Washington State Graduate Follow-up Study: Class of 2004 All Graduates. First Year after Graduation. Statewide Results

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1 Washington State Graduate Follow-up Study: Class of 2004 All Graduates First Year after Graduation Statewide Results

2 Table of Contents Introduction... 3 Procedures... 3 Graduate Follow-up Study Results... 5 Data Notes... 9 Summary of Appendix Tables Appendix... 18

3 Introduction The primary purpose of the Graduate Follow-up Study is to analyze students education and employment-related activities after they graduate from high school. The data are presented in statewide reports, such as this one, as well as district and school-level tables produced at the request of the district or school. Separate reports are also prepared for the vocational completers in each graduating class. Schools can use the study results to assess how successfully students are prepared for their first education or work experience after graduation. The Graduate Follow-up Study complements outcome research conducted at the school, district and state level in Washington and across the country. The Graduate Follow-up Study has expanded from its origin as a feasibility study in the spring of In the first year, the study included five school districts for the class of Participation doubled to 10 districts in the following year for the class of District involvement increased throughout the subsequent years to include the majority of the districts in the state. This report on the class of 2004 incorporates student data from 246 of the 248 high school districts in Washington. The Graduate Follow-up Study is conducted for the Washington State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI) by the Social and Economic Sciences Research Center at Washington State University, with the cooperation of the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges and Washington s public baccalaureate colleges and universities. For additional information about the Graduate Follow-up Study and for an electronic copy of this and other reports, please see Procedures Many other graduate follow-up studies are based on surveys sent to students of each graduating class. Such studies are often characterized by high costs, low rates of survey response and over-estimation of success rates. The Washington Graduate Follow-up Study approaches the primary question of how well high schools prepare students for their next step in a different way. Using data OSPI collects from each school district in the annual P-210 report, a student roster is compiled for each district. If a social security number is available, this unique student identifier provides the basis for an electronic match against record systems at colleges, universities, and state Employment Security Departments in the region. By joining files from each of these sources for the class of 2004, high school graduates work and college enrollment after high school can be analyzed. The Graduate Follow-up Study for the graduating class of 2004 started with a file that included 63,188 students who graduated from a public high school, passed a General Educational Development (GED) exam, completed an Individual Educational Plan (IEP),

4 or received an Adult Diploma. This represents nearly the total graduating class of 2004 in Washington. Social security numbers were available for 41,335 graduates, comprising 65 percent of the 63,188 graduating students. Follow-up information was located on 88 percent of the graduates with social security numbers. This report contains the statewide results for all of the graduates in our database with social security numbers. It includes the employment and educational activities for the first year after graduation, July 2004 through June We will follow the class of 2004 through future years and will release annual follow-up reports as data become available. The report of first year results is more detailed than the reports for subsequent years. It includes data, such as enrollment in remedial courses, which only apply to the first year after graduation. Future reports on this graduating class will focus on trends from year-toyear and will include multiple years of data in each table. Multi-year reports will also be available for the subset of graduates who are vocational completers.

5 Graduate Follow-up Study Results Demographics The Graduate Follow-up Study for the class of 2004 is based on a total of 41,335 graduates from districts across the state. Female graduates comprised 52 percent of the graduating class, with 21,658 women and 19,677 men. The ethnic composition of the included graduates was as follows: White (79%), Asian (8%), Hispanic (6%), African- American (4%), Native American (2%), and Other (0.1%). 1 Post High School Experiences The table below shows the post high school experiences of the class of 2004 in the first year after high school graduation. About 45 percent of the class both worked and attended college at some point in the first year after graduating from high school. This pattern of activity is similar to the graduating classes in the past few years GRADUATES Student Post High School Activities 2-Year College Only 4-Year College Only 2-Year & 4-Year Employed Only Employed & 2-Year Employed & 4-Year Employed, 2-Year & 4-Year No Data Located Col % 4% 6% 0% 33% 25% 19% 2% 12% 100% s may not equal 100% due to rounding PVS and Apprenticeship included with 2-Year College Class of 2004 Post High School Experiences in the First Year after Graduation About 45% of the graduates both worked & attended college. One-third worked exclusively. Ten percent attended college without working. Women were more likely to combine work and school. Men were more likely to work without attending school. One-third of the class of 2004 worked exclusively (without attending college at any point in the year.) The proportion of graduates who work exclusively has declined steadily since the class of The post high school experiences of male and female graduates differed slightly. Women were about 7 percent more likely to both work and attend school during the year. Men were more likely to work without attending college. (For more information on this and other tables, please see the appendix.) 1 Not all student records included a designation of ethnicity. The categories of ethnicity were expanded to include other with the class of 2004.

