramatically over time. However, we see that it is almost impossible to eliminate the recessive alleles because of the heterozygous Rw genotype that codes for the favored phenotype. Unsuccessful genotypes leads to unsuccessful phenotypes resulting in the

12 HOW ARE THEY Natural selection can increase the frequencies of RELATED? alleles if they are advantageous to a species survival and reproductive abilities. If they somehow produce a phenotype that is not a selective advantage, their frequency will decrease. The change in allele frequencies is one way of defining evolution. A population evolves as better alleles increase in frequency in the gene pool. This means that gene frequency and natural selection go hand in hand. They affect one another directly because the frequency of a gene makes it better suited for natural selection, while simultaneously, natural selection chooses which genes are going to

13 Campbell, Neil A., and Jane B. Reece. Campbell Biology. San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings, Print. Darwin, Charles. "On The Origin of Species." The Origin of Species by Charles Photo Credits WORKS CITED Darwin. Usenet Newsgroup, n.d. Web. 17 Feb Darwin s Finches: Colorful Chromosomes: Natural Selection Banner: Hardy Weinberg Penguins: NS Cartoon Fish: Gene Frequency Goats: Natural Selection Birds and Beetles: All other photography were done by SCC Biology 3 Students

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