Obama?s Strategy for Defeating ISIS is the Only Viable Option. It Can Work.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Obama?s Strategy for Defeating ISIS is the Only Viable Option. It Can Work."

Transcription

1 Obama?s Strategy for Defeating ISIS is the Only Viable Option. It Can Work. By Joseph Becker Journal Article Dec :51pm Obama s Strategy for Defeating ISIS is the Only Viable Option. It Can Work. Joseph Becker On September 10, 2014, President Obama gave a public address outlining his strategy for defeating the self-proclaimed Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). To the chagrin of some, he couched his objective to degrade and ultimately destroy ISIL in terms of a protracted conflict characterized by limited U.S. commitment over the course of time.[1] While Obama s chosen path may have disappointed more hawkish critics, his speech reflected a stark political reality. The U.S. is a democracy, and a majority of Americans do not support direct involvement of U.S. ground forces in either Iraq or Syria. Some have argued that the U.S. is entering a fight with one hand tied behind its back. The reality is that, with few exceptions, the U.S. has faced political constraints in every conflict. In the case of ISIL, however, these constraints might prove a blessing in disguise. This paper will argue that the threat posed by ISIL cannot be eradicated in the short term, and the involvement of U.S. ground forces would do little to address the underlying problems that have paved the way for ISIL s advance thus far. Only sustained, long-term pressure combined with proactive regional engagement will adequately protect U.S. national security interests in this region. What would a decisive military victory over ISIL look like, specifically in Iraq? Planners might argue over the finer details, but there are certain objectives that would likely be included in any such list. First and foremost, a victory would have to return the sovereignty and control of all Iraqi territory to the central government in Baghdad. The ultimate plan for political power sharing in Iraq could take any number of shapes, but allowing an unelected group to retain any territory that it has seized by force would set a disastrous precedent. Likewise, these unelected groups should be disarmed. Most importantly, heavy weapons would have to be returned to government control so Baghdad could reassert its monopoly as a government on the legitimate use of force. Also, the international hostages and Iraqi citizens held by ISIL would have to be freed. A decisive military victory over ISIL would need to provide a measure of justice for the crimes committed by this organization on the world stage. It is unlikely that all the leadership of ISIL could be killed or captured in the short-term, but ISIL should not be allowed to retain its current structure of command and control. Key leaders would have to answer for the beheadings of foreign journalists along with their host of other crimes against humanity, and those who escape should be hunted indefinitely as fugitives until they are brought to justice. It would be preferable to try these individuals for their crimes in order to delegitimize their message and avoid producing martyrs. But as with Osama Bin Laden, some might be dangerous or problematic to capture alive.

2 Finally, a decisive military victory over ISIL in Iraq would not be complete if it did not address the status of ISIL in Syria. Even as coalition aircraft have conducted airstrikes in Syrian territory, the U.S. has continued to avoid taking a firm position on the future disposition of this country which has been locked in a state of civil war since The eradication of ISIL in Iraq would not prevent it from continuing its role in the Syrian conflict. However, no victory in Iraq could be considered decisive or complete if ISIL retains the capability to return to Iraqi territory in force and recapture territory in the near future. It would also be difficult to free hostages or seek justice against ISIL leaders if the organization is not significantly degraded on the Syrian side of the border as well. This set of objectives provides a starting point for examining the question of how and when ISIL might ultimately be defeated. While the scope and specifics of the objectives required for a decisive victory are open to debate, this is a reasonable best-case scenario for the goals which military action could achieve in the absence of constraint. It is also important to note that the benefits of such a military victory could prove short-lived if long-term political solutions are not simultaneously realized. It is sometimes easy to forget that the U.S. military achieved a decisive victory over Sadaam Hussein s forces in This considerable achievement was overshadowed by the protracted drama of the costly counterinsurgency campaign of the years that followed. This prompts the next question which must be asked. What would a decisive military victory over ISIL fail to achieve, even given this proposed realization of a best possible outcome? The rapid advancement of ISIL forces in Iraq during 2014 was facilitated largely by a political breakdown in Iraqi governance which would not be rectified by a military campaign. As the Sunni majority in western Iraq lost confidence in, and largely turned against, the central government, they chose another option. In the words of Sheikh Ali Hatem al-suleiman al-dulaimi, head of the largest Sunni tribe in Iraq, We can fight Isis [ISIL] and al-qaeda whenever we want to, but now are fighting for our lands and our tribes. We are not responsible for Isis [ISIL]. Look what has Maliki has done look at the two million refugees. He has destroyed and killed and where was the world then? [2] This region has not historically been prone to Islamic radicalism, but the tribal bases of power have proven quick to act in their own perceived self-interest. After the fall of Sadaam Hussein, they welcomed Al Qaeda fighters to the region in response to the loss of Sunni influence in the Iraqi government. During the period known as the Anbar Awakening from 2006 to 2008, the tribes of Anbar Province then turned against those same foreign fighters because of their arrogance and extremism, and they supported U.S. troops in attacking their former partners.[3] With the withdrawal of U.S. forces in 2011, tensions deepened between the Sunni and Shia in Iraq, and these tensions were greatly exacerbated when an Iraqi military raid killed 44 Sunni protestors in April of 2013.[4] In the ensuing cycle of violence, the same tribal forces that had previously helped to stabilize Iraq turned against the government, not in favor of an Islamist agenda, but in what Christian Science Monitor reporter Scott Peterson described as a revolution against Maliki s rule. [5] While ISIL seems to have co-opted this revolution almost entirely for its own purposes, a military victory over the forces of ISIL which did not address the grievances of the Sunni population would prove hollow and short-lived. In more practical terms, a military defeat of ISIL would fail to eradicate the base of fighters from which it draws. Foreign fighters make up only a portion of the ISIL force, currently estimated at up to thirty percent.[6] The Sunni militias and tribal forces constituting the majority of ISIL s supporters would likely melt back into the population as quickly as they appeared if the fortunes of the organization were reversed. Many of these fighters are disaffected youth with few prospects in peaceful society, especially in the war-torn regions of Iraq and Syria. They have found empowerment and prosperity through their violent pursuits. Providing these individuals with a level of opportunity that would dissuade them from returning to violence might prove costlier than the government in Baghdad can manage. Furthermore,

