Fall Protection. Fall Protection

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1 Fall Protection Purpose The purpose of this section is to establish protective controls for personnel working at elevated heights which will prevent or minimize injury or death resulting from falls. Scope This procedure establishes minimum requirements for working at unguarded elevated work locations that are six (6) feet or greater above floor/grade level or that present a potential for fall and/or injury to personnel. This procedure applies to all Apache Corporation employees and contract personnel. It covers activities such as, but not limited to work in or on: Pipe racks Unguarded scaffolding Suspended scaffolds Tank tops Derricks Process structures without guarded work platforms Ladders Responsibilities The Person in Charge (PIC), Lead Operator, Consultant, or Production Superintendent is responsible for: Understanding and complying with this procedure. Evaluating the potential elevated work hazards at Apache Corporation facilities/sites, qualifying the level of risk of each job, and establishing the required safeguards. Ensuring that personnel assigned to work at heights requiring fall protection are properly trained according to the requirements of this policy. Re-evaluating the potential elevated work hazards when changes in work areas may affect the safeguards required. Monitoring work areas for compliance with this procedure and required safeguards. Ensuring any additional precautions are included as necessary in permits. Evaluating the need for a rescue plan as an integral part of pre-planning a job which requires the use of fall protection. Ensuring inspections are performed by their personnel. Removing from service any equipment subjected to the forces of a fall. Ensuring the Working from Heights and/or Open Hole Checklist (Section D, Chapter 6, Part A) is completed prior to beginning work from heights or opening of hole(s). Page D-6-1

2 Employee or Contract Personnel are responsible for: Understanding and following the requirements of this Fall Protection Policy and Procedures. Bringing any questions or concerns about the type of personal fall protection equipment or system installation on any job to the attention of supervision. Inspecting the personal fall protection system anchor points, connecting means, lanyards, harnesses, etc. prior to use. This inspection should be thorough and any problems should be immediately brought to the attention of supervision. Reporting any fall to supervisors immediately. Removing from service any equipment subjected to the forces of a fall. Requirements This policy provides for continuous or 100% tie off fall protection, when the possibility of a fall of 6 feet or greater exists. This means that the employee must be tied off 100% of the time while repositioning or moving into a work area at heights of 6 feet or greater. This may occur when work activities include traversing, climbing, descending, etc. This can be achieved by the use of a double strap, Y lanyard or a self retracting lifeline. Equipment A full body harness is required to properly distribute fall arrest forces to minimize potential injury to the body in the event of a fall. The maximum arresting force on an employee shall be limited to 1,800 lbs. The harness must be made of polyester material, and be ANSI Z359.1 approved. Harnesses shall be capable of supporting 5,000 lbs. Example of Full Body Harness Page D-6-2

3 Lanyards - a maximum of 6 feet in length are required (smaller lanyards are acceptable). Lanyards must be ANSI Z359.1 approved. Lanyards must have a shock absorbing device integral to them. Shock absorbers shall allow for a maximum deceleration distance of 3.5 feet, and limit fall arrest forces to 900 lbs. All snap hooks integral to lanyards shall be of the self-locking/self-closing design. Lanyards shall be capable of supporting 5,000 lbs. Double strap Y - Lanyard with Shock Absorbing Device for 100% Tie Off Capability Anchor Point An anchor point is a secure point of attachment for lanyards, lifelines, or other components of a personal fall protection system. Anchor points shall be capable of supporting 5,000 lbs. per employee attached, or shall be designed with a safety factor of at least two by a qualified person. An anchor point should be as directly overhead as possible, or attachment to the anchor point should be chosen as to not allow a free fall of greater than 6 feet. In cases where the anchor point is lower than the attachment point of the harness, a shorter lanyard or other fall arrest device (i.e., retractable lifeline) should be used. Chokers Examples: Retractable Lifeline Example: Page D-6-3

