The Implementation of Teamwork in Jordan

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1 European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences ISSN Issue 45 (2012) EuroJournals, Inc The Implementation of Teamwork in Jordan Faisal Al-Madi Business Administration Department The Hashemite University, Jordan Abdelghafour Al-Zawahreh Business Administration Department The Hashemite University, Jordan Sukina Al-Sawadha Business Administration Department The Hashemite University, Jordan Abstract The current study focuses on the teamwork, by identifying the extent to which managers are willing to implement teamwork through a number of indicators; also it examines the relationship between the personal and functional characteristic of the managers and their willingness to implement teamwork. A convenient and random sample of 110 Jordanian mangers was chosen for the study. Findings revealed that there is a significant statistical differences between the managers willingness to implement teamwork and age group, number of subordinates, and training on teamwork. The study also found that if adequate training on implementing teamwork increases, the managers willingness to implement teamwork will be enhanced. The study ended by offering a number of recommendations for the filed of study. Keywords: Teamwork implementation, indicators, Jordan. Introduction The terms, teams and teamwork are fast becoming organizational buzzwords for the 1990s. However, unlike other management ideas that have come and gone, there is a good reason to believe that teamwork will be not a brief infatuation but an enduring relationship between employees and their organizations (Booth, 1994). It has been noted that teams are becoming the basic building block of organization (Daft, 1998). Also, team and teamwork have received considerable attention from social and organization psychologists over the last decades (Passos and Caetano, 2005). A team is defined as a small number of people with complementary skills, who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable ( MacNeil, 2004). Hensey (2001) defined the team as a group of people, each with different skills and often with different tasks, who work together toward a common project, service or goal with a meshing of their functions and with mutual support. Teamwork typically involves groups of interdependent employees who work cooperatively to achieve group outcomes (Griffin et al. 2001). Within that context we can define team as two or more people who have regular interaction and coordinate their activities to achieve specific goal. This leads us to say that teams are an important aspect of organization life, and the ability to manage them is an important component of manager and organization success.

2 108 European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences - Issue 45 (2012) The popularity of teamwork stems from their role in improving performance by solving work-related problems. With an increasing emphasis on high-quality, fast product innovation and improved customer satisfaction, many companies now use team approaches to realize these goals in an environment characterized by functional and process interdependencies. Work teams are considered to be an integral tool aiding continuous improvement in work operations (Rajiv et al. 1996). Probably the most extensive research in teamwork has focused on the benefits of the teamwork on individuals and organization. Betty and Brain (1997) reported that teams have become essential element in problem solving and in helping businesses to move forward into the future. Hye-Ryun et al. (2006), emphasize that the benefits of teams and teamwork are popular, because teams are seen to bring a variety of benefits for organization and management as well as employees. The current study focuses on the teamwork, by identifying the extent to which managers are willing to implement teamwork through a number of indicators; also it examines the relationship between the personal and functional characteristic of the managers and their willingness to implement teamwork. Literature Review Review of the literature on teamwork reveals that a number of studies have tackled this philosophy in different parts of the world. Al Ateibi (2007) conducted a survey that aimed at identifying the opinions of managers of using teamwork. The study found that teamwork has been used in a moderate degree, The study also revealed that there was a positive correlation between the training on teamwork and managers opinions for using teamwork. However, the study did not find a significant relationship between using teamwork and managers personal characteristic. Darlington (2007) reported that every team needs a great leader and the leader's role is to be a facilitator, then he determined the attributes of a good team leader such as: listening to team members, creating a climate of trust and openness, communicating the goal and mission of the organization, delegating, coaching, encouraging creativity, sharing information, empowering people, and helping the team become more and more self-directed. Hye-Ryun et al. (2006), investigated the importance of team member characteristics, particularly cognitive and demographic (age, tenure, and gender), on team effectiveness and which characteristics matter more in team activities. The result of the study showed that team effectiveness is more influenced by cognitive than demographic similarities. A study in Saudi Arabia, carried out by Al-Qahtani (2005), aimed at identifying the effect degree of managers personal characteristic on their willing to use teamwork at the governmental sector in the city of Alryad in Saudi Arabia. The study found that there was a negative and positive correlation between some managers personal characteristic and their willingness to teamwork use. Moreover, the study concluded that managers had a moderate willingness to implement teamwork at the governmental sector in the city of Al Ryad. In a study by Miles and Glynn (2002), the research results suggested that effective training and development efforts may enhance team member satisfaction. A study conducted by Diskul (2001) to explore the contribution of leadership styles in transactional leadership model to selfmanagement work team. The findings of the study revealed that the control variables indicated that most demographic characteristics, such as sex, employment title, education and term in team, did not have meaningful effects on the relationship between perceived leadership styles work teams characteristics. The study that carried out by Nasser and Ababneh (1998), aimed at identifying the opinions of managers about the availability the teamwork traits at the governmental sector in Jordan. The study revealed that there was a significant statistical difference between existing the traits of teamwork and managers personal characteristic. The study found a moderate degree of using teamwork at the governmental sector. Betty and Brain (1997), reviewed a study of teamwork, in this overview the investigators discussed the significance of a team. They reported that teams offer greater participation, challenges and feelings of accomplishment. Organizations with teams will