3 violence breeds violence. In the years since the U.S. invasion in 2003, a generation of Sunni youth has grown up nursing grievances that follow a variety of narratives, but with a common theme of deprivation at the hands of perceived outsiders. ISIS has proven shameless in perpetuating these narratives, even recruiting or coercing school-aged boys to military service and indoctrinating many more.[7] A military defeat of ISIL would also fail to destroy the international appeal of the Islamist ideology which the organization espouses. Ending the self-proclaimed Caliphate of Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi would certainly sever a prominent head from the hydra of militant political Islam, and it might help deny extremists a particular safe haven from which to operate. But just as Osama Bin-Laden s demise failed to defeat the pan-islamist dream, so would this effort likely fall short. Religion can serve as a powerful mobilizing agent for many of the world populations disillusioned by the forces of globalization and Westernization. The defeat of ISIL would only be one step in the larger campaign against the terrorism promoted by Islamic radicals. Perhaps most important in terms of shortcomings, a decisive defeat of ISIL in strictly military terms would fail to address the regional dynamics which have allowed this organization to flourish in its current context. ISIL does not exist in a vacuum. This is not simply an Iraqi or even a Syrian insurgency. The Syrian civil war has played out largely as a proxy conflict among competing power bases in the greater Middle East region, and this contest has spilled over into Iraqi soil. The spider web of competing and converging interests defies borders and makes a mockery of any attempt at oversimplification. In the words of the Saudi Interior Minister, Prince Muhammad Bin Naif, We know that ISIS [ISIL] was not randomly formed but rather sponsored by states and organizations that employ all their resources and ill intentions in backing ISIS [ISIL]. [8] As demonstrated by the cases of Saudi Arabia with Al Qaeda and Pakistan with the Taliban, governments are not monolithic and may choose to fight against a group such as ISIL with one hand while supporting it with the other. Turkey s reluctance to cooperate in efforts against ISIL serves as a stark demonstration of the different calculus employed by regional actors. Turkish buyers have provided a market for oil smuggled out of ISIL-controlled territories.[9] The Turkish government clearly sees Assad as a greater threat than ISIL, and many suspect that its early-october agreement to join the coalition against ISIL largely reflected an ulterior motive of suppressing Kurdish separatism.[10] If regional interests are not adequately addressed, then even erstwhile allies are likely to undermine any military solution in the long run. This could mean preserving and enabling the defeated rump of ISIL in Syria. It could also mean the fostering of new manifestations of this movement which might prove even more destabilizing in the future. The next question that this paper will examine is what it would take to defeat ISIS militarily. There is no doubt that with commitment to a full-scale invasion, the U.S. military could route the forces of ISIS and destroy their conventional fighting forces. The invasion of Iraq in 2003 clearly demonstrated that the U.S. military is capable of seizing and holding this terrain. U.S. military operations in Fallujah in 2004, in addition to the southern cities of Karbala and Najaf, demonstrated that conventional forces could prevail against insurgents in large-scale clear-and-hold operations targeting entire cities. However, as we have already mentioned, this deployment of U.S. ground forces is not an option because the American people as a whole do not see a clear national interest in this sacrifice. Even if it were an option, its success could require an indefinite commitment in order to ensure that these areas do not fall again into unfriendly control. The U.S. military has already been down this road, spending more than eight years at war in Iraq, with most of it in difficult counter-insurgency operations. In spite of staggering costs, the war failed to resolve the issues preventing Iraq from moving forward as a unified nation. What of a more limited role for U.S. ground troops? Perhaps the Iraqi forces who were so easily routed by ISIL in recent months would fare better with several brigades of U.S. forces in support. Unfortunately,

4 history is not kind to this argument. U.S. forces throughout the duration of Operation IRAQI FREEDOM were a lightning rod for galvanizing the opposition of both Shia and Sunni malcontents, along with foreign fighters from around the world. Furthermore, the U.S. was clearly instrumental in establishing the Shia-dominated government, led by Nuri Al-Maliki, whose heavy-handed policies sparked the current uprising. If U.S. ground forces were committed, how many would be enough, and how could they avoid the appearance of bias? If the recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan fail to suffice, the Vietnam conflict provides stark warnings about the dangers of making limited military commitments to a conflict. If the host nation forces do not rise to the challenge, the U.S. is left with three unappealing options: send more troops, fight a losing battle, or cut its losses and pull out. The primary operational approach used by the U.S. military to regain control of areas overtaken by insurgent forces is the shape-clear-hold-build-transition framework. This approach uses U.S. or hostnation ground forces to seize control of specific geographic locations, deny insurgents the ability to operate in these locations, and then build an enduring capacity for local governance and security which allows the military forces to gradually reduce their role over time.[11] Every phase of this approach, with the possible exception of clear, is directly contingent upon establishing legitimacy with the local population. If a force cannot establish legitimacy, then its only means of control is coercion.[12] The U.S. military and its coalition partners utilized this framework with varying degrees of success to guide operations in both Iraq and Afghanistan. However, the legitimacy of these forces in the eyes of the populace was never fully established in either conflict. It remains to be seen how long it will take the government in Baghdad to field an effective fighting force capable of conducting these types of operations. The larger question is how long it will take them to shape the environment by establishing the credible foundations of legitimacy in western Iraq. If there is good news in this story, it is that Baghdad is not the only player which must compete for legitimacy in the context of this struggle. ISIL currently controls western Iraq (along with a large portion of Syria) through a mixture of coercion and cooption, much like Sadaam Hussein in previous years. However, in spite of recent military victories, the instruments of coercion available to ISIS are far more meager than those enjoyed by Sadaam. In the height of his glory, Sadaam boasted one of the largest militaries in the world, along with impressive internal security services. Sadaam also possessed considerably greater resources with which to reward his power base. ISIL is indeed performing some of the functions of legitimate government, but these services pale in comparison to the damage and disruption their forces are causing in the areas they control. The rewards granted to the faithful often come at the expense of their less faithful neighbors.[13] Additionally, in spite of his status as an international pariah, Sadaam Hussein enjoyed a degree of legitimacy that came from being the head of a sovereign state with internationally recognized borders. ISIL is a long way from achieving this status. ISIL has made impressive efforts to establish and bolster its legitimacy in a short time, but it remains to be seen if this will take root. They have begun to provide basic social services on a selective basis to some of the population. They have taken control of education, enforcing decrees about which textbooks can be used in schools.[14] Their use of social media and other propaganda outlets, as demonstrated by their magazine Dabiq, could be described as groundbreaking.[15] The attraction of recruits from Western countries demonstrates the appeal of the group s message, especially among disaffected Muslim youths. Baghdadi s declaration of the Caliphate further bolsters his image and lays the gauntlet for his opponents. However, it is important to note that all of these actions have taken place after the fact. Baghdadi rose to prominence in a moment of opportunity afforded by the obstinance of Maliki s government. Legitimacy and expedience are not the same thing. The tribes of western Iraq have shown themselves quick to change sides when it suited them in the past. Their loyalty to religious ideals has also taken a back seat on more than one occasion. In spite of their gains, it is far too early to declare ISIL the