6 Students post high school experiences also differed by ethnic group. Asian graduates attended college without working at over twice the rate as other ethnic groups. Hispanic and Native American graduates worked without attending college at higher rates than average. Although the sample sizes for some minority groups are small, these results are supported by similar patterns in previous graduating classes. College Bound Students Over half (55%) of the class of 2004 attended college in the first year after graduation. College attendance rates have remained steady for the past four years. As in previous cohorts, female graduates were more likely to attend college than the male graduates (by 6 percentage points in the class of 2004). Nearly the same proportion (~30%) of each ethnic group attended two-year colleges. However, there was some disparity between the ethnicities in four-year college enrollment. Asian graduates (36%) were the most likely to attend a four-year college, White (25%) and African American (19%) graduates fell in the middle, and Hispanic (15%) and Native American (15%) graduates were the least likely to enroll in a four-year college. 2-Year College 4-Year College 2004 GRADUATES College Attendance 2-Year & 4-Year Colleges No College/Unknown Col % 29% 25% 2% 45% 100% s may not equal 100% due to rounding PVS and Apprenticeship included with 2-Year College Remedial Education Some college students need to enroll in remedial English or math courses to gain the skills or knowledge that will enable them to succeed in their college-level courses. Thirty-seven percent of the class of 2004 attending college enrolled in a remedial course in the first year after graduation. Remedial Math Remedial English No Remedial 2004 GRADUATES Remedial Coursework Col % 32% 16% 63% 111% The amount over 100% in the line is the percentage of students enrolled in both remedial English and remedial math About twice as many college students enrolled in remedial math courses (32%) as remedial English (16%). Of those students, 11 percent enrolled in both remedial English and math. Men and women displayed slightly different enrollment patterns in remedial courses. Women were more likely to enroll in remedial courses, especially remedial math (women: 35%, men: 29%). There was a range of over 20 percentage points between the different ethnicities enrolling in remedial courses. Over half of the Hispanic (58%), African-American (53%), and

7 Native American (51%) graduates attending college enrolled in remedial courses compared to about one-third of the White (35%) and Asian (33%) graduates. Employment and Wages Since graduates employment needs may differ depending on whether or not they also attended college, the employment data is now presented in two ways: 1) for all the graduates (as has been presented in previous years) and 2) for the graduates who did not attend college. 2 For the class of 2004, the general findings are consistent across both groups. For the graduates who chose to work, the most popular industries of employment were retail trade (all graduates: 48%; graduates not attending college: 45%) and services (all graduates: 29%; graduates not attending college: 29%). The other industries each accounted for 6 percent or less of the class in both groups. Statewide, approximately 17 percent of all jobs are in retail trade and 26 percent are in service-related industries GRADUATES Median Hourly Wage by Industry of Employment Inflation Adjusted Wage in 1st Year Industry of Employment (SIC) in 1st Year Agriculture Mining Construction Manufacturing Transp & Pub Utilities Wholesale Trade Retail Trade Finance, Ins. & Real Estate Services Government All Graduates: Median Amounts inflation-adjusted to first quarter 2005 dollars Wages suppressed if valid N is less than 10 Graduates Not Attending College: Median $8.40 $8.48 $ $10.13 $10.55 $9.15 $9.33 $9.51 $9.75 $9.01 $9.38 $8.06 $8.12 $9.58 $9.79 $8.42 $8.54 $8.80 $8.94 $8.37 $8.47 As might be expected, graduates not splitting their time between college and employment earned higher wages in all industries, by an average of $0.10 per hour. The gap between the two groups ranged from $0.06 per hour difference in retail trade to $0.42 per hour difference in construction. 2 Students who are employed in the northwest but attend a college that does not contribute data to the GFS are counted among the non-college students.

8 Median hourly wages ranged from $8.06 for all graduates in retail trade to $10.13 in construction. (Graduates not attending college earned $8.12 in retail trade and $10.55 in construction.) Most working graduates were employed in the lower paying industries of retail trade and services, which paid median wages for all graduates at $8.06 and $8.42 per hour respectively. These employment choices may have been driven by the scheduling flexibility, low skill levels, and an opportunity for short-term employment that retail and service jobs usually offer.

