Sentence Parts. Abbreviations

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1 Sentence Parts Daily Grammar Practice Day 2 Tuesday what do I do with all those labels from Monday? First, don t ignore what you did yesterday. Use Monday s labels as a guide. 1. Label any prepositional phrases (identify the object of the preposition; label the phrase as adjective or adverb.) 2. Label any simple subjects (Remember to underline the complete subjects) 3. Label any verbs (is it transitive or intransitive? Remember to underline the complete predicates.) 4. Label any direct and indirect objects 5. Label any predicate adjectives or predicate nominatives 6. Label any appositives Need more details? Look inside! Abbreviations Complete subject complete predicate. ( ) = phrase s - simple subject vt - verb transitive vi - verb intransitive do - direct object io - indirect object pn - predicate nominative pa - predicate adjective appos ph - appositive phrase essen essential noness - nonessential op - object of the preposition Tuesday Caveman talk good way find simple subject and simple verb

2 Sentence Subject SIMPLE SUBJECT - main word (or group of words) in the complete subject must be a noun or pronoun can never be in a prepositional phrase There and here are never the subject of a sentence. The subject can be an understood you : o Ex: Bring me the remote control, please. (You bring it.) My family likes yoga in the morning. COMPLETE SUBJECT - the simple subject and all its modifiers; part of the sentence about which something is being said In the morning, my family likes yoga. Sentence Predicate SIMPLE PREDICATE - the main VERB in the sentence ACTION VERB (SIMPLE PREDICATE) Transitive: transfers action to a direct object (We love grammar.) Intransitive: does not take a direct object (Sheila sat down.) S VT DO The eagle spotted the mouse from his branch. S VI The truck sat in our driveway all day. LINKING VERBS (SIMPLE PREDICATE) Link the subject to a predicate adjective or predicate nominative Shows a state of being S LV PA The truck was blue. S LV PN Sue was a cheerleader. S LV (Shows a state of being) She was at home. COMPLETE PREDICATE - the verb plus all its modifiers; part of a sentence that says something about the subject My family likes yoga in the morning. Beware of Inverted Sentences When something other than the subject is first! S V In the morning, Sam likes eggs. (Prep phrase is first) Flip, then label Sam likes eggs in the morning. S HV V Did Sam eat eggs today? (It s a question) Make a statement, then label Sam did eat eggs today. 2

3 Complements COMPLEMENTS complete the meaning of the subject and verb Complements are NEVER found in prepositional phrases!! -Direct objects -Indirect objects -Predicate adjectives -Predicate nominatives Direct & Indirect Objects Direct object - a noun or pronoun that follows an action verb and receives the action of that verb To find it, say, subject verb - what? I like English. I like - what? English = direct object Susan quickly threw the ball across the field. Susan threw what? ball = direct object Predicate Adjectives & Nominatives Predicate nominative (noun)- a noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and renames the subject To find it, say subject - linking verb - what? He is a nice guy. He is - what? Guy = predicate nominative The teacher was the basketball coach. teacher - was - what? coach= predicate nominative Indirect objects - a noun or pronoun that comes before a direct object To find it, say, subject verb - direct object - to or for whom or what? He gave me the paper. He gave paper - to whom? me = indirect object Susan quickly threw Tom the ball across the field. Susan - threw - ball - to whom? Tom=indirect object Predicate adjective - an adjective that follows a linking verb and describes the subject To find it, say subject - linking verb - what? He is nice. He is - what? nice = predicate adjective The blue dress was lovely. dress - was - what? lovely = predicate adjective 3

4 APPOSITIVE a noun or pronoun that follows and renames another noun or pronoun 1. Essential appositives are NEEDED for clarity of meaning in the sentence but do NOT need commas around the appositive. My son Matt likes trains. (appositive: Matt) The poem Oh Captain, My Captain by Walt Whitman is one of my favorites. (appositive = Oh Captain, My Captain ) PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE a group of words beginning with a preposition and ending with a noun or pronoun and functioning as either an adjective or an adverb Adjective?? Answers the questions: Which one?, What kind? or How many? Adjective I want a room (with a view) with a view answers the question what kind of room The boat (with the red sail) is sure to win the race with a red sail answers which boat Adverb OR Adverb?? Answers the questions: When? Where? How? or To what extent? His house is (on the lake) on the lake answers where of the verb is My dog left his favorite bone (under the kitchen table) under the kitchen table answers the question where 2. Nonessential appositives are added descriptive details and DO need the commas around the appositive Maggie, my daughter, loves to dance. (appositive: my daughter) Oh Captain, My Captain, a poem by Walt Whitman, is one of my favorites. (appositive = a poem by Walt Whitman) OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION - follows a preposition and tells what? The key is (under the rug). under what? rug = object of preposition The dragon slept (on his golden treasure). on what? treasure = object of the preposition The mountain (in the distance) was tall. in what? distance = object of the preposition **If there is no object, it is not a preposition: She went (out the door.) prep phrase She went out. (out is an adverb.) 4

5 Subject/Verb Agreement Let s All Just Get Along! The basic rules: A singular subject takes a singular verb. (Tom talks too much.) A plural subject takes a plural verb. (The girls talk too much.) But there are many, many tricky ones: Compound subject joined by and = plural (Tom and Bob talk too much.) Compound subject joined by or = singular (Tom or Bob talks too much.) Indefinite pronouns often take singular verbs (Everyone talks too much.) How decide which verb to use: 1. Is your subject a he, she, or it? If so, how would you say the verb? He walks. She runs. 2. Is your subject a they (meaning it is plural and there are more than one of them)? If so, how would you say the verb (try substituting in the word they if it helps. They walk. They run. The pronouns each, everyone, every one, everybody, anyone, anybody, someone, and somebody are singular and require singular verbs. Do not be misled by the object of the preposition in the prepositional phrase that follows the indefinite pronoun. Singular form Plural form

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