3 109 European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences - Issue 45 (2012) attract and retain the best people. This in turn will create a high-performance organization that is flexible, and efficient. investigators suggested that inadequate training can hinder teamwork. Elmuti(1996) found that teams can increase productivity, efficiency and effectiveness, customer satisfaction, the quality of employee job satisfaction, and eventually lead to a competitive edge that lead to a greater market share. Ehlen (1994), assessed critical steps that will help managers become successful in supporting high performance teams: build shared responsibility, develop vision alignment, provide individual development, encourage mutual influence and build task autonomy. Study Importance The value of this study stems from the idea that "most organizations realize that effective teamwork is an essential aspect for their success, but they found that the reality of working in teams presents many practical difficulties" (West, 2004). Despite the fact that teams are usually expected to improve organizational effectiveness, there are several challenges to teamwork. One challenge is the ability and willingness of manager to implement teamwork in the organization. This study comes to measure the managers' willingness in implementing teamwork in Jordan. It is hoped, however, that this study will enrich the literature in this area in Jordan in particular, and the Arab world in general. Research Objective The study aims to identify whether there is any relationship between the (personal and functional characteristics) and the managers willingness to implement teamwork. Hypotheses of the Study The study aims to test the following hypotheses: The Main Hypothesis: There is no significant relationship between personal and occupational characteristics, and teamwork implementation at α The main hypothesis is divided into six-sub-hypotheses: Ho1: there is no significant statistical difference at α 0.05 between the managers willingness to implement teamwork and age group. Ho2: there is no significant statistical difference at α 0.05 between the managers willingness to implement teamwork and field of specialization. Ho3: there is no significant statistical difference at α 0.05 between the managers willingness to implement teamwork and job title. Ho4: there is no significant statistical difference at α 0.05 between the managers willingness to implement teamwork and number of subordinates. Ho5: there is no significant statistical difference at α 0.05 between the managers willingness to implement teamwork and years of work experience. Ho6: there is no significant statistical difference at α 0.05 between the managers willingness to implement teamwork and training on teamwork implementation. Population and Sample of the Study The population of the study composed of the managers working at Greater Amman Municipality (GAM). A random sample of 110 managers was selected for this study. That represented (83%) of the population. The Instrument of the Study For the purpose of this study, the questionnaire was used as the main data collection method. The questionnaire was designed and developed by Al-Qahtani (2005). The questionnaire was modified to be appropriate for the current study.

4 110 European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences - Issue 45 (2012) Validity and Reliability Five referees tested the initial questionnaire; three specialized in public administration; two specialized in business administration to solicit their opinions of the tool as to clarity that each indicator meets the study objective. In the light of referees notes the questionnaire was modified. A reliability test was carried out using the Cronbach s alpha. The recommended minimum acceptable limit of reliability "alpha" for this measure is 0.60 (Sekaran, 2003). The result showed α = which is a reasonable value indicating the internal consistency of the instrument for this study. Results Respondents Characteristics The response rate was 84.5% (93 usable responses out of 110 questionnaires distributed), 60% of respondent were between years of age, 57% of them were office managers and 54.5% have 6-15 subordinates. Result of Hypotheses Test The Main Hypothesis: H0: There is no significant relationship between personal and occupational characteristics and team work implementation at α 0.05 level. To test this hypothesis, multiple regression analysis was used. Table 1, lists the six independent variables that are entered into the regression model. The correlation of the six independent variables with the dependent variable was ( R= 0.556). In the model summary table, R Square was (0.31), which is the explained variance. Table 1: Regression Model Summary Model Variables Entered R R Square 1 age group field of specialization Job Title Number of subordinates Years of work experience training on teamwork Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Table 2, an ANOVA table shows that the F value of (6.429) is significant at (0.0001) level. The F statistic produced (6.429) which is significance at the level since its greater than tabulated F (2.19). What the results mean is that 31% of the variance R-Square in the Managers willingness to implement teamwork has been significantly explained by the six independent variables. So, the hypothesis is rejected. Table 2: ANOVA Analysis Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Regression Residual In table 3, if we look at Beta column, we see that the highest number in the Beta is (-0.398) for the Training on teamwork implementation, which is significant at the level. It may also be seen that this is the only independent variable that is significant. The negative beta weight indicates that if adequate training increases, it is necessary to enhance the Managers willingness to implement teamwork.

