How to Collect a Water Sample

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1 How to Collect a Water Sample 1. Label the Sample Bag. If you are collecting water for further laboratory analysis, label the bag with location, date, time, and name of your class. 2. Prepare the Grab Sampler: a. Attach a whirlpak bag to the bag holder by sliding onto the top ring of the holder. Secure the snapper ring over the bag, and press the jaws together with your fingers until it locks tight. b. Extend the pole so that it reaches to the center of the creek. 3. Collect the Water: a. Submerge bag holder into water and lift out. As much as possible, sample the water from below the surface of the water. b. Pour the water into a container. 4. Prepare Water for Further Analysis (if part of your protocol) a. Detach the snapper ring by twisting in opposite directions (sliding across each other, instead of towards each other). b. Close the bag folding the tabs over 3 times and bending the wire tabs onto the bags. c. Place the bag on ice pack and inside a cooler for delivery to the lab.

2 Temperature Keep the hand-held interface away from the water at all times. It is NOT water-proof. 1. Plug In: a. Plug the temperature sensor into Channel 1 of the LabQuest2 interface. b. The temperature reading will appear on the screen 2. Collect a Water Sample (see card on how to collect water sample) 3. Collect the Data: a. Place the tip of the probe in the water. b. Leave the probe submerged until the reading stabilizes (at least 1 minute). c. Record the temperature on the data sheet. d. ***Repeat to obtain a second reading*** 4. Put the Sensor Away a. Unplug the sensor. Dry it with towel and put it back in the kit.

3 Dissolved Oxygen Keep the hand-held interface and the top of the DO sensor away from the water at all times. They are NOT water-proof. 1. Calibration a. A field or lab calibration of this sensor has been done by your instructor. 2. Warm Up the Probe a. Plug the Dissolved Oxygen Probe to Channel 3 of the LabQuest2 interface. WARM PROBE FOR 10 MINUTES. To warm up the probe, leave is connected to the LabQuest2 interface and turn interface on. The LabQuest2 will deliver power to the sensor even if the screen goes to sleep. If the probe is disconnected for a few minutes, start over. b. DURING THIS TIME, KEEP THE PROBE TIP IN WATER. 3. Prepare the Interface to take a 10 sec sample (see Take a 10-sec Sample Instructions ). 4. Collect a Water Sample (see How to Collect a Water Sample Instructions ) 5. Prepare the Dissolved Oxygen Sensor a. Unscrew the lid of the calibration bottle. The liquid in the bottle is distilled water. b. Slide the lid off the sensor and screw back onto the bottle. c. DO NOT TOUCH THE MEMBRANE AT THE END OF THE SENSOR. d. THE TOP OF THE SENSOR IS NOT WATER-PROOF. KEEP IT DRY. Dissolved Oxygen (continued) 6. Collect the Data: a. Rinse the tip of the sensor with sample water. b. Submerge the tip of the probe 4-6 cm in a container of sample water. c. Gently stir the probe in the water sample while it collects data. The sensor uses up oxygen so you need to keep it moving in the water. Wait for the readings to stabilize before starting next step (be patient. This may take 2 minutes or more). d. Click on in lower left corner of screen. This will open the Graph Screen KEEP e. Click on. LEAVE THE PROBE TIP SUBMERGED AND GENTLY STIR FOR THE FULL 10 SECS. Wait for the clock to run down. f. Click on Data Table. Event 1 will appear in column on left. The 10 sec average will be listed in column on the right. Record this value on datasheet. g. ***Repeat steps above steps to obtain a second reading*** 7. Put the sensor away a. Unplug the sensor. b. Unscrew the end of the probe (membrane cap) and rinse the inside and outside with distilled water. Shake dry (do not blot). c. Thoroughly rinse the end of the exposed probe and blot dry with a lap wipe. d. LOOSELY screw back on the membrane cap.