9 Data Notes Data Limitations Because participation by school districts in the Graduate Follow-up Study is voluntary, strict comparisons between graduating cohorts are not possible. Further, even for participating school districts, the identifying information is not adequate to provide reliable follow-up information on 100% of the graduates. Thus, while reports based on the GFS database provide valuable indicators and insights on the short-term outcomes of high school graduates, the samples are not precisely representative of differences among districts or over time. Therefore, normal tests and rules of thumb for significance cannot be applied to differences between schools or districts, between subgroups of graduates, or between graduating classes. Observed differences should be interpreted with caution. They may be due purely to differences between two non-random partially-representative samples. Statistical comparisons between vocational completers and other graduating students should also be approached cautiously. Because participation in vocational programs is both voluntary and non-random, we should expect to see differences in the outcomes between vocational students and other students entirely independent of the effects of their programs of study. Employment & Education Data Sources The sources of employment and higher education matching data vary slightly from year to year. Generally, employment data are included from Washington, Oregon, Montana, and Idaho. Please note that we no longer receive employment data from Alaska, the military, or the federal government. Matches with institutions of higher education come from two-year public and private colleges, apprenticeship programs, and four-year public institutions in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, as well as private university data provided directly by institutions and through Washington s Higher Education Coordinating Board. Wages We receive employment data by calendar quarter and report hourly wages in the 12- month period for each participant by dividing total earnings in the quarter by total hours worked. All wages in this report are inflation-adjusted to first quarter 2005 dollars. Private Vocational Schools and Apprenticeship Programs Community and Technical College (CTC), Private Vocational School (PVS) and apprenticeship program participation are reported in separate categories in the detailed tables. The condensed tables include enrollment in these three types of training under the two-year college category. Remedial Coursework Not all higher education institutions report remedial coursework. The remedial coursework tables are limited to Washington s community and technical colleges and

10 four-year public universities that supply the information. Only remedial courses which are assigned credit-load equivalence for financial aid purposes are reported to the Graduate Follow-up Study. Gender and Ethnicity Students demographic information such as gender and ethnicity is taken from the P-210 report each school district submits to OSPI in the fall. Count versus Valid N Some of the appendix tables provide counts while other tables offer valid Ns. The two statistics provide similar information. The difference is that valid N is used with summary variables and excludes missing cases. For example, in the table of wages by gender and ethnicity, valid N is used because we want to know how many cases have wage data within each gender and ethnic group. If count was used in that table, we would find the total number of cases in each gender and ethnic group, regardless of the presence of wage data. In simpler tables, such as college enrollment by gender, there is no summary variable so counts are provided instead. Preliminary Results The data presented in this report are preliminary because some information, such as employment records, will be corrected over the next year. As more data become available, the results will be updated in subsequent Multi-Year reports. Confidentiality In order to maintain confidentiality, the highest level of computer security is maintained and results are not reported for small groups of students. Only state level summary data are available unless specifically requested by a school district. District & School-Level Results The information presented in this report represents a statewide overview of all of the participating districts and schools in the Graduate Follow-up Study. District and schoollevel tables (without the text summary) are available free-of-charge at the request of the district or school administration. For more information on obtaining your local results, please visit the GFS website at District Participation The Graduate Follow-up Study results become stronger with each additional district that participates. If your district would like to participate and have access to the free district and school tables, please see the GFS website at for more information. Graduate Definition The definition used in the GFS to identify graduates differs slightly from the newer definition of "on-time graduation" used for federal reporting of public school performance under the No Child Left Behind Act. Unlike that federal definition, the GFS

11 includes students who graduate a year or more behind their "entering" class and students who complete IEPs and GEDs.

12 Summary of Appendix Tables This summary describes the contents of each table in the following appendix. You will find information here such as the population of graduates upon which the table is based, additional description of the categories, and other relevant data notes. Please keep in mind that all of the information included in this report refers to the first year after graduation, July 2004 through June 2005, and covers all of the participating districts in the state. Table Title TABLE 1: 2004 Graduates Student Post High School Efforts Condensed Table TABLE 2: 2004 Graduates Student Post High School Efforts by Gender Condensed Table Table Description Counts and column percentages of educational and employment activities. The title Condensed Table refers to the fact that Community and Technical College, Private Vocational School, and apprenticeship program participation are included in the 2-Year College categories. security numbers. Counts and column percentages of educational and employment activities divided by gender. The title Condensed Table refers to the fact that Community and Technical College, Private Vocational School, and apprenticeship program participation are included in the 2-Year College categories. security numbers and a designation of gender.