5 winner in a contest of competing legitimacies. So why might it be a blessing that the U.S. is constrained in its immediate options for dealing with ISIL? First, it will probably take a long time for Baghdad to establish legitimacy with its Sunni constituents, but only the central government of Iraq can do it. Direct interference by the U.S. is likely to undermine the process. If the U.S. were able to jump in and solve this crisis for Baghdad, the Iraqis might also be less inclined to find long-term solutions. Even worse, the presence of U.S. ground forces might once again galvanize Iraqi public opinion against outside crusaders and provide ISIL with fuel for its propaganda machine. However, if the government in Baghdad is unable to ever establish effective legitimacy, does this mean that ISIL wins and that the rest of the world will have to accept them as legitimate? Certainly not. As this paper will discuss shortly, the citizens of western Iraq are likely to find ISIL domination unpalatable in the long run. It is far easier to imitate a state than actually build one. Second, time is not on ISIL s side. ISIL finances its organization primarily through oil smuggling, hostage ransoms and extortion of local business and commerce.[16] As international pressure increases, these sources are likely to get squeezed. Their ability to operate the captured oil wells in the long-term without outside assistance is questionable at best. Their ability to capture more oil wells can easily be limited, particularly by a force with the benefit of air power. Hostage taking is going to become more difficult as foreigners shun this region or take greater security precautions. While smuggling might be a cottage industry in this region of the world, legitimate commerce is going to feel the squeeze from international pressure and rising security concerns. Some would argue that sanctions don t work, and you could even point to Iraq under Saddam Hussein as an example. However, ISIL has practical concerns and requires resources to continue both its consolidation and advance. The impressive windfalls experienced in 2014 are likely to prove short-lived. Third, ISIL occupies terrible real estate. The population centers they control are surrounded primarily by open desert. The lines of communication connecting these centers are vulnerable to monitoring and interdiction from the air. Limitations on water and other natural resources, combined with a lack of industry and infrastructure, make this region dependent upon the outside world. As they expand, they find themselves ringed by nations unfriendly to their vision of the caliphate. Fourth, ISIL has probably reached the limit of its easy gains. In terms of Iraqi territory, they now abut regions populated by the Shia and the Kurds, neither of which are keen to lose any more ground. The Iranians are particularly interested in checking their advance. ISIL is within striking distance of Baghdad, but taking this city would be no easy feat. Defending Baghdad against a conventional assault would play better to the strengths of supporting international forces than would the mission of retaking ground in a counter-insurgency. In Syria, Asad is giving no ground. ISIL has made a priority of battling their rival opposition groups instead of Asad s forces.[17] ISIL s advance has motivated nations previously reluctant to get involved in the Syrian conflict to provide support for their opponents. In terms of weapons and equipment, there are few stockpiles left within easy reach that might be captured. ISIL will be challenged to maintain and operate the equipment that it currently has, and it will find few suppliers of weapons or spare parts outside of illicit channels. Fifth, ISIL has chosen a path of defiance against the global community and has sown the seeds of its own destruction. Were it not for their insistence on publicizing a string of brazen human rights violations and sounding a worldwide call to Jihad, many Western nations, including the U.S., might still consider the rise of ISIL much the way that it has evaluated the Syrian civil war since 2011 like an unfortunate development to be managed from a distance without direct intervention. Now, however, nations previously reluctant to intervene are uniting to take action. Even authoritarian regimes like Russia and China are disturbed by ISIL s separatist agenda and attempts to spread their ideology internationally.

6 Middle Eastern nations have begun to recognize ISIL as an existential threat instead of simply a pawn on their chessboard. It is a remarkable feat when any organization can unite Saudi Arabia and Iran in common cause. In return, ISIL s defiance has won support and admiration from the fringes of modern society. While these disaffected people and groups present a variety of threats in their own context, their ability to provide meaningful aid to ISIL is very limited. Lastly, ISIL has chosen to establish its caliphate in a historically unruly area of the world. As previously mentioned, their control over the cities of Anbar Province depends largely upon the acquiescence of tribal leaders whose constituents have little history of support for radical Islam. During the Anbar Awakening period, the Sunni tribes of this region showed little patience for foreign fighters pushing their own agendas. [18] With no crusader army to rally against, and finding themselves extorted from within and under siege from without, they are likely to seek a better deal. But what of the danger that ISIL poses to the U.S. and its interests? ISIL certainly presents a terrorist threat, but are we actually seeing anything new? ISIL s current situation in Iraq and Syria looks similar in many ways to the symbioses of Al Qaeda and the Taliban in Afghanistan prior to the attacks of 9-11 which spurred the Global War on Terrorism. The U.S. military, in particular, is often criticized for its uncanny ability to focus on the last war at the expense of preparing for the next. In this case, however, ISIL is playing to U.S. strengths gained during previous conflicts. The terrorist threat posed by Islamic radicals is real, and it is dangerous, but the Western world is more prepared than ever to face this scenario. Just like Al Qaeda in Afghanistan or previously in Iraq, ISIL is drawing radicalized Westerners to the jihad. Compared with the past, Western nations have a far greater capability to monitor international travel, especially that of their own citizens. Many of these individuals are doing society a favor by marking themselves to security services around the world. The greatest terrorist threat comes not from the warzone, but from individuals who act alone, out of the watch of security services, motivated by radical ideology. Extremist ideologies of one bent or another have existed throughout human history. ISIL is not the first organization to advocate an extreme form of political Islam. Unfortunately, they will probably not be the last. At the time of this writing, the U.S. and several of its allies have begun a campaign of air strikes against ISIL targets in both Iraq and Syria. There is little illusion that air power alone will destroy ISIL, and there is no clear vision for when ground forces (from any nation) will begin effective counter-insurgency operations to reclaim lost ground in Iraq. However, as this is seen less as an American campaign and more as an international reaction to a common threat, the world may be witnessing a new paradigm for security cooperation. ISIL is already reacting, reducing its signature on roads and in open areas and hunkering down in the populated regions.[19] This will make them difficult to dislodge, but it will also significantly reduce ISIL s capacity to expand in terms of territory or influence. As President Obama conceded in his speech, it will take time for this struggle to play out, and the U.S. must lead the world in maintaining pressure on the forces of ISIL. The Iraqi government will have to use this breathing space to make inroads with the Sunni population that it isolated under Maliki. Ultimately, the residents of the ISILoccupied territories, and their tribal leadership specifically, will have to decide if they enjoy the new life they have chosen for themselves in acquiescing to ISIL domination. The point at which they decide against it will likely mark the end of a caliphate. As for the future governance structure of Iraq, its people will have to find their own way. Henry Kissinger commented in his most recent book, European history has shown that unification has never been achieved by primarily administrative procedures. It has required a unifier [20] This observation could be applied anywhere in the world, especially Iraq. It took the United States a bloody civil war costing over 600,000 lives to unify as a nation, and success was by no means a foregone conclusion. As seen

7 from the results of Operation IRAQI FREEDOM, no amount of U.S. blood or sacrifice has yet proven sufficient to purchase Iraqi cohesion. However, if a U.S.-led coalition can isolate and degrade ISIL, perhaps this will prove to be the defining moment in Iraqi history. Even if the defining moment leads to the partition of Iraq, then U.S. leadership might at least allow the international community to avert the worst possible outcomes of genocide and extremist rule. The U.S. would benefit from a positive outcome. The opinions expressed by this paper are personal to the author and do not imply Department of Defense endorsement. End Notes [1] David Hudson, President Obama: We Will Degrade and Ultimately Destroy ISIS, The White House Blog, September 10, 2014, accessed on October 7, 2014, [2] Richard Spencer and Carol Malouf, We Will Stand By ISIS Until Maliki Steps Down, Says Leader of Iraq s Biggest Tribe, The Telegraph, June 29, 2014, accessed on October 7, 2014, Maliki-steps-down-says-leader-of-Iraqs-biggest-tribe.html. [3] Mark Wilbanks and Efraim Karsh, How the Sons of Iraq Stabilized Iraq, Middle East Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 4, Fall 2010, accessed on October 7, 2014, [4] Suadad Al-Salhy, Iraq Raid on Sunni Protest Sparks Clashes, 44 Killed, Reuters, April 23, 2013, accessed on October 7, 2014, [5] Scott Peterson, Maliki or ISIS? Neither Looks Good to Sunni-Awakening Veterans, Christian Science Monitor, June 18, 2014, accessed on October 7, 2014, Sunni-Awakening-veterans. [6] Jomana Karadsheh, Jim Sciutto and Laura Smith-Spark, How Foreign Fighters are Swelling ISIS Ranks in Startling Numbers, CNN, Updated September 14, 2014, accessed on October 6, 2014, [7] RT, Boys of War: ISIS Recruit, Kidnap Children as Young as 10 yo, RT, July 4, 2014, accessed on October 6, 2014, [8] Tariq Alhomoyad, Opinion: Did U.S. Intelligence truly underestimate ISIS? Asharq Al-Awsat, Oct. 1, 2014, accessed on Oct. 6, 2014, [9] Thomas Seibert, Is NATO Ally Turkey Tacitly Fueling the ISIS War Machine? The Daily Beast, September 8, 2014, accessed on October 6, 2014,