4 DO Sensor Calibration IN LAB BEFORE FIELD 1. Prepare the Dissolved Oxygen Sensor a. Remove the blue protective cap (if present) from the tip of the probe. b. Unscrew the end of the probe (membrane cap). c. Use a pipet to fill the membrane cap with 1 ml of DO Electrode Filling Solution. d. Carefully thread the membrane cap back onto the electrode. e. Push the calibration bottle cap onto the end of the probe. Fill the calibration bottle with distilled water and screw onto the cap, making sure the end of the probe is in the water and not bumping into the bottom of the bottle. ON WAY TO FIELD 2. Warm Up the Probe a. 10 minutes before arriving at your destination, turn on the LabQuest2 interface. Plug the Dissolved Oxygen Probe into the interface. WARM PROBE FOR 10 MINUTES. The LabQuest2 will deliver power to the sensor even if the screen goes to sleep. If the probe is disconnected for a few minutes, start over. DURING THIS TIME, KEEP THE PROBE TIP IN WATER in calibration bottle. IN THE FIELD 3. Figure out how much oxygen (in mg/l) can be held in the air at your field site. The amount of oxygen that can be held in the air is primarily dependent on temperature and barometric pressure. a. First use the temperature probe to record air temperature and write this value down. (Note: the temperature probe take up to 6 minutes to take an accurate reading if the air is still. Response time is much faster in water). b. Next use Table 1 to figure out how much oxygen (in mg/l) you can expect to be held in water at your air temperature and barometric pressure. (Barometric pressure is determined predominantly by elevation. We have listed the barometric pressure of each of the Copeland Creek sampling sites at the top of the table.) Write down the value from the table. You will need this for the probe calibration. Table 1 Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) in air-saturated distilled water (at various temperature and pressure values) for the Copeland Creek sites Barometric Pressure 760 mm 750 mm 740 mm 730 mm 720 mm Commerce, Santa Alicia, SSU Outfall, SSU Bridge Lichau, Pressley Osborn 0 C C C C C C

5 (Table 1 continued) Barometric Pressure 760 mm 750 mm 740 mm 730 mm 720 mm Commerce, Santa Alicia, SSU Outfall, SSU Bridge Lichau, Pressley Osborn 8 C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Calibrate the Sensor a. Find the Calibration Screen: i. On the top left of the screen your will see: FILE SENSORS ii. Click on SENSORS. A Menu will pop up. Click on Calibrate, then click on CH: Dissolved Oxygen, then choose Calibrate Now. b. First Calibration Point (Zero-Oxygen): i. Remove the probe from the water and place the sensor tip into the Sodium Sulfite Calibration Solution. This solution has 0 mg/l of oxygen in it. ii. When the displayed voltage reading stabilizes (be patient, this can take ~2 min), enter 0 (the known dissolved oxygen value in mg/l) in the Value 1 box and click Keep

6 iii. The voltage should be somewhere between 0.2 V and 0.5 V. If it is not, make sure there is not an air bubble at the tip of the electrode. iv. To prevent the Sodium Sulfite Calibration Solution from taking on oxygen (this is your zerooxygen calibration), make sure there is no air in the bottle when you close it: before putting on the lid, gently squeeze the bottle so the level of the solution is at the very top of the bottle neck; with the solution at this level, screw on the lid. The bottle will remain in this collapsed position. c. Second Calibration Point (Saturated DO) i. Rinse the probe with distilled water and gently blot dry with a kim wipe. ii. Slide the lid of the calibration bottle about ½ inch onto the probe body. iii. Add distilled water to the bottle to a depth of about ¼ inch and screw the bottle into the cap, as shown. DO NOT TOUCH THE MEMBRANE OR GET IT WET DURING THIS STEP. iv. Keep the probe in this position. When the displayed voltage reading stabilizes (be patient; this can take ~2 min), enter the correct saturated dissolved oxygen value (in mg/l) from Step 1. You are entering the maximum amount of oxygen that can be held in the air at your elevation and temperature. v. Click Keep vi. At the saturate oxygen point, the voltage should be above 2.0V. If not, make sure the electrode is not touching the water in the bottle. Rinse with distilled water, blot dry. DON T TOUCH MEMBRANE. Now that you have told the sensor what minimum and maximum mg/l oxygen are possible, you are ready to take a dissolved oxygen reading of a water sample. See Dissolved Oxygen Card.

