Microbiological Study of Cocktail Sausage During Shelf Life

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1 Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 7 (6): , 011 ISSN IDOSI Publications, 011 Microbiological Study of Cocktail Sausage During Shelf Life 1 3 Javadi Afshin, Zarrin Reza and Safarmashaei Saeid 1 Department of Food Hygiene, Tabriz branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran Graduated Student of Veterinary Medicine, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran 3 Young Researchers Club, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran Abstract: Cocktail sausage is one of most famous and most adherent Sausage. Shelf life of meat products treated by heat depends on some factors. The most important factor is e microbiological quality of raw materials. This study was made on cocktail sausage produced indoor wiout vacuum-packaging. A total of 10 samples wi e same production date taken randomly from different batches were collected. These samples were studied from production time to 5 week. The total bacterial, mold and yeast, coliforms, psychrophilic microorganisms` and coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus counts were performed on basis of No. 303, 1194,437,997 and 356 protocols of e Iranian Standard Institute. The results were analyzed by paired T-test and means of microbial counts were compared in e different weeks. The results showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in microbial counts in e different weeks. No coliforms were detected in e 5 week study period. Key words: Microbial Properties Cocktail Sausage Shelf Life. INTRODUCTION Meat products may be contaminated wi microorganisms from meat handlers, who carry paogenic microorganism Foodborne disease and microbial spoilage of during e processes of manufacturing, packing and food result from e failure or inability to control marketing. Improper cooking, refrigeration or storage may microorganisms at one or more stages of e food chain lead to meat borne illness []. Foodborne paogens are from raw material production to consumption of e final e leading causes of illness and dea in developing product. The implications of situations at result in food countries costing billions of dollars in medical care, poisoning outbreaks or food spoilage can be severe for medical and social costs. Meat products are products at food producers, retailers, consumers and regulatory insist of at least one half of it meat. These products are auorities. Traditionally, control of microorganisms in a one of e most consuming food products. Sausage is a food has been demonstrated by microbiological testing popular and highly relished meat product world over. of samples at various stages of production and of e final Dry Sausage is produced as a result of finding of new product. The potential for grow and/or toxin production spices. These spices can help to improve flavor and of residual microbial populations in finished products increasing of shelf lif of meat. Many kinds of Sausage are depends on e types of organisms present and eir produced depending on raw material in area and different ability to grow to a level of concern under e storage climates [1-4]. Microbial grow during storage is one of conditions applied during e product shelf life [1]. e main factors affecting e quality of meat products, Microbiological criteria should take an account of any leading to spoilage and hence economic losses. Emulsionorganisms likely to be present. The levels of tolerance type sausages like wiener, bologna-type sausage and hot applied at e point of manufacture should be such at smoked sausage may spoil more quickly due to high ph allowing for predictable grow of ese organisms, e and aw (activity water). Many vegetative cells can be product will remain safe and whole some to e end of inactivated wi cooking process [3, 4]. Sausage may be shelf life provided it is stored under e correct contaminated after heat processing and during oer conditions. It is e industry practice to build in a safety processes such as slicing, packaging and peeling [5, 6]. margin for chilled products which allows for mild Many studies have determined e presence of temperature abuse of product during storage. foodborne paogens in ese products, such as Listeria Corresponding Auor: Javadi Afshin, Department of Food Hygiene, Tabriz branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran. Tel:

2 monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium For microbial counts, 10 grams of each cocktail sausage perfringens and Salmonella spp. [7]. As for L. representative sample were removed aseptically and monocytogenes, several studies showed at emulsion- homogenized in 90 ml of 1.5% peptone water, using a type sausage is risky, because e bacteria have high stomacher and inoculated onto plate count agar (Merck) tolerance to physical conditions compared to oer (incubated at 37 C for 48h), using e pour-plate meod paogens. Moreover, is food-borne paogen is able and violet neutral red bile lactose agar (Merck) (incubated to grow at refrigeration temperatures [8, 9]. The safety of at 37 C for 4 h), for coliform counts. Cooked meat salt food of animal origin for human consumption has become medium (Merck) and Bird Parker agar (Merck) were used an essential part of e public heal debate. Thus, for coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus counts microbial ecology of meat products will mainly depend on (incubated at 37 C for 48h). For mold and yeast total e environment, kind of meat and raw materials, counts, Sabaroud Dextrose agar (Merck) plates equipment, handling practices, processing, packaging and incubated at 5 C for 5 days were used. Psychrophilic storage temperature. Information on microbiology of microorganisms' counts were carried out by use of cocktail sausage is very limited; erefore objective of e nutrient agar (Merck) plates incubated at 5-0 C for 4h study was to understand e microbial properties of [10-14]. Data were analyzed by using SPSS (version 1) cocktail sausage during shelf life. software and Paired T- test. MATERIALS AND METHODS RESULTS A total of 10 samples of cocktail sausage wi Results of is Study Were Divided to 5 Parts: similar production date from different batches were The microbiological analysis results of is study showed collected and transported in an ice box at 4 C to at, e count at first, second and four weeks was laboratory of food hygiene in Islamic Azad University 5 lesser an 10 CFU/gm (Maximum permissible count for Tabriz branch. Study on microbial properties during total bacteria is). By attention to results of is part during shelf life from first week until fif week was done. Culture 5 weeks, total bacterial count mean comparing wi of samples and identification of e suspected colonies ose in weeks 5 showed significant difference (p<0.05) was done according to e standard meods [10-14]. (Table 1). Table 1: Mean, standard deviation and standard error mean of cocktail sausage total bacterial counts (One-Sample Statistics) Table : Mean, standard deviation and standard error mean of cocktail sausage coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus counts (One-Sample Statistics) Table 3: Mean, standard deviation and standard mean of cocktail sausage total psychrophilic microorganism counts (One-Sample Statistics)

3 Table 4: Mean, standard deviation and standard mean of cocktail sausage total mold and yeast counts (One-Sample Statistics) Permissible count for coagulase positive reported e presence of coliform bacteria. Also in one Staphylococcus aureus is 0 CFU/gm. In is study, e study by Sachindra et al. [3] who isolated coliforms from count in first week got rough e permissible range. raw and cooked sausage and in cooked form of sausage Results of coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus less an raw sausage and added at cooking process count means in weeks 1, and 4 showed significant reduce e microbial counts substantially in e sausage. difference (p<0.05) (Table ). Staphylococcus aureus is one of e most common agents The acceptable psychrophilic microorganisms` count in bacterial food poisoning outbreaks. It is also a major is 10 CFU/gm, in is study, e count of psychrophilic causative paogen of clinical or subclinical mastitis of microorganisms during 5 weeks has been increased and dairy domestic ruminants. Poultry, meat and egg products is increase was very significant in e 5 week in as well as milk and milk products have been reported as comparison wi oer weeks (Table 3). common foods at may cause staphylococcal food The permissible count of mold and yeast in Iranian poisoning [4]. Foods of animal origin, especially milk and standard institute is 10 CFU/gm and e samples in e dairy products, are associated wi food borne disease 5 week showed abnormal range. For is group of [5]. Staphylococcus aureus is one of e commonest microorganisms, between weeks a significant difference etiological agents of bacterial diseases worldwide due to was not observed (Table 4). its ability to produce a broad range of exotoxins and oer In present study, no coliforms were isolated from e virulence factors. Among em, e staphylococcal collected samples during e 5 weeks and is agrees wi enterotoxins produced by some S. aureus strains are e e Iranian standard institute acceptability. main causal agents of one of e most widespread food borne intoxications. The staphylococcal food poisoning DISCUSSION and, togeer wi toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, are responsible for