8 [10] Benny Avni, Has Turkey Joined the Anti-ISIS Coalition to Counter the Kurds?, Newsweek, October 5, 2014, accessed on October 6, 2014, [11] Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA), Insurgencies and Countering Insurgencies, Field Manual 3-24, Marine Corps Warfighting Publication , C1 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Army, May 2014), 9-1. [12] HQDA, Insurgencies and Countering Insurgencies, [13] Michael Knights, ISIL 3-24: Do They Do Counter-Insurgency? Foreign Policy, September 30, 2014, accessed on October 7, 2014, [14] Sinan Salahaddin and Vivian Salama, Islamic State Group Issues New Cirriculum in Iraq, Associated Press, September 15, 2014, accessed on October 7, 2014, [15] Aprille Muscara, This is ISIS s Magazine Dabiq and it s Shockingly Legit, Scoop Empire, August 17, 2014, accessed on October 7, 2014, [16] Staff Writer, Oil, Extortion, and Crime: Where ISIS Gets Its Money, NBC News, September 11, 2014, accessed on October 7, 2014, [17] Anne Barnard, Blamed for Rise of ISIS, Syrian Leader is Pushed to Escalate Fight, New York Times, August 22, 2014, accessed on October 7, 2014, [18] Mark Wilbanks and Efraim Karsh, How the Sons of Iraq Stabilized Iraq. [19] Nour Malas, Dion Nissenbaum, and Maria Abi-Habib, U.S.-Led Airstrikes Disrupt Islamic State, But Extremists Hold Territory, Wall Street Journal, October 5, 2014, accessed on October 7, 2014, ?tesla=y. [20] Henry Kissinger, World Order, Penguin Press, New York, 2014, p.94. About the Author

9 Joseph Becker Lieutenant Colonel Joe Becker is an Army Special Forces Officer working in the Strategic Intelligence Career Field. He currently serves as a faculty member and department chair at the National Intelligence University. Available online at : Links: {1} {2} {3} Maliki-steps-down-says-leader-of-Iraqs-biggest-tribe.html {4} {5} {6} Sunni-Awakening-veterans {7} {8} {9} {10} {11} {12} {13} {14} {15} {16} {17} ?tesla=y Copyright 2016, Small Wars Foundation. Select uses allowed by Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 3.0 license per our Terms of Use. Please help us support the Small Wars Community.

U.S. Policy in Afghanistan

U.S. Policy in Afghanistan U.S. Policy in Afghanistan Teaching with the News Online Resource 1 Introduction U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Chad Runge, October 2009. Why are U.S. and NATO forces in Afghanistan?

More information

The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria. Idean Salehyan University of North Texas

The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria. Idean Salehyan University of North Texas The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria Idean Salehyan University of North Texas The Caliphate Successors to the Prophet Mohammad Merging of religious and political authority 632-1924 (1292 years!) Ottoman

More information

The Military Campaign against the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant: Arab Public Opinion

The Military Campaign against the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant: Arab Public Opinion The Military Campaign against the Islamic State in and the Levant: Arab Public Opinion A coalition of 0 countries led by the United States began air strikes against the group known as the Islamic State

More information

Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2016 Montessori Model United Nations Conference.

Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2016 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2016 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. The following pages intend to guide you in the research of the topics that will be debated at MMUN

More information

Option 1: Use the U.S. Military in Syria

Option 1: Use the U.S. Military in Syria 1 Option 1: Use the U.S. Military in Syria The Syrian Civil War has been raging for five years. Nearly four hundred thousand people have died and more than one million have been injured. More than half

More information

Munich A few months ago Tony Blair apologised for the invasion of Iraq in 2003 and said that without that war the Islamic State could not have taken

Munich A few months ago Tony Blair apologised for the invasion of Iraq in 2003 and said that without that war the Islamic State could not have taken Munich A few months ago Tony Blair apologised for the invasion of Iraq in 2003 and said that without that war the Islamic State could not have taken shape. What he did not say is that its genesis started

More information

History Of the Middle East

History Of the Middle East History Of the Middle East Mesopotamia 3500 BC Mesopotamia- Between the rivers Region along the Tigris and Euphrates River where a very successful civilization lived. Center of farming and trade Developed

More information

Assessment of the Terror Threat to Denmark

Assessment of the Terror Threat to Denmark 19 March 2015 Assessment of the Terror Threat to Denmark Summary The terrorist attacks in Copenhagen on 14 and 15 February 2015 confirm that the terror threat to Denmark is significant. There are individuals

More information

Option 1: Use the Might of the U.S. Military to End the Assad Regime

Option 1: Use the Might of the U.S. Military to End the Assad Regime 1 Option 1: Use the Might of the U.S. Military to End the Assad Regime The Syrian dictatorship s use of chemical weapons against its own people was terrible. But we must not let it overshadow the larger

More information

How did European involvement in Southwest Asia impact the region after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire?

How did European involvement in Southwest Asia impact the region after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire? How did European involvement in Southwest Asia impact the region after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire? A. Many Europeans emigrated to Southwest Asia B. Countries in Southwest Asia modeled their governments

More information

working group on foreign policy and grand strategy

working group on foreign policy and grand strategy A GRAND STRATEGY ESSAY Moral Hazard and the Obama Doctrine by James Fearon Working Group on Foreign Policy and Grand Strategy www.hoover.org/taskforces/foreign-policy Although his administration is commonly

More information

The Plight of Christians in the Middle East. Supporting Religious Freedom, Pluralism, and Tolerance During a Time of Turmoil

The Plight of Christians in the Middle East. Supporting Religious Freedom, Pluralism, and Tolerance During a Time of Turmoil AP PHOTO/HUSSEIN MALLA The Plight of Christians in the Middle East Supporting Religious Freedom, Pluralism, and Tolerance During a Time of Turmoil By Brian Katulis, Rudy deleon, and John Craig March 2015

More information

U.S. Involvement In the Iran-Iraq War

U.S. Involvement In the Iran-Iraq War U.S. Involvement In the Iran-Iraq War War Background Hoping to take advantage of the chaos of the Iranian Revolution Iraq invaded Iran in Sept. 1980 under their leader Saddam Hussein Iraq was worried

More information

Iranian Parliament. Topic C: Syrian Conflict Response

Iranian Parliament. Topic C: Syrian Conflict Response Iranian Parliament Topic C: Syrian Conflict Response Chair: Andrew Abtahi Moderator: Siddarth Daftary Vice Chairs: Nida Bajwa and Daniel Toubman Crisis Staffers: Coretta Lemaitre, Thomas Key April 10 13,

More information

The 11 th Crusade For A Fee

The 11 th Crusade For A Fee The 11 th Crusade For A Fee Written by Jacob S. "The most important thing is for us to find Osama bin Laden. It is our number one priority and we will not rest until we find him." --Washington, D.C., Sept.