7 Total Dissolved Solids Keep the hand-held interface and the top of the Conductivity Sensor away from the water at all times. They are NOT water-proof. 1. Calibration a. A field or lab calibration of this sensor has been done by your instructor. 2. Prepare Conductivity Probe for data collection a. Plug the conductivity probe into Channel 1 of the LabQuest2 interface b. Set the switch on the probe box to the µs/cm range (2000 µs/cm = 1000 mg/l TDS). 3. Collect a Water Sample (see How the Collect a Water Sample ) Total Dissolved Solids (continued) 4. Collect Data a. Rinse the probe tip with distilled water a. Place the tip of the probe into a container with sample water from the creek. Click on in lower left corner of screen. This will open the Graph Screen. b. MAKE SURE THE HOLE NEAR THE TIP IS COMPLETELY EMERSED and click on. Wait for the clock to run down. c. Click on Data Table. Event 1 will appear in column on left. The 10 sec average in column on the right. Record value on your datasheet. d. ***Repeat steps above steps to obtain a second reading*** 5. Put the sensor away - unplug, dry sensor and place it back in the kit. KEEP

8 Light Sensor and GPS Keep the hand-held interface away from the water at all times. It is NOT water-proof. 1. Turn on the sensors a. On the top left of the screen you will see: FILE SENSORS b. Click on SENSORS. A Menu will pop up. Click on Sensor Set Up c. At the bottom of the screen click on Light Sensor and GPS. d. Click OK

9 ph Keep the hand-held interface away from the water at all times. It is NOT water-proof. 1. Plug in: a. Plug the ph sensor into Channel 1 of the LabQuest2 interface. b. The ph value (of the solution in the bottle) will appear on the screen 2. Collect the Water (see How to Collect a Water Sample ) 3. Prepare the sensor: a. Remove the ph sensor from the storage bottle. CAREFUL!! DON T SPILL THE Storage Solution. b. Rinse the tip of the sensor thoroughly with stream water. 4. Collect the data: a. Submerge the end of the sensor 3-4 cm into the water. b. Leave the tip submerged until the reading stabilizes (at least 10 sec). c. Record the ph value on the data sheet. d. ***Repeat to obtain a second reading*** 5. Put the sensor away a. Replace the tip of the sensor in the storage solution. b. Unplug the sensor, dry it and put it back in the kit

10 Flow Velocity Keep the hand-held interface away from the water at all times. It is NOT water-proof. 1. Plug in: a. Plug the flow rate sensor into Channel 1 of the LabQuest2 interface. 2. Prepare the Interface to Take a 10 sec sample: a. On the top left of the screen you will see: FILE SENSORS b. Click on SENSORS. A Menu will pop up. Click on Data Collection c. Change Mode by clicking on d. Choose Selected Events e. Check the box next to Average over 10 seconds. Click OK 3. Prepare the sensor: a. Place the flow rate sensor as close to the center of the Creek as is safe and submerge it 2-4 cm below the surface. b. Point the impeller of the sensor upstream and directly into the flow. Flow Velocity (continued) 4. Collect the data: a. Click on in lower left corner of screen. This will open the Graph Screen KEEP b. Click on. LEAVE THE PROBE TIP SUBMERGED AND GENTLY STIR FOR THE FULL 10 SECS. Wait for the clock to run down. c. Click on Data Table. Event 1 will appear in column on left. The 10 sec average will be listed in column on the right. Record this value on datasheet. d. ***Repeat to obtain a second reading*** 5. Put the sensor away: dry it and put it back in the kit

11 Stream Discharge Orange Peel Method 1. Select a Site a. Select a stretch of stream at least 30 ft long that is representative of the creek. Avoid sites with bends, breaks, logs or other obstructions. b. Stretch out a transect tape along the section you will be measuring and mark both ends of the 30 ft section 2. Measure the Upstream Cross Section a. At the upstream end of your transect tape, measure the width of the creek with the Section width transect tape and round off to nearest 6 in. b. Divide the stream width into 3 parts. (If you are going for higher accuracy, divide the stream cross section into 6 sections). c. Record the section width on the datasheet. Stream Discharge Orange Peel Method (continued) d. Calculate the area of water within each of these sections: i. Wade into the stream (if Depth Measurements safe) and use the yard stick to record the depth of the stream at the midpoint of each section. Record on your datasheet. ii. Multiply the depth of each section x section width and record on your datasheet. 3. Measure Flow Velocity (Orange Peel Method) D1 D2 D3 a. Measure the time it takes for a small piece of orange peel to travel 30 ft down the creek. b. Drop a piece of orange peel into the creek at each of the 3 points you have identified and start a stop watch. Measure the amount of time it takes for the orange peel to travel 30 ft. Record velocity (feet/sec) on data sheet for each point. 4. Calculate Discharge: Cross-sectional Area (ft 2 ) x Velocity (ft/sec) = Discharge (ft 3 /sec)