5 111 European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences - Issue 45 (2012) Table 3: Regression Coefficients Model 1 Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients Sig. B Std. Error Beta T Std. Error (Constant) AGE group field of specialization Job Title Number of subordinates Years of work experience training on teamwork Ho1: there is no significant statistical difference at α 0.05 level between the managers willingness to implement teamwork and age group. ANOVA was used to test this hypothesis. The statistical significance value of all the willing indicators, as listed in Table 4, is This means that there is a significant statistical difference between the willing degrees of managers to implement teamwork when applied to age groups, and the hypothesis is rejected. Table 4: ANOVA of the Variable Age Groups Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups Within Groups Ho2: there is no significant statistical difference at α 0.05 level between the managers willingness to implement teamwork and field of specialization. By using ANOVA test the statistical significance value of all the willingness indicators, as listed in Table 5, is This means that there is no significant statistical difference at the 0.05 level on the managers' willingness to implement teamwork among managers attributed to the field of specialization, therefore, the hypothesis is accepted. Table 5: ANOVA of the Field of Specialization Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups Within Groups Ho3: there is no significant statistical difference at α 0.05 level between the managers willingness to implement teamwork and job title. For the purpose of testing the hypothesis, the ANOVA test was used. Table 6 indicates that the significance value of all willingness indicators is This means that there is no significant statistical difference at the 0.05 level between the managers' willingness to implement teamwork and job title. Therefore, the hypothesis is accepted. Table 6: ANOVA of the Job Title Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups Within Groups Ho4: There is no significant statistical difference at α 0.05 level between the managers willingness to implement teamwork and number of subordinates.

6 112 European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences - Issue 45 (2012) The ANOVA test was used. The statistical significance value of all the willingness indicators, as listed in Table 7, is These values show that there is a significant statistical difference, at the 0.05 level between the managers' willingness to implement teamwork and number of subordinates. Therefore, the hypothesis is rejected. Table 7: ANOVA of the Number of Subordinates Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups Within Groups Ho5: there is no significant statistical difference at α 0.05 level between the managers willingness to implement teamwork and years of work experience. The ANOVA was used to test the hypothesis. Table 8 shows that the significance value of all willing indicators is This means that there is no significant statistical difference at the 0.05 level between the managers' willingness to implement teamwork and the years of work experience. Therefore, the hypothesis is accepted. Table 8: ANOVA of the Years of Work Experience Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups Within Groups Ho6: there is no significant statistical difference at α 0.05 level between the managers willingness to implement teamwork and training on teamwork implementation. The ANOVA test was used. The statistical significance value of all the willingness indicators, as listed in Table 9, is These values show that there is a significant statistical difference, at the 0.05 level between the managers' willingness to implement teamwork and the number of training taken on teamwork implementation. Therefore, the hypothesis is rejected. Table 9: ANOVA of the Training on Teamwork Implementation Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups Within Groups After analysing the data and testing the hypotheses, the following results were reached: 1. There is a significant statistical difference between the managers' willingness to implement teamwork when applied to age groups. 2. There is no significant statistical difference at the 0.05 level on the willingness of manager to implement teamwork among managers attributed to the field of specialization. 3. There is no significant statistical difference at the 0.05 level between the willingness of manager to implement teamwork and job title. 4. There is a significant statistical difference, at the 0.05 level between the willingness of manager to implement teamwork and the number of subordinates. 5. There is no significant statistical difference at the 0.05 level between the willingness of manager to implement teamwork and the years of work experience. 6. There is a significant statistical difference, at the 0.05 level between the willingness of manager to implement teamwork and the number of training taken on teamwork implementation.