More information

Haganum Model United Nations Gymnasium Haganum, The Hague Research Reports. Security council. The Question of ISIS

Haganum Model United Nations Gymnasium Haganum, The Hague Research Reports. Security council. The Question of ISIS Haganum Model United Nations Gymnasium Haganum, The Hague Research Reports Security council The Question of ISIS 4 th, 5 th and 6 th of March 2016 Haganum Model United Nations 2016 4th of March 6th of

More information

Syria: Civil-military relations during civil war

Syria: Civil-military relations during civil war Military Studies Magazine Syria: Civil-military relations during civil war by major Lars Cramer-Larsen Royal Danish Defence College & professor Bertel Heurlin University of Copenhagen Photo: Colourbox

More information

TODAY S MIDDLE EAST Pressures & Challenges

TODAY S MIDDLE EAST Pressures & Challenges research services, llc TODAY S MIDDLE EAST Pressures & Challenges Prepared for the Sir Bani Yas Forum November 2014 Zogby Research Services, LLC Dr. James Zogby Elizabeth Zogby Sarah Hope Zogby 2014 Contents

More information

Assessment of the terror threat to Denmark

Assessment of the terror threat to Denmark 28 April 2016 Assessment of the terror threat to Denmark Summary The terror threat to Denmark remains significant. This means that there are individuals with intent and capacity to commit terrorist attacks

More information

member states- Egypt, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Jordan, and Syria. Currently, the

member states- Egypt, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Jordan, and Syria. Currently, the Chair: Neha Rana Introduction to the League of Arab States The League of Arab States is a regional body created in 1945 by the original six member states- Egypt, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Jordan, and

More information

Status of Foreign Fighters under international and national law

Status of Foreign Fighters under international and national law Status of Foreign Fighters under international and national law Foreign fighters and the question of structural shifts caused by current crises Role of the Security Council: Security council resolution

More information

Iraq A Chronology. 1534 1918: Region now known as Iraqi is part of the Ottoman Empire.

Iraq A Chronology. 1534 1918: Region now known as Iraqi is part of the Ottoman Empire. Iraq A Chronology 1534 1918: Region now known as Iraqi is part of the Ottoman Empire. 1920: San Remo Peace Conference of Allied Powers endorses the British and French mandate over the Middle East. 1921:

More information

Ch. 29 Conflict in the Middle East. Section 2, The Arab-Israeli Conflict

Ch. 29 Conflict in the Middle East. Section 2, The Arab-Israeli Conflict Ch. 29 Conflict in the Middle East Section 2, The Arab-Israeli Conflict Learning Target 7: I can identify and explain at least two (2) causes and at least three (3) effects of the Arab-Israeli conflict.

More information

Dr. Terry Simmons on Soft Power, Hard Power and Smart Power. War or Peace: The Obama Doctrine and Soft Power in American Foreign Policy

Dr. Terry Simmons on Soft Power, Hard Power and Smart Power. War or Peace: The Obama Doctrine and Soft Power in American Foreign Policy Dr. Terry Simmons on Soft Power, Hard Power and Smart Power War or Peace: The Obama Doctrine and Soft Power in American Foreign Policy Abstract: Barack Obama was elected President of the United States

More information

Conflicts Middle East

Conflicts Middle East Conflicts Middle East Video Clip-Conflicts- Middle East Persian Gulf War Arab-Israeli War- Israel s War for Independence Sequence of Events Activity First, find a partner Second, empty the contents and

More information

After the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the

After the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the Constitutional Connection To create a context for this lesson, have students complete Constitutional Connection: War and the Constitution. Constitutional Connection Insert text here George W. Bush Overview

More information

Timeline. 570 Muhammad is born in Mecca. 598 Ali is born.

Timeline. 570 Muhammad is born in Mecca. 598 Ali is born. The division of Islam into Sunni and Shia branches began in 656. It originated in a dispute over who should succeed the prophet Muhammad after his death in 633. The standard Arabian practice at the time

More information

History has a habit of getting in the way of president s grand visions and the presidency of Barrack

History has a habit of getting in the way of president s grand visions and the presidency of Barrack Analysis The Right War? Obama s Afghanistan Strategy Michael J. Williams is Lecturer in International Relations at Royal Holloway, University of London and Guest Teacher in International Relations at the

More information

Name. September 11, 2001: A Turning Point

Name. September 11, 2001: A Turning Point Name Directions: For the following questions(s), use this passage adapted from Mark Kishlansky s, Patrick Geary s, and Patricia O Brien s text, Civilization in the West. September 11, 2001: A Turning Point

More information

US intelligence estimates there are around 31,000 ISIS militants, 2/3 of them being foreign fighters.

US intelligence estimates there are around 31,000 ISIS militants, 2/3 of them being foreign fighters. DEFEATING ISIS: MISSION IMPOSSIBLE? Giorgio Spagnol Brussels, May 28 ISIS will be the winner if the civil conflict in Libya continues. And DAESH (Arabic acronym for ISIS) wants the civil war to continue!

More information

Good morning. It is my pleasure to be here today as we begin. this workshop on improving regional responses to transnational

Good morning. It is my pleasure to be here today as we begin. this workshop on improving regional responses to transnational REMARKS BY AMBASSADOR SCOTT DELISI Africa Center for Strategic Studies Sheraton Hotel Rwenzori Ballroom January 28, 2013, 11:30 a.m. [Protocol list of invitees] All protocols observed. Good morning. It

More information

PAMUN XV POLITICAL COMMITTEE QUESTION OF PREVENTING INTERNATIONAL RECRUITMENT FROM TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS

PAMUN XV POLITICAL COMMITTEE QUESTION OF PREVENTING INTERNATIONAL RECRUITMENT FROM TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS PAMUN XV POLITICAL COMMITTEE QUESTION OF PREVENTING INTERNATIONAL RECRUITMENT FROM TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS Introduction of Topic In the years following the events of 9/11, an event widely considered as

More information

Examples of International terrorist attacks since 9/11

Examples of International terrorist attacks since 9/11 PAPER ONE INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM: THE THREAT Any discussion of the Government s strategy to reduce the threat from international terrorism to the UK and its citizens must begin with the nature of the

More information

Radicalisation: A Dilemma of Pakistan

Radicalisation: A Dilemma of Pakistan INSTITUTE OF STRATEGIC STUDIES web: www.issi.org.pk phone: +92-920-4423, 24 fax: +92-920-4658 Issue Brief Radicalisation: A Dilemma of Pakistan Asad Ullah Khan, Research Fellow, ISSI August 19, 2015 ISSI

More information

The Presidency of Barack Obama

The Presidency of Barack Obama The Presidency of Barack Obama There are many pictures and diagrams in this presentation. Yet, you have a set of notes as depicted to the right. Whenever a slide comes up with the title that matches your

More information

Internet warfare and manipulation of facts according to the Islamic State

Internet warfare and manipulation of facts according to the Islamic State Dr Marcin Styszynski Assistant Professor Faculty of Arabic and Islamic Studies Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan Internet warfare and manipulation of facts according to the Islamic State The Islamic

More information

Militant Islamist Radicalisation

Militant Islamist Radicalisation 28 April 2016 Militant Islamist Radicalisation Summary Militant Islamist radicalisation may be described as a dynamic process where an individual converts to a radical interpretation of Islam. CTA notes

More information

FACT SHEET: THE TRANSITION TO IRAQI SELF-GOVERNMENT

FACT SHEET: THE TRANSITION TO IRAQI SELF-GOVERNMENT FACT SHEET: THE TRANSITION TO IRAQI SELF-GOVERNMENT The rise of a free and self-governing Iraq would deny terrorists a base of operation, discredit their narrow ideology, and give momentum to reformers

More information

Action Group for Syria Final Communiqué

Action Group for Syria Final Communiqué Action Group for Syria Final Communiqué 30.06.2012 1. On 30 June 2012, the Secretaries-General of the United Nations and the League of Arab States, the Foreign Ministers of China, France, Russia, United

More information

Geography Religion Population Capital

Geography Religion Population Capital Iraq: An Overview Geography: borders Turkey, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Syria. Population: More than 22 million excluding Kurdish-held northern Iraq. Capital: Baghdad (five million inhabitants).