12 Measuring Stream Discharge Flow Sensor Method Keep the hand-held interface away from the water at all times. It is NOT water-proof. The flow sensor has a 5 meter cable allowing you to leave the interface on the shore. 1. Select a Site a. Within a m stretch of stream, select two sites that are as far apart as possible and representative of the creek. Avoid sites with bends, breaks, logs or other obstructions. Section width b. Make sure the two sites you choose are shallow enough to measure with a meter stick, but not less than 10 cm (4 in) 2. Measure the Cross Sections a. At each of the sites, measure the width of the creek with the transect tape and round off to the 0.01 m. b. Divide the stream width into 3 equally spaced sections. Depth Measurements c. Calculate the area of water within each of these sections: i. Wade into the stream (if safe) and use the yard stick to record the depth of the stream at the midpoint of each section. Record on your datasheet. D1 D2 D3 ii. Multiply the depth of each section by section width and record on your datasheet. Measuring Stream Discharge (continued) 3. Prepare the Sensor a. Prepare the Flow Sensor for a 10-sec run (see Take a 10-sec Sample ) b. Plug the flow sensor into Channel 1 of the LabQuest2 interface 4. Measure the Flow Velocity: a. Place the Sensor at the same points the depth measurements were made. b. Submerge the impeller to about 40% of the depth measured at each section. (The plastic risers make it easier to keep the impeller in the same spot and orientation. c. KEEP THE IMPELLER POINTING UPSTREAM. d. Click on in lower left corner of screen. This will open the Graph Screen KEEP e. Click on. Wait for the clock to run down. KEEP THE IMPELLER IN PLACE. f. Click on Data Table. Event 1 will appear in column on left. The 10 sec average will be listed in column on the right. Record this value on datasheet. g. Repeat for each of the 3 points. h. ***Repeat for the second stream cross-section*** 5. Dry and put the sensor away

13 Turbidity Keep the hand-held interface away from the water at all times. It is NOT water-proof. 1. Plug In the Sensor: a. Plug the turbidity sensor into Channel 1 of the LabQuest2 interface. b. LET IT WARM UP FOR 2 MINUTES 2. Calibrate the Turbidity Sensor (see Turbidity Sensor Calibration in the Field ) 3. Prepare the Interface to Take a 10 sec sample (see Take a 10-sec Sample Instructions ) 4. Collect Water From the Creek (see How to Collect a Water Sample) SAMPLE UPSTREAM OF ANY ACTIVITIES THAT STIR UP THE SEDIMENT. a. Pour the water into a water sample bottle that has a lid. 5. Prepare the Sample: a. Gently invert the water sample bottle. DO NOT SHAKE. b. Empty the distilled water from the cuvette. c. Fill the cuvette with water from the water sample bottle. The bottom of the meniscus needs to be even with the top of the white line. Place the lid on the cuvette. Gently wipe the outside of the cuvette with a soft, lint-free cloth or tissue. d. Check the cuvette for air bubbles. If air bubbles are present, gently tap the bottom of the cuvette to dislodge them. Turbidity (continued) 6. Take the Data: a. Hold the cuvette by the lid, place it in the Turbidity sensor. Align the mark on the cuvette with the mark on the side of the Turbidity sensor opening. Close the lid. Particles in the water gradually settle and turbidity decreases. START DATA COLLECTION SOON AFTER PLACING THE CUVETTE IN THE SENSOR. b. Click on in lower left corner of screen. This will open the Graph Screen KEEP c. Click on. Wait for the clock to run down. d. Click on Data Table. Event 1 will appear in column on left. The 10 sec average will be listed in column on the right. Record value on datasheet. 7. Prepare a Second Sample and Take a Second Reading (Steps 5 and 6) 8. Put the Sensor Away a. Remove the cuvette and rinse with distilled water. b. Unplug the turbidity sensor c. Dry cuvettes and sensors and put them back in the kit

14 Take a 10-Sec Sample Prepare the LabQuest2 Interface to Take a 10 sec sample 1. On the top left of the screen you will see: FILE SENSORS 2. Click on SENSORS. A Menu will pop up. Click on Data Collection 3. At the top of the screen, change Mode by clicking on 4. Select Selected Events 5. Check the box next to Average over 10 seconds. Click OK

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