2 Prep2Test The purpose of this presentation is to provide future students a brief review before taking the Merced College Accuplacer test. This presentation is not designed as a comprehensive review. Our focus is on refreshing the student s knowledge of targeted elements of the Accuplacer placement test. This series was compiled based on assessment of students during our Prep2Test Workshop and feedback from those students.
3 Why review? According to the Accuplacer website there are two types of grammar/structure questions that students will be asked to respond to. Choose the most appropriate word or phrase for the underlined portion of the sentence. (College Board) Rewrite the sentence according to the criteria shown while maintaining essentially the same meaning as the original sentence. (College Board) College Board. Accuplacer Sample Questions for Students. Accuplacer.Collegeboard.org. College Board, Web. 30 May 2014.
4 Grammar and Sentence Structure This presentation will cover the following elements: The Eight Parts of Speech Comma Control Clauses Sentence Types Pronouns Gerunds Subject/Verb Recognition
5 Skill: The 8 Parts of Speech Each part of speech explains not what the word is, but how the word is used. In fact, a word can be a noun in one sentence and a verb or adjective in the next. Nouns Verbs Pronouns Adverbs Adjective Conjunctions Prepositions Interjections
6 Skill: The 8 Parts of Speech 1. Noun A noun is the name of a person place or thing, or idea Common Noun: refers to any place, person, thing, or idea. Examples girl, house, water, town, religion, despair Proper Noun: refers to any particular place, person, object, or idea Examples: Bob, Stockton, Eiffel Tower, Wednesday (Proper nouns must be capitalized)
7 Skill: The 8 Parts of Speech 2. Pronoun A pronoun takes the place of a noun. English pronouns have three specific cases the nominative case is used for the subject of the sentence or clause the possessive case shows who owns something the objective case receives the action of the verb or follows a preposition. Example: As soon as she returned from work, Maria called her mother.
8 Skill: The 8 Parts of Speech 3. Adjective Tells: Which One? What Kind? Or How Many? Adjective modifiers are words that describe nouns and specify size, color, number, and the like. Example: A small light showed in an upper window of the old factory.
9 Skill: The 8 Parts of Speech 4. Preposition Prepositions show how a noun or a pronoun is related to another word in a sentence. Example: The dog came bounding into the room. In this example the preposition into clarifies the relationship between the noun dog and the noun room by indicating that the dog will be moving into the room. He parked behind the truck. In this example the proposition behind connects the pronoun he and the noun truck. Words that we use as prepositions can also be used as adverbs. Example: The dog jumped up the tree.
10 Skill: The 8 Parts of Speech 5. Verb A verb shows action or state of being and the time of that action or state. Example: He waited in the car. (past) I need your report now. (present) You will enjoy your trip to Europe. (future)
11 Skill: The 8 Parts of Speech 6. Adverb Tells: When? Where? Or To What Extent? Adverb modifiers are words that describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. They specify in what manner, when, where, and how much. Example: The child screamed loudly as the doctor prepared an injection.
12 Skill: The 8 Parts of Speech 7. Conjunction Conjunctions join words, phrases, or clauses. There are two types Coordinating Conjunctions connect sentence elements of the same value, single words, phrases, or clauses. These conjunctions are known as the FANBOYS : and, but, for, or, nor, yet, and so. Subordinating Conjunctions join two clauses, the main one and the dependent (or subordinate) one. Some conjunctions used with dependent clauses are: although, because, since, while, and others that place a condition in the sentence.
13 Skill: The 8 Parts of Speech 8. Interjection Excitable Phrase or Word Interjections are also known as exclamations and are often signaled by the use of the exclamation mark (!). Example: Ah! There you are.
14 Skill: Comma Control 7 Common Comma Rules 1. Separate main clauses linked by coordinating conjunctions The cow was eating grass in the neighbor s yard, yet no one cared. 2. Set off most introductory elements Early in the morning, the farmer milks the cows. 3. Set off nonessential elements The farmer, in the green jeans, is the winner of the milking contest. 4. Separate items in a series Children love to eat milk and cookies, peanut butter and jelly, as well as candy.
15 Skill: Comma Control Continued 5. Separate coordinate adjectives Those small, round globes are called marbles. (If the adjectives can be reversed without changing meaning AND the word and can be inserted between the adjectives, then a comma is required.) 6. Separate signal phrases from quotations According to the text, she had died of heart disease--of the joy that kills. (Do not use a comma when a signal phrase follows a quotation ending in an exclamation point or a question mark.) 7. Separate parts of dates, addresses, place names, and long numbers December 12, West Palm, Dalton, Florida Davis, California is the home of the Mustangs 4,345,998
16 Skill: Comma Control Comma Abuse: Commas in the wrong places can break a sentence into illogical segments or confuse readers with unnecessary and unexpected pauses. 1. Don't use a comma to separate the subject from the verb. An eighteen-year old in California, is now considered an adult. (incorrect) An eighteen-year old in California is now considered an adult. (correct)
17 Skill: Comma Control 2. Don't put a comma between the two verbs or verb phrases in a compound predicate. I turned the corner, and ran smack into a patrol car. (incorrect) I turned the corner and ran smack into a patrol car. (correct)
18 Skill: Comma Control 3. Don't put a comma between the two nouns, noun phrases, or noun clauses in a compound subject or compound object. The music teacher from your high school, and the football coach from mine are married. (incorrect: compound subject) The music teacher from your high school and the football coach from mine are married. (correct: compound subject) Jeff told me that the job was still available, and that the manager wanted to interview me. (incorrect: compound object) Jeff told me that the job was still available and that the manager wanted to interview me. (correct: compound object)
19 Skill: Comma Control 4. Don't put a comma after the main clause when a dependent (subordinate) clause follows it (except for cases of extreme contrast). She was late for class, because her alarm clock was broken. (incorrect) She was late for class because her alarm clock was broken. (correct) The cat scratched at the door, while I was eating. (incorrect) The cat scratched at the door while I was eating. (correct) She was still quite upset although she had won the Oscar. (incorrect: extreme contrast) She was still quite upset, although she had won the Oscar. (correct: extreme contrast)
20 Skill: Comma Control 5. Always put a comma before the word which when it is part of an adjective clause. She purchased new books for the library, which did not have funds of its own. (correct) She purchased new books for the library which did not have funds of its own. (incorrect)
21 Skills: Clauses Independent Clause An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb and expresses a complete thought. An independent clause is a sentence. An independent clause is represented by the letters: IC Example: Jim studied in the lab for his chemistry quiz.