4 Additional Fall Protection Inspection Horizontal Lifeline Horizontal lifelines shall be designed, installed, and used under the supervision of a qualified person, as part of a complete personal fall arrest system, which maintains a safety factor of two. [ (d)(8)]. Refer to 29 CFR 1926 Subpart M, Appendix C for guidelines. If the above criteria for horizontal lifeline systems cannot be met, a preengineered and tested horizontal lifeline system shall be used in lieu of a make-shift horizontal lifeline. Vertical Lifeline When vertical lifelines are used, each employee shall be attached to a separate lifeline. Components of the vertical lifeline system shall be capable of supporting 5,000 lbs. The attachment point of the fall arrestor shall be at the dorsal D-ring of the harness. When permanently installed ladder climbing systems are used, the fall arrestor shall be attached at the chest D-ring of the harness. Self-Retracting Lanyard (SRL) SRL s shall be installed using ANSI Z359.1 approved connectors (e.g., carabiners or anchor pads/straps), to an anchor point capable of supporting 5,000 lbs. The attachment point of the SRL shall be at the dorsal D-ring of the harness. Users of SRL s shall not connect the snap hook of their lanyard to the snap hook of a SRL. SRL s should be used when the potential free fall distance is greater than 6 feet, or when the height of the walking/working surface is less than 12 feet from ground level. (A shorter lanyard may also be used in the above situation.) Personal fall arrest systems shall be inspected prior to each use for wear, damage, or other deterioration, and defective components shall be removed from service. Maintenance and Storage Fall protection equipment should be cleaned with cool soapy water and rinsed with clear cool water. Equipment should be hung by the D-ring to dry. Equipment shall not be force-dried. When not in use, equipment should be hung in a clean, dry area by the D-ring. Equipment should never be stored in a gang or tool box. Page D-6-4

5 Hazard Analysis When a job task will create the possibility or potential for a fall, the Person in Charge (PIC), Lead Operator or Consultant should consider methods in which to address fall hazards in the following order: Climbing Fall Elimination Eliminate the need to perform elevated work. Fall Prevention Fall prevention may be accomplished by the use of manlifts, scaffolds, or temporary access ways with standard hand-rails, midrails, and toe boards. Fall protection Use of proper fall arrest systems such as: full body harnesses, Y lanyards, lifelines (both vertical and horizontal), retractable lifelines, etc. This equipment shall be made available to employees. Tools and other materials shall not be carried by hand while climbing a ladder. Special precautions shall be taken when wet or other slippery conditions exist. Vertical beams shall not be climbed. When using stairs, one hand shall be free to use the handrails. Climbing on equipment such as pumps, exchangers, valve hand wheels, transformers, electric motors, hand rails, structures, or any other facilities not designed for climbing should be avoided. Climbing on conduit, cable trays, or other equipment not capable of supporting the weight of a person is prohibited. Climbing on a ladder while another person is above or on the same section of the ladder is prohibited. When working from a ladder, the ladder shall be secure at both ends and fall protection should be utilized. Adequate support should be available when walking in pipe bands to provide a safe walking/working surface without causing damage to the piping, insulation, or heat tracing. Personal fall protection must be used and anchored to a designated anchor point when using, traveling on, or working from mobile work platforms such as: Spiders, Manlifts, Scissor-lifts and/or Crane baskets Page D-6-5

6 Lanyards and Anchor Points When not in use, lanyards should be attached back to the harness in such a way as to not present a tripping hazard. The ends of lanyards should not be dragged on the ground. Lanyards should be attached to the best possible anchor point (one that is capable of supporting at least 5000 pounds per person attached). Anchor points shall be at least as high as the attachment point of the harness in order to comply with 29 CFR 1926, Subpart M. Lanyards shall be protected from cuts or abrasions. When a direct snap hook to anchorage connection cannot be achieved, an anchorage connector should be used. Snap hooks should always be fixed to an anchorage so as to not allow a side load on the hook. Knots shall not be tied in lanyards. The snap hooks of a Y lanyard shall not be connected to each other. Same Level Falls Good housekeeping is the key to the prevention of same level falls. Usable and waste material shall be stored out of walking / working surfaces and shall not congest a work area. Surfaces shall be kept free of slipping hazards. Floor holes and openings shall be covered so as not to create tripping hazards. Hole covers must be capable of supporting at least twice the maximum load that may be imposed on them. Covers must be secured and marked HOLE or COVER. Materials shall not be allowed to collect around work tables, desks, threading machines, etc. Different Level Falls / Deck Openings Every open-sided floor or platform 4 feet or more above adjacent floor or ground level shall be guarded by a standard railing as per OSHA , on all open sides except where there is entrance to a ramp, stairway or fixed ladder. The railing shall be provided with a toe board wherever, beneath the open sides; persons can pass, there is moving machinery or there is equipment with which fall materials could create a hazard. Every flight of stairs having four or more risers shall be equipped with standard stair railings as per OSHA 29 CFR Page D-6-6