toxic shock syndrome and staphylococcal Microbial contamination may be added or reduced at scarlet fever [6, 7]. Sachindra et al. [3] reported e different stages of processing of hot smoked sausage. absence of Staphylococcus aureus in raw and cooked Friedhoff et al. [15] have described e use of simple sausage. The present study showed at Staphylococcus microbiological criteria, including aerobic mesophilic aureus was isolated from hot smoked sausage samples in colony counts, Enterobacteriaceae counts and in some e first week. In a study made by Apaidin et al [8] on instances, enumeration of yeast, performed on samples e chemical quality of vacuum-packaged hot smoked taken during processing in small businesses to verify sausage, Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from e good manufacturing practices. This verification rough studied samples. These results show e importance of monitoring was found to be an attractive alternative to e Staphylococcus aureus in food industry because is examination of end products. Coliform bacteria are one of agent causes dangerous diseases in human. Vacuum most important indicator organisms at are most packaging is generally used for cooked products and commonly used to ensure food safety [16-18]. This ese products have scarcely high yeast and mold counts verification rough monitoring was found to be an [9, 30]. High yeast and mold counts may have originated attractive alternative to e examination of end products. from insufficient vacuum and/or refracted vacuum. In is Many investigators stated at coliform bacteria, fecal 3 study, yeast and mold counts ranged from 1.86±.9 10 coliform bacteria, E. coli, total Enterococcus spp. and 5 CFU/gm in first week to 5.37± CFU/gm in fif week aerobic plate count (APC) e most important indicator and ese results agree wi Apaidin et al. [8], but is organisms at are most commonly used to ensure food range in comparison wi a study by Sachindra et al. [3] safety [19-1]. In present study, coliform bacteria were not is high. Psychrophilic organisms` counts in e first week isolated. Dowdell and Board [] carried out a of shelf life was non permissible and a significant different microbiological survey of British Fresh Sausage and (p>0.05) between all weeks of shelf life were not observed. 1058

4 Sachindra et al. [3] reported at ese microorganisms 8. Schmidt, U. and M. Kaya, Verhalten show a low grow during time of e study [3]. In a study on vacuum packed cooked ring sausage during storage, a shelf life of 0-8 days [31] and 43 days [3] has been found. A shelf life of 49 days in hot smoked sausage packed in CO was recorded [33]. Some studies showed at e augment of e additives, onion, garlic meal, pepper and E vitamin can decrease e microbial agents in cooked sausage products [34-37].In conclusion, e study revealed e pattern of microbial profile associated wi e preparation of cocktail sausage. Lower initial microbial levels of sausage mix, effective heat treatment during cooking, careful handling of cooked sausage and maintenance of adequate chill temperature during storage would improve e microbiological quality and enhance e shelf life of cocktail sausage. ACKNOWLEDGMENT We acknowledge e vice chancellor in research affairs of Tabriz Islamic Azad University for funding of our research and e microbiology laboratory staff of veterinary faculty of Tabriz Islamic Azad University for eir helps. REFERENCES 1. Javadi, A., S. Safarmashaei and A. Dehbandi, 011. Study on microbial properties of Frankfurters during shelf life. Annals of Biological Research, : Zurera-Cosano, G. and F. Rincon-Leon, Microbial grow in vacuum packaged frankfurters produced in Spain, Food Microbiology, 5: Price, L.F. and B.S. Schweigert, The science of rd meat and products. 3 Edition. Food and Nutrition Press, Inc. Westport, Connecticut, USA., pp: Tändler, K., Hot Smoked Sausage-type sausages shelf-life and packaging of e fresh product. Fleischwirtschaft, 66: Cygnarowicz-Provost, M., R.C. Whiting and L.C. Cralg, Steam surface pasteurization of beef Hot Smoked Sausage. Journal of Food Science, 59: Mckellar, R.C., R. Moir and M. Kalab, Factors influencing e survival and grow of Listeria monocytogenes on surface of Canadian retail wieners. Journal of Food Protection, 57: Krämer, K.H. and J. Baumgart, 199. Brühwurstaufschnitt-Hemmung von Listeria monocytogenes durch eine modifizierte atmosphare. Fleischwirtschaft, 7: von Listeria monocytogenes in vakuumverpaekten Brühwurstaufschnitt. Fleischwirtschaft, 70: Wang, C. and P.M. Muraina, Incidence of Listeria monocytogenes by packaged of retail franks. Journal of Food Protection, 57: Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran, Detection and enumeration of moulds and yeast colony count technique at 5 C. 10 Edition, pp: Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran, 1981.Detection and enumeration of psychrophilic microorganism colony count technique at 5 C. 10 Edition, pp: Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran, Standard meods for preparation of food samples and enumeration of microorganisms in food. 1st Revision, 10 Edition, pp: Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran, Meods for identification and enumeration of staphylococcus aureus coagulase (+) in foodstuff. 