More information

THE DEMOCRATIZATION PROCESS IN IRAQ

THE DEMOCRATIZATION PROCESS IN IRAQ THE DEMOCRATIZATION PROCESS IN IRAQ Decades of tyranny, wars and oppression have left the Iraqi society divided, lacking initiative and vulnerable to various sensitivities. Describing the challenges faced

More information

The head of Britain's Iraq War inquiry says former Prime Minister Tony Blair overestimated his ability to influence decisions made by the Americans.

The head of Britain's Iraq War inquiry says former Prime Minister Tony Blair overestimated his ability to influence decisions made by the Americans. Former British Prime Minister Tony Blair says he hopes the Chilcot report looking into British involvement in the Iraq War lays to rest allegations that he used lies or deceit as a pretense to invade Iraq.

More information

Committee: Political Chair: Benedetta Landi Issue: The question of recognition of the rights of Kurdish people

Committee: Political Chair: Benedetta Landi Issue: The question of recognition of the rights of Kurdish people Committee: Political Chair: Benedetta Landi Issue: The question of recognition of the rights of Kurdish people Introduction The Kurdish question is based on the ambition to self-determination of the Kurdish

More information

Does NATO s Article V Genuinely Protect Its Members?

Does NATO s Article V Genuinely Protect Its Members? Does NATO s Article V Genuinely Protect Its Members? NATO has been the most successful alliance of history. We repeat this truth quite frequently, especially now that we celebrate 60 years of its successful

More information

In this interview with Rudaw, the leader of the Syrian National Council (SNC) Burhan Ghalioun says all Syrian parties

In this interview with Rudaw, the leader of the Syrian National Council (SNC) Burhan Ghalioun says all Syrian parties In this interview with Rudaw, the leader of the Syrian National Council (SNC) Burhan Ghalioun says all Syrian parties acknowledge that great injustice has been done to Kurds in Syria over the decades,

More information

O.K. PARTY DEBT/SPENDING

O.K. PARTY DEBT/SPENDING DEBT/SPENDING General Overview: The national debt has totaled over 15 trillion dollars and counting. Something needs to be done to put a stop to our nation s outrageous spending. I believe that if we put

More information

Obama Sets Plan for 'Leaner' Military

Obama Sets Plan for 'Leaner' Military VOA Special English (voaspecialenglish.com) is our daily news and information service for English learners. Read the story and then do the activities at the end. Obama Sets Plan for 'Leaner' Military Reuters

More information

The Meaning of Russia s Campaign in Syria

The Meaning of Russia s Campaign in Syria Defense and Intelligence The Meaning of Russia s Campaign in Syria By S.R. Covington Foreword by Kevin Ryan December 2015 Defense and Intelligence The Meaning of Russia s Campaign in Syria By S.R. Covington

More information

Is there a change in the strategic. priorities of the Obama administration?

Is there a change in the strategic. priorities of the Obama administration? Position Paper Is there a change in the strategic priorities of the Obama administration? Al Jazeera Centre for Studies Tel: +974-44663454 jcforstudies@aljazeera.net http://studies.aljazeera.net Al Jazeera

More information

UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL

UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL UNITED HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL The United Nations Human Rights Council was created in March, 2006 and is the successor to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, which was often criticized for the

More information

The Refugee Crisis in Syria

The Refugee Crisis in Syria The Refugee Crisis in Syria Syria has become the most dangerous crisis for global peace and security since the Second World War. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, António Guterres The ongoing

More information

Syria Crisis. Sweden s Regional Strategy for the MFA

Syria Crisis. Sweden s Regional Strategy for the MFA Sweden s Regional Strategy for the Syria Crisis 2016 2020 MINISTRY FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS, SWEDEN UTRIKESDEPARTEMENTET MFA 103 39 Stockholm Telephone: +46 8 405 10 00, Web site: www.ud.se Cover: Editorial

More information

A New Middle East: Thoughts on a Deterrence Regime against a Nuclear Iran

A New Middle East: Thoughts on a Deterrence Regime against a Nuclear Iran A New Middle East: Thoughts on a Deterrence Regime against a Nuclear Iran Avner Golov Israel s primary concern regarding the interim deal signed between the world powers and Iran is that it has damaged

More information

Prospectus THE GULF OF TONKIN INCIDENT AND THE COLD WAR CONSENSUS. Lt.Col. Pat Proctor

Prospectus THE GULF OF TONKIN INCIDENT AND THE COLD WAR CONSENSUS. Lt.Col. Pat Proctor Prospectus THE GULF OF TONKIN INCIDENT AND THE COLD WAR CONSENSUS by Lt.Col. Pat Proctor President Lyndon Johnson used the Gulf of Tonkin incident on 4 August 1964 as justification for a retaliatory airstrike

More information

A SPECIAL REPORT FROM KURDISTAN, IRAQ

A SPECIAL REPORT FROM KURDISTAN, IRAQ A SPECIAL REPORT FROM KURDISTAN, IRAQ By : Alice Hlidkova The Role of Freedom of Expression and Democracy in Kurdistan: can freedom of press exist in a federal region of Iraq? We are inspired by you [President

More information

The White House CVE Summit

The White House CVE Summit The White House CVE Summit February 17-20/2015 Washington DC 1. CVE Roundtable with Vice- President Biden + three American cities (17 th feb.) 2. Meeting with Homeland Security & IA (18 th feb.) Presentation:

More information

Concession: a thing that is granted, especially in response to demands. Shah: a title of the former monarch of Iran.

Concession: a thing that is granted, especially in response to demands. Shah: a title of the former monarch of Iran. The Constitutional Revolution of 1906-1911 Vocabulary Dissatisfaction among Iranians increased with the D Arcy Oil concession. Some Iranian intellectuals, merchants, and clergy formed secret societies

More information

The question whether democracy causes peace has been the focus of much

The question whether democracy causes peace has been the focus of much The question whether democracy causes peace has been the focus of much investigation in recent years. It has been observed that no democratic state has ever gone to war with another, and the expectation

More information

Community Dialogue Participant s Guide. Lessons from Islamic Spain for Today s World

Community Dialogue Participant s Guide. Lessons from Islamic Spain for Today s World Community Dialogue Participant s Guide Many Religions, One Community: Lessons from Islamic Spain for Today s World Many Religions, One Community Guidelines for Interfaith Dialogues Remember the goals of

More information

EXISTING FATF ACTIONS TO COMBAT TERRORIST FINANCING

EXISTING FATF ACTIONS TO COMBAT TERRORIST FINANCING I. INTRODUCTION 1. In 2014, the FATF agreed an overall AML/CFT Strategy, which set out the challenges and the priorities that faced the FATF for period 2014-16, and set out how the FATF planned to achieve

More information

CHAPTER 13: International Law, Norms, and Human Rights

CHAPTER 13: International Law, Norms, and Human Rights CHAPTER 13: International Law, Norms, and Human Rights MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Why did the former Secretary General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, state that the US invasion of Iraq in 2003 was illegal?