13 Table Title TABLE 3: 2004 Graduates Student Post High School Efforts by Ethnic Group Condensed Table TABLE 4: 2004 Graduates Student Post High School Efforts Detailed Table TABLE 5: 2004 Graduates College Attendance Condensed Table Table Description Counts and column percentages of educational and employment activities divided by ethnicity. The title Condensed Table refers to the fact that Community and Technical College, Private Vocational School, and apprenticeship program participation are included in the 2-Year College categories. security numbers and a designation of ethnicity. Counts and column percentages of educational and employment activities. The title Detailed Table refers to the fact that Community and Technical College, Private Vocational School, and apprenticeship program participation are reported as separate categories. security numbers. Counts and column percentages of college attendance. The title Condensed Table refers to the fact that Community and Technical College, Private Vocational School, and apprenticeship program participation are included in the 2-Year College categories. security numbers.

14 Table Title TABLE 6: 2004 Graduates College Attendance by Gender Condensed Table TABLE 7: 2004 Graduates College Attendance by Ethnicity Condensed Table TABLE 8: 2004 Graduates College Attendance Detailed Table Table Description Counts and column percentages of college attendance divided by gender. The title Condensed Table refers to the fact that Community and Technical College, Private Vocational School, and apprenticeship program participation are included in the 2-Year College categories. security numbers and a designation of gender. Counts and column percentages of college attendance divided by ethnicity. The title Condensed Table refers to the fact that Community and Technical College, Private Vocational School, and apprenticeship program participation are included in the 2-Year College categories. security numbers and a designation of ethnicity. Counts and column percentages of college attendance. The title Detailed Table refers to the fact that Community and Technical College, Private Vocational School, and apprenticeship program participation are reported as separate categories. security numbers.

15 Table Title TABLE 9: 2004 Graduates Remedial Coursework by College Type TABLE 10: 2004 Graduates Remedial Coursework by Gender TABLE 11: 2004 Graduates Remedial Coursework by Ethnicity Table Description Count and column percent of graduates enrolled in each type of college enrolling in remedial courses. Does not include Private Vocational School or apprenticeship programs since they do not offer remedial coursework. security numbers who attended either a Community or Technical College or a public four-year institution in Washington. Count and column percent of graduates enrolling in remedial courses by gender. security numbers and a gender designation who attended either a Community or Technical College or a public four-year institution in Washington. Count and column percent of graduates enrolling in remedial courses by ethnicity. security numbers and an ethnicity designation who attended either a Community or Technical College or a public four-year institution in Washington.

16 Table Title TABLE 12: 2004 Graduates Median Hourly Wage by Industry of Employment TABLE 13: 2004 Graduates Median Hourly Wage by Gender and Ethnic Group Table Description Count and median hourly wage by industry of employment (SIC). Wages are not reported for samples smaller than 10 in order to protect the confidentiality of student data. All wages are inflation-adjusted to first quarter 2005 dollars. Median wages are calculated from the graduates most recent wage. security numbers who were employed in the first year after graduation. Count and median hourly wage by gender and ethnicity. Wages are not reported for samples smaller than 10 in order to protect the confidentiality of student data. All wages are inflation-adjusted to first quarter 2005 dollars. Median wages are calculated from the graduates most recent wage. security numbers who were employed in the first year after graduation and had a designation of gender and ethnicity.

17 Table Title TABLE 14: 2004 Graduates Not Attending College Median Hourly Wage by Industry of Employment TABLE 15: 2004 Graduates Not Attending College Median Hourly Wage by Gender and Ethnic Group Table Description Count and median hourly wage by industry of employment (SIC). Wages are not reported for samples smaller than 10 in order to protect the confidentiality of student data. All wages are inflation-adjusted to first quarter 2005 dollars. Median wages are calculated from the graduates most recent wage. Includes all vocational completer graduates with social security numbers who did not attend college and were employed in the first year after graduation. Count and median hourly wage by gender and ethnicity. Wages are not reported for samples smaller than 10 in order to protect the confidentiality of student data. All wages are inflation-adjusted to first quarter 2005 dollars. Median wages are calculated from the graduates most recent wage. Includes all vocational completer graduates with social security numbers who did not attend college and were employed in the first year after graduation.

