Basic Sentence Parts. Mr. Brasher

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1 Basic Sentence Parts Mr. Brasher

2 Subjects and Predicates

3 Complete Subjects and Predicates Sentence- group of words with two main parts: complete subject and complete predicate. Together, express a complete thought. Complete subject includes noun or pronoun that names the person, place, or thing. Complete predicate includes a verb or verb phrase that tells something about the complete subject. Each complete subject and predicate can include other words that are not considered essential. Exercise 1 on page 412 out loud as a class.

4 Simple Subjects and Predicates Simple subject- essential noun, pronoun, or group of words acting as a noun that cannot be left out of complete subject. Simple predicate- essential verb or verb phrase that cannot be left out of the complete predicate. In examples on page 413, all other words either add or modify to simple subject or the extra words make more sense out of the complete predicate or complete meaning.

5 Simple Subjects and Predicates continued Object of the preposition can never be a simple subject. (In first example jugs is simple subject, not cider) Also, an adverb can split up the simple predicate. (In second example, not splits up do and like.) Note about the book: from now on when the book says subject, they are referring to the simple subject and verb refers to simple predicate. (Probably do not need to write down)

6 Simple Subjects and Predicates continued To find subject of a sentence before the verb, ask: What word is the sentence about?, then ask, What did the subject do? Answer will be an action verb; if not answer to second question look for linking verb. If you find it easier to locate verb first before subject, first look for an action verb or linking verb then ask Who? or What? Answer will be the subject. Page 414 exercise 2 out loud as a class.

7 Compound Subject and Verbs Compound subject is two or more subjects that have same verb and are joined by conjunction such as and or or. Compound Verbs- two or more verbs that have the same subject and are joined by a conjunction such as and or or. Note- when a compound verb phrase consists of two or more verb phrases with same helping verb, helping verb often only used with first verb. Page 416 exercise 3 out loud as a class.

8 19.2 Hard-to-Find Subjects

9 Subjects in Orders and Directions Sentences that give orders or directions, subject is often understood to be you. Look at box on page 418

10 Subjects in Inverted Sentences Sentences that begin with there or here could be inverted sentences; questions often inverted as well. Inverted question can begin with a verb, a helping verb, or one of the following: how, what, when, where, who, whose, or why. To find subject, rephrase question mentally as a statement. Usually, subject and verb will fall into usual order. Questions beginning with interrogative adjective or pronoun might be in usual subject-verb order. Exercise 12 on page 419 out loud as class.

11 Sentences beginning with There or Here. Subject of the sentence will never be there or here. When a sentence starts with one of these, subject usually follows the verb. Just be sure to rephrase question mentally to find usual subjectverb pattern. Some sentences that begin with there or here are not in inverted order; in these cases usually point out a specific location.

12 Sentences beginning with There or Here continued. If there or here are used as adverbs and modify the verb and tell where. If there is merely used to get the sentence started, then it is called an expletive. If there is used as an expletive, then rephrasing may not work. Substitute Who? or What? for there and ask it before the verb. Page 420 exercise 13 out loud.

13 Inverted order for emphasis Sometimes subject-verb order is deliberately ivnerted to emphasize the word or words at the end of sentence. In these cases, it is to draw emphasis to the subject at the end of the subject and adds a sense of drama or surprise to the sentence.. Look at box on page 422. Exercise 14 on page 422 out loud as aclass.

14 Homework Page 417 exercises 5 and 6 Page 424 exercises 16 and 17

15 19.3 Direct Objects, Indirect Objects, and Objective Complements Complement- word or group of words that complete the meaning of the predicate of a sentence

16 Direct Objects Direct object is noun or pronoun that receives the action of a transitive action verb. Only transitive verbs can direct their action towards someone or something (direct object). Intransitive verbs have no direct objects.

17 Direct Objects in Questions When a question follows the normal subject-verb order, can find direct object by asking Whom? or What? after action verb. When question is inverted, direction object will sometimes appear near beginning, before the verb. To find direct object, reword question as a statement in normal word order. Look at example.

18 Compound Direct Objects When action verb directs action towards more than one direct object, result is a compound direct object. Ask Whom? or What? After verb and will give you two or more answers. Page 426 exercise 22 out loud as a class.

19 Direct Object or Object of Preposition? A direct object is never the noun or pronoun at the end of a prepositional phrase. Look at examples then do exercise 23 on page 427.

20 The Indirect Object Indirect object is noun or pronoun that appears with a direct object and names the person or thing that something is give to or done for. To find indirect object, first be certain that the sentence has a direct object. Then, having found the direct object, ask To or for whom? or To or for what? after action verb.

21 Compound Indirect Objects When there is a compound indirect object in a sentence, asking To or for whom? or To or for what? after the verb will lead to two or more answers.

22 Indirect or Direct Object? To avoid confusion, remember than an indirect object almost always comes between the verb and the direct object. In a normal sentence, the structure will always be verb-indirect object-direct object. Look at example.

23 Indirect Object or Object of a Preposition An indirect object is never preceded by the word to or for. Moreover, it almost always follows the direct object. Page 429 exercise 25 out loud as a class.

24 The Objective Complement Objective complement is an adjective or noun that appears with a direct object and describes or renames it. Do not occur often. Used only with verbs such as appoint, name, make, think, or call. Can only be found in a sentence with a direct object. To determine if an objective complement, say verb and direct object and ask What? Page 430 exercise 26 out loud as class

25 19.4 Subject Complements Subject complement is a noun, pronoun, or adjective that appears with a linking verb and tells something about the subject of the sentence. Will always be found after a linking verb.

26 Predicate Nominative Predicate Nominative is a noun or pronoun that appears with a linking verb and renames, identifies, or explains the subject of the sentence. Can be compound. Page 433 exercise 33 out loud

27 Predicate Adjective Predicate adjective is an adjective that appears with a linking verb and describes the subject of the sentence.

28 Homework Page 431 exercises 27 and 28 Page 435 exercise 35

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