More information

While interagency education and training have long been staples of the intelligence and

While interagency education and training have long been staples of the intelligence and Navigating Interagency Education and Training Courses by John Dyson While interagency education and training have long been staples of the intelligence and law enforcement communities, such efforts are

More information

THE WHITE HOUSE Office of the Press Secretary. Annex to U.S. - Gulf Cooperation Council Camp David Joint Statement

THE WHITE HOUSE Office of the Press Secretary. Annex to U.S. - Gulf Cooperation Council Camp David Joint Statement THE WHITE HOUSE Office of the Press Secretary FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE May 14, 2015 Annex to U.S. - Gulf Cooperation Council Camp David Joint Statement President Obama and Heads of Delegations of the Gulf

More information

ABC News Transcripts September 16, 2003 Tuesday SHOW: NIGHTLINE (11:35 PM ET) - ABC NIGHTLINE A CONVERSATION WITH CONDOLEEZZA RICE. LENGTH: 3685 words

ABC News Transcripts September 16, 2003 Tuesday SHOW: NIGHTLINE (11:35 PM ET) - ABC NIGHTLINE A CONVERSATION WITH CONDOLEEZZA RICE. LENGTH: 3685 words INTERNET SOURCE: http://www.lexisnexis.com.ezp1.harvard.edu/us/lnacademic/results/docview/docvie w.do?risb=21_t2215946147&format=gnbfi&sort=boolean&startdocno=1&results UrlKey=29_T2215946150&cisb=22_T2215946149&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&csi=

More information

The Islamic State s European Fighters

The Islamic State s European Fighters The Islamic State s European Fighters Matt Henman Nearly 4,000 foreign fighters from European countries have travelled to Syria during the past two years, joining groups such as the Islamic State, raising

More information

Manifesto for Education Empowering Educators and Schools

Manifesto for Education Empowering Educators and Schools Manifesto for Education Empowering Educators and Schools As the world faces new challenges with the growing threat of violent extremism, schools and educators are confronted with expressions and sentiments

More information

Amerli: Iraqi town besieged by IS starving to death

Amerli: Iraqi town besieged by IS starving to death Amerli: Iraqi town besieged by IS starving to death By Lydia Green BBC Arabic The majority of the residents of Amerli are Shia Turkmen With each new dawn, the people of Amerli wake up to the same nightmare.

More information

A Six-Day War: Its Aftermath in American Public Opinion

A Six-Day War: Its Aftermath in American Public Opinion A Six-Day War: Its Aftermath in American Public Opinion For 40 years, public opinion has consistently favored Israel over the Palestinians by Robert Ruby, Senior Editor, Pew Forum on Religion & Public

More information

Home Security: Russia s Challenges

Home Security: Russia s Challenges Home Security: Russia s Challenges A Russian Perspective Andrei Fedorov * Home security: Russia s challenges Home security and the struggle against terrorism is one of the most crucial issues for the Russian

More information

To Iraq and Back: The Withdrawal of the US Forces

To Iraq and Back: The Withdrawal of the US Forces To Iraq and Back: The Withdrawal of the US Forces Ephraim Kam There will probably be unfinished business for many, many years to come. Gen. Lloyd J. Austin III, Commander, United States Forces Iraq, November

More information

The Progress and Failure of the Women s Liberation Movement in Afghanistan:

The Progress and Failure of the Women s Liberation Movement in Afghanistan: 1 Philip Stubbs The Progress and Failure of the Women s Liberation Movement in Afghanistan: A Global Mission of Challenging and Rethinking Ideas about Freedom, Democracy, and Justice in a Post-9/11 World

More information

Syria: Humanitarian Disaster and Security Threat

Syria: Humanitarian Disaster and Security Threat Page 1 of 5 Syria: Humanitarian Disaster and Security Threat Author: Elliott Abrams, Senior Fellow for Middle Eastern Studies June 13, 2014 The facts about the humanitarian situation in Syria are well-known:

More information

INTERVIEW WITH ANDERS FOGH RASMUSSEN *

INTERVIEW WITH ANDERS FOGH RASMUSSEN * INTERVIEW WITH ANDERS FOGH RASMUSSEN * In this exclusive interview with TPQ, the Honorable Secretary General provides an overview of the major developments of the past two years in Turkey s neighborhood,

More information

The National Military Strategic Plan for the War on Terrorism (NMSP-WOT)

The National Military Strategic Plan for the War on Terrorism (NMSP-WOT) The National Military Strategic Plan for the War on Terrorism (NMSP-WOT) Special Operations/Low Intensity Conflict Conference 13 March 2006 This briefing is UNCLASSIFIED Agenda 21 st Century Security Environment

More information

An analysis of the terrorist attacks in Mumbai. based on publications in Jihadi online forums 1

An analysis of the terrorist attacks in Mumbai. based on publications in Jihadi online forums 1 An analysis of the terrorist attacks in Mumbai based on publications in Jihadi online forums 1 Table of Contents THE SADA AL-JIHAD MAGAZINE...2 THE QADAYA JIHADIYA MAGAZINE...4 AN ANALYSIS OF THE MODUS

More information

Islamic Human Rights Commission

Islamic Human Rights Commission Since the War on Iraq began on 20 March 2003, concerns have been raised with regards to the treatment of Prisoners of War (POW) by both sides to the conflict. --------------------------------------------------

More information

US PRESIDENT GEORGE W BUSH S SPEECH IN ABU DHABI, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES 13 JANUARY 2008 (From the White House website)

US PRESIDENT GEORGE W BUSH S SPEECH IN ABU DHABI, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES 13 JANUARY 2008 (From the White House website) US PRESIDENT GEORGE W BUSH S SPEECH IN ABU DHABI, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES 13 JANUARY 2008 (From the White House website) Doctor Aida, thank you very much for the kind introduction. Ministers, members of the

More information

AFGHAN WOMEN TOWARDS BONN AND BEYOND POSITION PAPER 06 OCTOBER 2011

AFGHAN WOMEN TOWARDS BONN AND BEYOND POSITION PAPER 06 OCTOBER 2011 AFGHAN WOMEN TOWARDS BONN AND BEYOND POSITION PAPER 06 OCTOBER 2011 The best and most under-utilized resource in Afghanistan, a resource that could be instrumental for successful peace, a successful, stable

More information

ISLAMIC REVIVALISM IN CENTRAL ASIA AND THE ISLAMIC MOVEMENT OF UZBEKISTAN

ISLAMIC REVIVALISM IN CENTRAL ASIA AND THE ISLAMIC MOVEMENT OF UZBEKISTAN ISLAMIC REVIVALISM IN CENTRAL ASIA AND THE ISLAMIC MOVEMENT OF UZBEKISTAN By Dr. Lopamudra Bandyopadhyay The Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan

More information

Jürgen Menner is University education in Mathematics

Jürgen Menner is University education in Mathematics 142 Jürgen Menner is University education in Mathematics (MSc) and Electrical Engineering (MSc). Officer of the Army Maintenance Corps. German and Brazilian general staff officer s training. Assistant

More information

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM'S SECURITY CONCEPTS AND PERCEPTIONS

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM'S SECURITY CONCEPTS AND PERCEPTIONS ARF WORKSHOP 21-22 JUNE 2005 ULAANBAATAR, MONGOLIA BRUNEI DARUSSALAM'S SECURITY CONCEPTS AND PERCEPTIONS Overall, Brunei Darussalam security assessment remains peaceful and stable. However, the range of

More information

The Undergraduate Journal of the Social Sciences Interview Series

The Undergraduate Journal of the Social Sciences Interview Series The Undergraduate Journal of the Social Sciences Interview Series Richard Engel Richard Engel recently visited West Point where he took time to share his expertise and insight with the UJSS. Mr. Engel

More information

The Arms Trade Treaty Implications for Countries that are not Major Producers or Exporters

The Arms Trade Treaty Implications for Countries that are not Major Producers or Exporters The Arms Trade Treaty Implications for Countries that are not Major Producers or Exporters Remarks by Angela Kane High Representative for Disarmament Affairs w Presented at The Permanent Mission of Sweden

More information

Chapter 3: Theories of International Relations: Realism and Liberalism

Chapter 3: Theories of International Relations: Realism and Liberalism Chapter 3: Theories of International Relations: Realism and Liberalism MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. According to the author, the state of theory in international politics is characterized by a. Misunderstanding

More information

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE JUST 415 EMERGING ISSUES IN HOMELAND SECURITY

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE JUST 415 EMERGING ISSUES IN HOMELAND SECURITY STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE JUST 415 EMERGING ISSUES IN HOMELAND SECURITY Prepared By: Paul R. Bowdre SCHOOL OF SCIENCE, HEALTH AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE

More information

Submission. New Zealand Catholic Bishops Conference. Caritas Aotearoa New Zealand. Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Select Committee

Submission. New Zealand Catholic Bishops Conference. Caritas Aotearoa New Zealand. Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Select Committee 27 November 2014 Submission of the New Zealand Catholic Bishops Conference and Caritas Aotearoa New Zealand to the Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Select Committee on the Countering Terrorist Fighters

More information

Theme: The Growing Role of Private Security Companies in Protecting the Homeland.

Theme: The Growing Role of Private Security Companies in Protecting the Homeland. Theme: The Growing Role of Private Security Companies in Protecting the Homeland. Background on terrorist organizations: A global threat, every object is a target, infinite number of targets. Terrorist

More information

Palestinian Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI): A Teacher s Guide

Palestinian Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI): A Teacher s Guide Palestinian Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI): A Teacher s Guide By Moshe Abelesz, The Lookstein Center I. Background Information, 1937-1949 In the Middle East there are two peoples struggling

More information

Tuomioja commenced the event by welcoming Mogherini and presenting the theme of the day: Europe and the construction of peace.

Tuomioja commenced the event by welcoming Mogherini and presenting the theme of the day: Europe and the construction of peace. EU as a peacebuilder? 5.3.2015 Eurooppasali, Helsinki Tuomioja commenced the event by welcoming Mogherini and presenting the theme of the day: Europe and the construction of peace. Scepticism about the

More information

The rapid development of China presents challenges and opportunities for America.

The rapid development of China presents challenges and opportunities for America. Lesson Plan China Chad Flaig Purpose: Big Concept: The rapid development of China presents challenges and opportunities for America. Essential Questions What are the economic challenges that China presents

More information

SAUDI FOREIGN POLICY "THE POLICY OF PRINCIPLES"

SAUDI FOREIGN POLICY THE POLICY OF PRINCIPLES SAUDI FOREIGN POLICY "THE POLICY OF PRINCIPLES" The Kingdom s Profile Located in the South West of the Asian Continent, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia stretches more than two million Square Kilometers which

More information

Erbil Declaration. Regional Women s Security Forum on Resolution UNSCR 1325

Erbil Declaration. Regional Women s Security Forum on Resolution UNSCR 1325 Erbil Declaration Regional Women s Security Forum on Resolution UNSCR 1325 The Women s Security Forum on Resolution No 1325 for the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region concluded its work in Erbil

More information

HISTORICAL SECURITY COUNCIL ISSUE : THE USSR INVASION OF AFGHANISTAN LILY BUTLER

HISTORICAL SECURITY COUNCIL ISSUE : THE USSR INVASION OF AFGHANISTAN LILY BUTLER HISTORICAL SECURITY COUNCIL ISSUE : THE USSR INVASION OF AFGHANISTAN LILY BUTLER INTRODUCTION In the Soviet army it takes more courage to retreat than advance. - Joseph Stalin After the Second World War,

More information

Une nouvelle gouvernance mondiale pour le développement durable. The Exhaustion of Sovereignty: International Shaping of Domestic Authority Structures

Une nouvelle gouvernance mondiale pour le développement durable. The Exhaustion of Sovereignty: International Shaping of Domestic Authority Structures Une nouvelle gouvernance mondiale pour le développement durable Taking the Initiative on Global Governance and Sustainable Development Paris, 13-14 avril 2003. The Exhaustion of Sovereignty: International

More information

Policy Instruments & (Side)-Effects

Policy Instruments & (Side)-Effects Policy Instruments & (Side)-Effects EU Parl. LIBE Hearing on the fight against terrorism and the challenges for EU internal security Quirine Eijkman, Centre for Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism Faculty

More information

Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2016 Montessori Model United Nations Conference.

Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2016 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. Dear Delegates, It is a pleasure to welcome you to the 2016 Montessori Model United Nations Conference. The following pages intend to guide you in the research of the topics that will be debated at MMUN

More information

Eighth Session of the UPR Working Group of the. Human Rights Council February 2010

Eighth Session of the UPR Working Group of the. Human Rights Council February 2010 01 September 2009 --------------------------------------------- Islamic Human Rights Commission --------------------------------------------- Iraq Submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review Eighth

More information

The role of religious leaders in maintenance of peace and prevention of conflicts: Address by Mr. Adama Dieng, the United Nations Under-Secretary

The role of religious leaders in maintenance of peace and prevention of conflicts: Address by Mr. Adama Dieng, the United Nations Under-Secretary The role of religious leaders in maintenance of peace and prevention of conflicts: Address by Mr. Adama Dieng, the United Nations Under-Secretary General, and the UN Secretary General Special Adviser on

More information

INFORMATION AND ADVICE ABOUT TRAVELLING TO SYRIA

INFORMATION AND ADVICE ABOUT TRAVELLING TO SYRIA INFORMATION AND ADVICE ABOUT TRAVELLING TO SYRIA The Foreign and Commonwealth Office advises against all travel to Syria You are at risk if you travel to Syria. The whole of Syria is unsafe, and many ordinary

More information

Statement by Sir John Chilcot: 6 July 2016

Statement by Sir John Chilcot: 6 July 2016 Statement by Sir John Chilcot: 6 July 2016 We were appointed to consider the UK s policy on Iraq from 2001 to 2009, and to identify lessons for the future. Our Report will be published on the Inquiry s

More information