18 Appendix

19 TABLE 1: 2004 GRADUATES Student Post High School Efforts Condensed Table 2-Year College Only 4-Year College Only 2-Year & 4-Year Employed Only Employed & 2-Year Employed & 4-Year Employed, 2-Year & 4-Year No Data Located 1, % 2, % 125.3% 13, % 10, % 7, % % 4, % 41, % s may not equal 100% due to rounding PVS and Apprenticeship included with 2-Year College TABLE 2: 2004 GRADUATES Student Post High School Efforts by Gender Condensed Table 2-Year College Only 4-Year College Only 2-Year & 4-Year Employed Only Employed & 2-Year Employed & 4-Year Employed, 2-Year & 4-Year No Data Located Female s may not equal 100% due to rounding PVS and Apprenticeship included with 2-Year College Male % % 1, % 1, % 1, % 2, % 69.3% 56.3% 125.3% 6, % 6, % 13, % 5, % 4, % 10, % 4, % 3, % 7, % % % % 2, % 2, % 4, % 21, % 19, % 41, % 2-Year College Only 4-Year College Only 2-Year & 4-Year Employed Only Employed & 2-Year Employed & 4-Year Employed, 2-Year & No Data Located Asian TABLE 3: 2004 GRADUATES Student Post High School Efforts by Ethnic Group Condensed Table African Hispanic Count American Col % Native American % % % % 3 5.6% 1, % 1, % % % % % 5 9.3% 1, % 2, % 25.7% 5.3% 13.5% 1.1% 81.2% 125.3% % % 1, % % % 10, % 13, % % % % % % 8, % 10, % % % % % % 6, % 7, % % % 21.8% 5.6% 1 1.9% % % % % % % 5 9.3% 3, % 4, % 3, % 1, % 2, % % % 32, % 41, % s may not equal 100% due to rounding PVS and Apprenticeship included with 2-Year College Other White Page 1

20 TABLE 4: 2004 GRADUATES Student Post High School Efforts Detailed Table 2-Year College Only 4-Year College Only 2-Year & 4-Year Private Vocational School (PVS) Only PVS & 2-Year PVS & 4-Year Employed Only Employed & 2-Year Employed & 4-Year Employed, 2-Year & 4-Year Employed & PVS Employed, PVS & 2-Year Employed, PVS & 4-Year Employed & Apprenticeship Employed, Apprenticeship & 2-Year Employed, Apprenticeship & 4-Year Employed, Apprenticeship, 2-Year & 4-Year No Data Located 1, % 2, % 124.3% 52.1% 2.0% 1.0% 13, % 9, % 7, % % 210.5% 20.0% 4.0% 31.1% 40.1% 1.0% 1.0% 4, % 41, % s may not equal 100% due to rounding PVS participation data is not comparable to previous years because most of the data was not available in time to be included in this report. TABLE 5: 2004 GRADUATES College Attendance Condensed Table 2-Year College 4-Year College 2-Year & 4-Year Colleges No College/Unknown 11,782 29% 10,330 25% 750 2% 18,473 45% 41, % s may not equal 100% due to rounding PVS and Apprenticeship included with 2-Year College Page 2

21 TABLE 6: 2004 GRADUATES College Attendance by Gender Condensed Table 2-Year College 4-Year College 2-Year & 4-Year Colleges No College/Unknown Female s may not equal 100% due to rounding PVS and Apprenticeship included with 2-Year College Male 6,348 29% 5,434 28% 11,782 29% 5,748 27% 4,582 23% 10,330 25% 466 2% 284 1% 750 2% 9,096 42% 9,377 48% 18,473 45% 21, % 19, % 41, % 2-Year College 4-Year College 2-Year & 4-Year Colleges No College/Unknown Asian s may not equal 100% due to rounding PVS and Apprenticeship included with 2-Year College TABLE 7: 2004 GRADUATES College Attendance by Ethnicity Condensed Table African Hispanic Count American Col % Native Other Count American Col % White 1,044 30% % % % 15 28% 9,244 28% 11,775 28% 1,247 36% % % % 16 30% 8,266 25% 10,330 25% 90 3% 20 1% 34 1% 6 1% 1 2% 599 2% 750 2% 1,120 32% % 1,380 54% % 22 41% 14,704 45% 18,469 45% 3, % 1, % 2, % % % 32, % 41, % TABLE 8: 2004 GRADUATES College Attendance Detailed Table College Attendance 2-Year College 4-Year College 2-Year & 4-Year Colleges Private Vocational School (PVS) Only PVS & 2-Year PVS & 4-Year Apprenticeship Only Apprenticeship & 2-Year Apprenticeship & 4-Year Apprenticeship, 2-Year & 4-Year No College/Unknown 11,427 28% 10,330 25% 743 2% 262 1% 22 0% 5 0% 31 0% 40 0% 1 0% 1 0% 18,473 45% 41, % s may not equal 100% due to rounding PVS participation data is not comparable to previous years because most of the data was not available in time to be included in this report. Page 3