7 Guarding of deck openings: Openings in decks accessible to personnel must be covered, guarded, or otherwise made inaccessible when not in use. The manner of blockage shall prevent a person s foot or body from inadvertently passing through the opening. Any open hole that is created must be barricaded with hard pipe, cable or construction fencing in conjunction with cable to prevent personnel from inadvertently falling through. The construction of this barricade shall meet all OSHA requirements. The top of the barricade must be at least 42 inches in height and shall have a middle railing. It should also be able to withstand a load of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction at any point of the rail. Shall have a 4 kick plate at the bottom if personnel are working below the opening (a standard handrail pipe can be used at the bottom as long as it is no more that 4 from the top of the pipe to the decking). Any open hole that cannot be barricaded immediately after exposure must be monitored by an open hole attendant (see below guidelines). Open Hole Attendant Open holes lacking a cover or protective barrier shall be constantly attended to by an Open Hole Attendant (person with a specific duty to keep other workers from accessing the area also called a hole watch). Open hole attendants should not be assigned additional duties and be present for all jobs involving open holes as there will be occasions where the hole will be unguarded by a cover or protective barrier (such as during cover removal or construction of barrier). An open hole attendant may be used in lieu of barricading where a job is of very short duration (such as simply removing a hole cover and dropping a piece of equipment to a lower deck and then immediately replacing the cover) and the installation of a barrier would introduce more hazards than the short duration of work with an open hole. The open hole attendant shall wear fall protection at all times and as stated before, be immediately present in the area of the open hole at all times while it is uncovered or unbarricaded. The following are NOT considered adequate barriers for open hole protection, elimination or correction: Cables without adequate anchoring or posting. Proper tensioning should not allow cables to be moved up or down more than six inches. Light ropes, plastic flagging tape (surveying tape), or similarly weak materials. Wooden railings using less than 2 by 4 stock. Construction fencing used without properly anchored or posted restraining cables. Page D-6-7

8 Hole Covers Hole covers of sufficient integrity with a sure fit are the preferred method of correcting open holes. The covers should be capable of supporting at least twice the weight of anticipated work load, materials or equipment that may be imposed on the cover at any one time. The cover should not protrude above the walking surface so as to cause a tripping hazard. Covers that protrude less than 1 inch above the plane of the walking surface and contain beveled edges are acceptable. The cover shall be secured to prevent accidental displacement by wind, equipment or employees. The cover should be distinguishable by color coding (different color than surroundings) or be labeled as Hole or Cover. Training Requirements Personnel who might be exposed to fall hazards shall be trained in but not limited to the following: Identifying potential fall hazards. Identifying proper anchor points. Using the correct procedures for inspecting and utilizing personal fall protection equipment. Proper selection and donning of adequate personal fall protection equipment. Use of rescue equipment and procedures. Competent Person shall be trained and have skills/knowledge in the following: The correct procedures for erecting, maintaining, disassembling, and inspecting the fall protection and rescue systems to be used. Identifying potential fall hazards. Identifying proper anchor points. Development of rescue planning including procedures and required equipment. The standards contained in 29 CFR 1926, Subpart M. Page D-6-8

