# Dr. Peter Tröger Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam. Software Profiling Seminar, Statistics 101

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1 Dr. Peter Tröger Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam Software Profiling Seminar, 2013 Statistics 101

2 Descriptive Statistics Population Object Object Object Sample numerical description Object Object Object graphical description Object Object frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation,...

3 Statistics = Uncertainty Estimate characteristics of a population, based on samples Characterize natural variation that is out of statistical control Control and minimize Sampling variation - statistics depend on chosen subset Measurement variation - same population object, different results Environmental variation - influence of population environment

4 Measurement Variables Categorical: No reasonable way for numerical measurement Nominal scale: Order has no meaning, values are mutually exclusive, examples: gender, names, yes or no, pass or fail, process states Ordinal scale: Order has meaning, distance not, examples: school grades, satisfaction level, movie ratings Quantitative: Discrete or continuous numerical values Interval scale: Order and distance have meaning, zero is just a value, examples: temperature in Celsius, dates Ratio scale: Order and distance have meaning, has a data-independent zero as natural origin, example: height, weight, temperature in Kelvin

5 Measurement Variables Applying statistical tests on ordinal data is meanwhile common Example: Average grade Helps to think about the feasibility of claims Example: Interval and ratio claims about ordinal data Average grade in group 1 is B, average grade in group 2 is D. Is group 1 twice as good as group 2?

6 What Is Allowed Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio has no order order order, distance order, distance, natural zero Coefficient of variation ok Mean, standard deviation - - ok ok Add or subtract - - ok ok Median, percentiles - ok? ok ok Frequency distribution ok ok ok ok

7 Frequency Distribution Count of occurrences per value Visualized with histograms, bar chars, pie charts,... Feasible for both categorical and numerical data Median, mean, standard deviation and others can be easily computed from such an overview Relative frequency distribution: Information given in percentage

8 Mean, Median, Mode Mode: Value that appears most often May be not unique (bimodal, multimodal) Arithmetic mean / average: Sum divided by number of values Median: Value separating the higher from the lower half of data For even number of samples, the mean of the middle values Median is more robust than mean with extreme outliers mean(1,2,4,6,7,9,10)=5,57 vs. mean(1,2,4,6,7,9,44)=10,43

9 Percentiles 75th percentile: The value that has 75% of the values below it The 50th percentile is the median Examples: Assess growth of children in comparison to national standards Taking rare bursts away from some average calculation Four equal quadrants: quartiles

10 Range, Standard Deviation Range: Difference between minimum and maximum value Looks at the most extreme values Standard Deviation: Better to have a,typical distance from the mean Describes variation from the mean or expected value Expressed in the same units as the data, unlike variance A sampled standard deviation has some confidence interval With low number of samples, it may vary during multiple runs

11 Standard Deviation Three sigma rule: For normal distribution, nearly all values lie within 3 standard deviations Identify impossible outliers Reported to be applicable in most cases of statistical analysis

12 Standard Deviation, CV If values are the same, the standard deviation is zero Mean and (!) standard deviation are heavily influenced by outliers If the data is spread out, you have a higher standard deviation Coefficient of variation: Ratio of standard deviation to the mean Results in dimensionless number Expresses relative variability, much easier to interpret The secret weapon for cool statistics...

13 Coefficient of Variation Easier for comparison between data sets with widely different means When the mean is close to zero, the coefficient will approach infinity Becomes sensitive to small changes Typically indicator for a non-ratio scale Distributions with CV<1 are considered low variance Distributions with CV>1 are considered high variance Sensors need to deliver a CV close to zero (constant absolute error)

14 Confidence Interval If you would repeat the same experiment endlessly, what is the confidence interval that would include the real value of some sample estimate (e.g. mean) in X% of the cases? X is the confidence level, typical value is 95% Decided by the researcher who wants to prove a hypothesis Margin of error to the left and right builds confidence interval Helps to deal with sampling variation, direct relation to sample size Can be used to check the quality of mean, median, or percentages

15 (from Wikipedia)

16 Hypothesis Hypothesis: Assumption being proved with empirical data Null hypothesis: Assuming no relation between cause and effect If the probability for it becomes low enough, then the alternative hypothesis becomes true,without any doubt Statistical tests only target the falsification aspect, so the null hypothesis is never intended to get verified by them Decision about falsification based on some some test result Example: Innocence in jury trial

17 Statistical Significance You are very sure that your falsification of the null hypothesis is reliable One-tailed test: When the null hypothesis states a direction Example: Females will not score higher on IQ tests than males. Two-tailed test: No direction is given Example: There is no significant gender-related difference in IQ test results. Test typically relates to the acceptance of a maximum error rate

18 Chi-Square Test Mostly means Pearson s chi-square test Supports two types of comparison, based on frequency distribution Goodness of fit: Does the observed frequency distribution differ from an assumed theoretical distribution? Test of independence: Are paired frequency distribution investigations independent from each other? Many other statistical tests that help to verify / falsify a hypothesis

19 Summary Know your variable type Never claim averages without standard deviation Coefficient of variation is your friend A hypothesis is helpful Use some existing software for calculations (e.g. R) Graphs are ok

20 Sources

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