22 TABLE 9: 2004 GRADUATES Remedial Coursework by College Attendance Type College Attendance (Institutions with Remedial Courses) Remedial Coursework Remedial Math Remedial English No Remedial 2-Year College Col Response Cases % 4-Year College Col Response Cases % 2-Year & 4-Year Colleges Col Response Cases % Cases Col Response % 5,751 49% 745 9% % 6,636 32% 2,825 24% 326 4% 32 5% 3,183 16% 5,102 44% 7,315 89% % 12,860 63% 11, % 8, % % 20, % The amount over 100% in the line is the percentage of students enrolled in both remedial English and remedial math. TABLE 10: 2004 GRADUATES Remedial Coursework by Gender Remedial Coursework Remedial Math Remedial English No Remedial Female Gender Male Col Col Response Response Cases % Cases % 3,911 35% 2,725 29% 1,754 16% 1,429 15% 6,678 60% 6,182 66% 11, % 9, % The amount over 100% in the line is the percentage of students enrolled in both remedial English and remedial math. TABLE 11: 2004 GRADUATES Remedial Coursework by Ethnicity Asian African American Hispanic Ethnicity Native American Other White Remedial Coursework Remedial Math Remedial English No Remedial Col Col Col Col Col Col Cases Response % Cases Response % Cases Response % Cases Response % Cases Response % Cases Response % % % % % 10 36% 5,093 32% % % % 74 23% 4 14% 2,160 13% 1,476 67% % % % 18 64% 10,436 65% 2, % % 1, % % % 16, % The amount over 100% in the line is the percentage of students enrolled in both remedial English and remedial math. Page 4

23 TABLE 12: 2004 GRADUATES Median Hourly Wage by Industry of Employment Inflation Adjusted Wage in 1st Year Industry of Employment (SIC) in 1st Year Agriculture Mining Construction Manufacturing Transp & Pub Utilities Wholesale Trade Retail Trade Finance, Ins. & Real Estate Services Government Amounts inflation-adjusted to first quarter 2005 dollars Wages suppressed if valid N is less than 10 Valid N Median 1,165 $ $ ,425 $ ,237 $ $ $ ,421 $ $9.58 8,621 $ $ ,888 $8.37 Inflation Adjusted Wage in 1st Year Ethnicity Table Asian African American Hispanic Native American Other White TABLE 13: 2004 GRADUATES Median Hourly Wage by Gender and Ethnic Group Female Median Amounts inflation-adjusted to first quarter 2005 dollars Wages suppressed if valid N is less than 10 Gender Male Median Table Valid N Valid N Valid N Median 1,204 $8.23 1,062 $8.40 2,266 $ $ $8.37 1,098 $8.30 1,039 $ $8.47 1,952 $ $ $ $ $ $ $ ,084 $ ,566 $ ,650 $ ,275 $ ,318 $ ,593 $8.37 Page 5

24 TABLE 14: 2004 GRADUATES NOT ATTENDING COLLEGE Median Hourly Wage by Industry of Employment Inflation Adjusted Wage in 1st Year Industry of Employment (SIC) in 1st Year Agriculture Mining Construction Manufacturing Transp & Pub Utilities Wholesale Trade Retail Trade Finance, Ins. & Real Estate Services Government Amounts inflation-adjusted to first quarter 2005 dollars Wages suppressed if valid N is less than 10 Valid N Median 531 $ $ $ $ $ $9.38 5,618 $ $9.79 3,613 $ $ ,377 $8.47 Inflation Adjusted Wage in 1st Year Ethnicity Table TABLE 15: 2004 GRADUATES NOT ATTENDING COLLEGE Median Hourly Wage by Gender and Ethnic Group Asian African American Hispanic Native American Other White Valid N Female Median Amounts inflation-adjusted to first quarter 2005 dollars Wages suppressed if valid N is less than 10 Gender Male Median Table Valid N Valid N Median 323 $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $8.53 1,016 $ $ $ $ $ $ $8.98 5,047 $8.18 5,248 $ ,295 $8.52 6,286 $8.18 6,500 $ ,786 $8.48 Page 6

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