THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

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1 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

2 American Strengths and Weaknesses Patriotism Help from French George Washington Small army and short of soldiers Few trained for battle Army plagued by shortage of guns, gunpowder, food and uniforms

3 British Strengths and Weaknesses Strengths 50,000 soldiers and 30,000 Hessian mercenaries to help them fight Well trained, experienced Well supplied with food, uniforms, ammunition and weapons Weaknesses Sending troops and supplies from Britain to America was slow and costly British were not passionate about defeating the rebels and they had poor leadership

4 Britain Almost Wins the War Britain was going to capture NYC and then move north to Massachusetts to capture the rebels at their heart Boston Washington takes his troops to NYC Has Declaration read to them to increase their motivation Many of this troops believed freedom and chance to create their own country were goals worth fighting for

5 African Americans in the War They were not sure if independence would apply to them Thousands of slaves fought for Loyalists because banned from Continental Army Shortage of volunteers caused Washington to change his mind on the ban Many Americans questioned their believes on slavery and by end of war some states had taken steps to end slavery

6 Defeat in New York Aug 27, days of fighting British lost 377 men while Americans lost 1407 British thought they had just about won Washington did not give up but he had to retreat for his troops to survive

7 Fading Hopes NYC battle was 1 st of many defeats for Americans things looked bleak Trying time for soldiers no food to eat, soldiers were weak Many soldiers were going home once their enlistment was up Americans needed more troops and more supplies very quickly

8 The Crisis British thought war was ending Howe offered to pardon all rebels who signed a statement promising obedience to the king many took him up this Thomas Paine s new pamphlet G. Washington read the words to this soliders to fire them up

9 Victory in Trenton Dec 25, 1776 Crossing Delaware famous painting (pg 92 in text has picture) Snow and ice were torture-ous to the Americans but they persevered Hessians were happily sleeping off their Christmas feast when Washington attacked Washington did not lose a single man and took 868 prisoners Took 300 troops at Princeton a few weeks later Many Americans were re-energized to fight

10 Tide Begins to Turn To start both sides were trying to defeat the other side in one big battle Washington revised this strategy and decided to fight a defensive war Hoped to tire out the British

11 New British Strategy Germain (leader of British troops) was going to divide and conquer Take control of NY s Hudson River Valley would do this General Burgoyne left Canada in June and planned to move an army south to Albany, NY where he would meet up with Howe who was supposed to march his army North from NYC

12 Problems for Burgoyne The route Burgoyne chose to take to get to Albany took him through 20 miles of tangled wilderness that his army was not prepared to cross Moved very slowly with 600 wagons Also, Howe did not head to Albany, instead he went to Philadelphia to try to get the Colonists capital Howe wanted to get into battle with GW GW instead made Howe chase him, playing hide and seek

13 Turning Point When Burgoyne finally gets to Saratoga Springs on the Hudson river there are a lot of colonial militia there Burgoyne is outnumbered but orders attack anyway Burgoyne has to surrender at Saratoga Many Americans are inspired again and the French also join the Americans after a while

14 Valley Forge War is still far from over Howe still occupies Philadelphia Valley Forge is the place Washington s troops camped for winter of Had hardly any food or supplies (many farmers sold their food to the British for money) Baron Friedrich von Steuben volunteer from Prussia in charge of training hoped to distract men from their misery Army grew stronger everyday

15 Valley Forge (cont.) Von Steuben drilled the men every day and the army grew much stronger Marquis de Lafayette also helped raise troop s spirits Used his own money to buy the troops supplies That spring the British were about to abandon Philadelphia - Washington wanted to put his troops to the test

16 Battle of Monmouth Sir Henry Clinton had taken over for General Howe at this time Clinton orders British to retreat from Philadelphia June 28, 1778 Washington s troops catch up with British near Monmouth, New Jersey Washington cheers his troops on and after 2 days the British retreat War in the north was over

17 War Goes South British have not conquered any state in the north so they change strategies Move war to South British thought there were Loyalists there waiting to help out Clinton began southern campaign succeeded in Georgia, N. and S. Carolina After that Clinton leaves Cornwallis in charge of the south and Clinton returns to NYC

18 Saving the South Guerilla soldiers not a part of official army kept American cause alive Hit- and run raids on the British in the south 1780 Washington sent Nathaniel Greene to slow the British in the south Greene lead Cornwallis on a wild goose chase through the south Cornwallis grew tired and took his troops to Yorktown in Virginia

19 Trap at Yorktown Cornwallis settles into Yorktown, France sends 5000 troops to join Washington Washington learns that another 3000 French soldiers are coming in French warships Washington traps Cornwallis moves army to Virginia and surround Yorktown on land with 16,000 troops French warships show up in time to block the entrance to the Bay the British were on so the British are surrounded

20 Cornwallis Surrenders Oct 19, 1781 British troops marched to surrender American army was weak and faded did not even have uniforms Cornwallis could not bear to surrender to this type of army so he did not participate in the ceremony

21 War Ends Months dragged on before King George officially surrendered because he did not want to give up Americans were happy but freedom was not cheap 6,200 died in battle 10,000 died in camp of disease 8,500 died as British prisoners

22 Treaty of Paris 1783 representatives of US and Britain signed a treaty in Paris 3 parts: 1 England recognizes the US as independent nation 2 Britain gave up its claim to all lands between Atlantic Coast and Mississippi River from Canada to Florida 3 US agreed to return all rights and property taken from Loyalists during the wary

23 Loyalists react to Treaty Many loyalists did not trust the Patriots Loyalists had not been treated well during the war More than 80,000 Loyalists left the US and settled in Canada

24 Influence of the Revolution Impacted other part of the world 1800s it helped inspire revolts against European rule in South America Inspired French Revolution

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