7 113 European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences - Issue 45 (2012) 7. The Managers willingness to implement teamwork has been significantly explained by the six independent variables (age, field of specialization, job title, number of subordinates, years of experience, and number of training on teamwork). 8. Adequate training increases, it is necessary to enhance the managers willingness to implement teamwork. Conclusion Research shows that GAMs managers have high willing to implement teamwork philosophy. An open-door communication policy, overall supervision, motivation, providing employees with training and promotion opportunities, trust and confidence in the employees abilities, and managers positive attitudes and support of their employees will enhance implementing teamwork. Manager should realize that adequate training necessary to enhance the managers willingness to implement teamwork. Recommendations and Future Research In light of the study findings, the following recommendations are suggested: keeping focused on the goals can help a team to bypass the individualism that frequently hinders its work. Also achieving cohesive teamwork requires specific learned and inherent skills. Learning the skills necessary and understanding the important characteristics of cohesion can facilitate a group's positive work experience. An organization must lay a foundation of commitment to the teamwork concept to make teams comfortable with their new responsibilities. Managers should held regularly meeting for updating the employees, and provide useful feedback for the team to its goal and help the group do even better, promoting managers attitudes towards delegation of authority, and opendoor communication policies, promoting the ideal size of work teams towards good team performance, providing employees with training opportunities and development that is focused on team members toward emphasize interpersonal and team-based communication skills. References 1] AL-Qahtani, S. (2005), Degree of managers willing to implement teamwork in government system at Al Riyadh. Journal of General Management. (In Arabic). 2] Al-Ateibi, N. (2007), Managers Opinions of using teamwork. (Unpublished Master s thesis), Faculty of Business Administration, King Soa d University, Al Riyad, Saudi Arabia. Available online at: (In Arabic). 3] Betty, C. and Brian, H. R. (1997), How to increase teamwork in organizations. Training for Quality, Vol. 5, Issue 1. 4] Booth, P. (1994). Embracing the team concept, Canadian Business Review, Vol. 21, Issue. 3. 5] Daft, R. (1998), Teamwork in organization, Management, 5 th edition. 6] Darlington, H. (2007), Teamwork - A Key to Showroom Success, Supply House Times, Vol. 50, Issue 5. 7] Diskul, P. (2001), Toward effective self-managing work teams: the relationship between perceived leadership styles and self-managing work teams characteristics, Virginia commonwealth University. 8] Ehlen, D. (1994), Supporting high performance teams. Manage. Dayton, Vol. 46, Issue. 2. 9] Elmuti, D. (1996), Sustaining high performance through self-managed work teams, Industrial Management, Vol. 38, Issue ] Griffin, M. A. Patterson, M. G. and West, M. A. (2001), Job satisfaction and teamwork: the role of supervisor support, Journal of Organizational Behaviour, Vol. 22, No. 5, pp

8 114 European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences - Issue 45 (2012) 11] Hensey, M. (2001), Collective Excellence: Building Effective Teams, published by ASCE publications. 12] Hye-Ryun, K. Hee-Dong, Y. and Chris, R. (2006), Factors in team effectiveness: Cognitive and demographic similarities of software development team members, Human Relations; ABI/INFORM Global, p ] MacNeil, C. M. (2004), Exploring the supervisor role as a facilitator of knowledge sharing in teams, Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 28, Issue 1. 14] Miles, S. J. and Glynn, M. (2002), The impact of team leader performance on team member satisfaction: The subordinate's perspective, Team Performance Management, Vol. 8, Issue. 5/6. 15] Nasser, N. and Ababneh, R. (1998), Team building: field study on managers opinions upon teamwork traits availability in government system for the governorates of north Jordan, General Management. Vol.38. P (in Arabic). 16] Passos, A. M. And Caetano, A. (2005), Exploring the effects of intragroup conflict and past performance feedback on team effectiveness, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol.20, Issue 3/4. 17] Rajiv, D. B, Joy, m. F. Roger, G. S. and Kingshuk, k. S. (1996), Impact of Work Teams on Manufacturing Performance: A Longitudinal Field Study, The Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp ] Sekaran, U. (2003), Research Methods for business a skill building approach, 4 th edition. 19] West, M. A. (2004), Effective Teamwork: Practical lessons from organizational research. Blackwell publishing.

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