22 Skills: Clauses Dependent Clause A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought. A dependent clause cannot be a sentence. Often a dependent clause is marked by a dependent marker word a subordinating conjunction. A dependent clause is represented by the letters: DC Example: When Jim studied in the lab for his chemistry quiz (What happened when he studied? The thought is incomplete.)
23 Skill: Sentence Types Simple Clauses can be combined in various ways. But, if a sentence contains only an independent clause and no other clauses it will be a simple sentence. A simple sentence is an independent clause. A simple sentence is represented by the letters IC Example: The cow gives milk.
24 Skill: Sentence Types Compound A compound sentence is one containing two or more independent clauses. These clauses will be joined by a semicolon (;) or by a comma and a coordinating conjunction (and, or, but, for, nor, yet, so). IC, cc IC. = Compound Sentence Example: The cow gives milk, and the farmer puts the milk into a pail.
25 Skill: Sentence Types Complex A complex sentence is a sentence with one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. DC, IC. = Complex Sentence IC DC. = Complex Sentence Example: Before she goes out to pasture, the cow gives milk. The cow gives milk before she goes out to pasture.
26 Skill: Sentence Types Compound-Complex A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses. IC, cc IC DC. = Compound-Complex Sentence DC, IC, cc IC. = Compound-Complex Sentence Example: The cow gives milk, and the farmer puts the milk into the pail after he takes a drink. Before she goes out to pasture, the cow gives milk, and the farmer puts the milk into a pail.
27 Skill: Sentence Types Fragment A fragment is an incomplete thought. If you write a clause without a subject or verb or a complete thought it will be a fragment. If you write a phrase without a complete thought, it will be a fragment. Example: Before the cow gives milk The cow in the pasture
28 Skill: Pronouns Pronouns take the place of nouns. Antecedents are the nouns that pronouns refer to. Pronouns must agree with their antecedents in gender and number. Examples: Aunt Jane took her books to the library. (gender) My aunt and uncle spend the summer at their beach house. (number)
29 Skill: Pronouns Pronouns come in 3 cases Subject Used when the pronoun is the subject or subject complement. I, We, You, He/She/It, they, who/whoever Object Used when the pronoun works as an object. Me, Us, You, Him/Her/It, Them, Whom/Whomever Possessive Show possession or ownership. My/Mine, Whose, Their/Theirs, Your/Yours, Our/ours
30 Skill: Pronouns Some more rules to consider Subject Use when it follows a linking verb like be, seem, or feel. It was I who wrecked the car. (not me) Use when the pronoun is part of a compound subject(does the action). Last year, my sister and I went camping. Object Use when the pronoun is part of a compound object(receives the action). There was never any tension between him and me. Before or after an infinitive(to + verb) Our instructor asked James and me to share our findings with the class. Possessive Use when the pronoun comes before a gerund. Meryl Davis is famous for her ice dancing.
31 Skill: Pronouns Continued Generic Nouns refer to a type of person or thing. Example: Antecedents/Pronouns Every teacher should always arrive early to his or her class. (singular) Teachers should always arrive early to their classes. (Plural)
32 Skill: Pronouns Indefinite Pronouns These are singular(even if they seem to be plural). Includes words like anyone, each, either, everyone, neither, no one, and someone Examples: Everyone in the class did their best on the exam.(incorrect/plural pronoun) Everyone in the class did his or her best on the exam. (correct/singular)
33 Skill: Pronouns Collective Nouns Take a plural pronoun when they refer to individuals in the group Take a singular pronoun when they refer to the group as a whole. Include words like students, administration, or audience Example: The baseball team got its drive from their coach. (singular) The baseball team shook hands with their opposition. (plural)
34 Skill: Gerunds A Gerund is a verb form ending in ing Gerunds work as nouns in sentences even though they look like verbs. Gerunds are usually the subject of the sentence. Example: Many people like to go swimming when it is hot. Hiking, skiing, and biking are all great outdoor activities.
35 Skill: Subject/Verb Recognition Subjects and verbs must agree in number(singular or plural). She and her friend is taking a trip. (Incorrect) She and her friend are taking a trip. (Correct) If a subject has two or more nouns/pronouns connected by or they require a singular verb. The subject refers to who or what is doing the action of a sentence. The verb is the action or state of being that usually follows the subject.
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