9 Definitions Anchorage a secure point of attachment for lifelines, lanyards, or deceleration devices. Body Harness Straps which may be secured about the employee in a manner that will distribute the fall arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest, and shoulders with means for attaching it to other components of a personal fall arrest system. Competent Person one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in their surroundings or work environment. A competent person for this procedure will be trained and experienced in fall hazards, fall/rescue equipment and procedures. A competent person may be required when the scope of operations require extensive rescue planning and fall protection systems. Controlled Access Zones An area in which certain work may take place without the use of guardrail systems, personal fall arrest systems, or safety net systems, and where access to the zone is controlled. Deceleration Device Any mechanism, such as a rope grab, rip stitch lanyard, specially woven lanyard, tearing or deforming lanyards, automatic self-retracting lifelines/lanyards, etc., which serves to dissipate a substantial amount of energy during a fall or otherwise limit the energy imposed on an employee during fall arrest. Deceleration Distance - the additional vertical distance a falling employee travels, excluding lifeline elongation and free fall distance, before stopping, from the point at which the deceleration device begins to operate. It is measured as the distance between the location of an employee s body belt or body harness attachment point at the moment of activation (at the onset of fall arrest forces) of the deceleration device during a fall, and the location of that attachment point after the employee comes to a full stop. Free fall - the act of falling before a personal fall arrest system begins to apply force to arrest the fall. Free fall distance - the vertical displacement of the fall arrest attachment point on the employee s body belt or body harness between onset of the fall and just before the system begins to apply force to arrest the fall. This distance excludes deceleration distance, and lifeline / lanyard elongation, but includes any deceleration device slide distance or selfretracting lifeline / lanyard extension before they operate and fall arrest forces occur. Guardrail system - a barrier erected to prevent employees from falling to lower levels. Lanyard A flexible line of rope, wire rope, or straps which generally has a connector at each end for connecting the body harness to a deceleration device, lifeline, or anchorage. Y Lanyard Two lanyards sharing a common shock absorbing device. Leading Edge The edge of a floor, roof, or formwork for a floor or other walking / working surface (such as the deck), which changes location as additional floor, roof, decking, or formwork sections are placed, formed, or constructed to be an unprotected side and edge during periods when it is not actively and continuously under construction. Page D-6-9

10 Lifeline A component consisting of a flexible line for connection to an anchorage at one end to hang vertically (vertical lifeline), or for connection to anchorages at both ends to stretch horizontally (horizontal lifeline), and which serves as a means for connecting other components of a personal fall arrest system to the anchorage. Open Hole a hole that is 2 inches or more, located in any walking or working surface. Personal Fall Arrest System A system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level. It consists of an anchorage, connectors, a body harness, and may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combinations of these. Rope Grab A deceleration device that travels on a lifeline and automatically by friction, engages the lifeline and locks so as to arrest the fall of an employee. A rope grab usually employs the principle of inertial locking, cam/level locking, or both. Rescue Plan If fall protection systems are being utilized for a particular job, during the JSA process, a rescue plan shall be established. This plan will determine who will assist in the rescue of a fall arrest victim. Planning will also include a method of retrieval, in which the rescue team has been properly trained to operate. Safety Monitoring A safety system in which a competent person is responsible for recognizing and warning employees of fall hazards. Self-Retracting Lifeline/Lanyard A deceleration device containing a drum-wound line, which can be slowly extracted from or retracted onto the drum under slight tension during normal employee movement, and which after onset of a fall, automatically locks the drum and arrests the fall. Standard Railing (handrail) Shall consist of a top rail, intermediate rail, and posts, and shall have a vertical height of 42 inches nominal from upper surface of top rail to floor, platform, runway, or ramp level and shall meet OSHA 29 CFR requirements. Standard Stair Railing (handrail) Shall be of construction similar to a standard railing but the vertical height shall be not more than 34 inches nor less than 30 inches from the upper surface of top rail to surface of tread in line with face of riser at forward edge of tread and shall meet OSHA 29 CFR requirements. Unprotected sides and edges - any side or edge, 4 feet or more above adjacent floor or ground level, (except at entrances to points of access) e.g., floor, roof, ramp, or runway, where there is no wall or standard rail system at least 42 inches high. Walking / working surface - any surface, whether horizontal or vertical, on which an employee walks or works, including, but not limited to, floors, roofs, ramps, bridges, runways, formwork, and concrete reinforcing steel, but not including ladders, vehicles, or trailers, on which employees must be located in order to perform their job duties. Page D-6-10

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