7 Edition, pp: Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran, 199. Detection and enumeration of coliforms in foods. 3rd Revision, 8 Edition, pp: Friedhoff, R.A, A.P.M. Houben, J.M.J. Leblanc, J.M.W.M. Beelen, J.T. Jansen and D.A.A. Mossel, 005. Elaboration of microbiological guidelines as an element of codes of hygienic practices for small and/or less developed businesses to verify compliance wi hazard analysis critical control point. J. Food Prot., 68: Jay, J.M., 005. Indicators of food microbial quality and safety. In: Modern Food Microbiology, 7 ed,, Eds., Jay, J.M., M.J. Loessner and D.A. Golden. Springer Science + Business Media, New York, pp: Mantis, F.N., I. Tsachv, O. Sabatakou, A.R. Burriel, A. Vacalopolos and S.B. Ramantanis, 005. Safety and shelf life of widely distributed vaccum packed, Heat treated sausages. Bulgrian of veterinary medicine. 4: Pierson, M. and L. Smoot, 007. Indicator microorganisms and microbiological criteria. In: Food nd Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, ed., Eds., Doyle, M.P., L.R. Beuchat and T.J.. ASM Press, Washington, DC., pp: Jay, J.M., 005. Indicators of food microbial quality and safety. In: Modern Food Microbiology, 7 ed., Eds., Jay, J.M., M.J. Loessner and D.A. Golden DA. Springer Science, Business Media, New York, pp:

5 0. Mantis, F.N., I. Tsachv, O. Sabatakou, A.R Burriel, 9. Jablonski, L. and G. Bohach, Staphylococcus A. Vacalopolos and S.B. Ramantanis, 005. Safety aureus. In: Doyle M, Beuchat L, Montville T (Eds.). and shelf life of widely distributed vaccum packed, Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers. Heat treated sausages. Bulgrian of veterinary ASM Press, Washington, DC, pp: medicine. Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 30. Jay, J.M., 199. Modern Food Microbiology. 4 8: edition, Chapman and Hall, One Peen Plaza, NY 1. Pierson, M. and L. Smoot, 007. Indicator 10119, USA, 701. microorganisms and microbiological criteria. In: 31. Korkeala. H., S. Lindro, M. Suihko, A. Kuhmonen Doyle MP, Beuchat LR, Montville TJ (Eds.). Food and P.L. Penttila, Microbiological and Sensory Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, nd ed. quality changes in blood pancakes and cooked ring ASM Press, Washington, DC, pp: sausage during storage. International Journal of. Dowdell, M.J. and R.G. Board, A Food Microbiology, : 79-9 microbiological survey of British Fresh Sausage. 3. Korkeala, H., S. Lindro, R. Ahvenainen and Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 31: T. Alanko, Inter-relationships between 3. Sachindra, N.M., P.Z. Sakhare, K.P.Yashoda and microbial numbers and oer parameters in e D. Narasimha Rao, 005. Microbial profile of buffalo spoilage of vacuum-packed cooked ring sausages. sausage during processing and storage. Food International Journal of Food Microbiology, 5: Control., 16: Balaban, N. and A. Rasooly, 000. Staphylococcal 33. Blickstad, E. and G. Molin, The microbial flora enterotoxins. International Journal of Food of smoked pork loin and Hot smoked sausage stored Microbiology, 61: in different gas atmospheres at 4 C. Journal of 5. Holtfreter, S., K. Bauer, D. Thomas, C. Feig, V. Applied Bacteriology, 54: Lorenz, K. Roschack, E. Friebe, K. Selleng, S. 34. Harms, C., H. Fahrman, B. Nowak, S. wenzjel Lovenich, T. Greve, A. Greinacher, B. Panzig, S. and P. Sallman, 003. Effect of dietary vitamin E Engelmann, G. Lina and B.M. Broker, 004. egc- supplementation on e shelf life of cured pork encoded superantigens from Staphylococcus aureus sausage. Meat Sci. 63: are neutralized by human sera much less efficiently 35. Suppakul, J., M. ltz, K. Sonneveld and S.W. Bigger, an are classical staphylococcal enterotoxins or 003. Antimicrobiol properties of basil and its toxic shock syndrome toxin. Infection and possible application in food packaging, Journal of Immunity, 7: Agriculture and food chemistry 51: Le Loir, Y., F. Baron and M. Guatier, Zanardi, E., S. Ghidini, A. Battaglia and Staphylococcus aureus and food poisoning. Genet R. chizzolini, 004. lypolysis and lipid oxidation in Mol Res. : fermented sausage depending on different 7. Asao, T., Y. Kumeda, T. Kawai, T. Shibata, H. Oda, processing condition and different antioxidants. K. Haruki, H. Nakazawa and S. Kozaki, 003. Meat science, : An extensive outbreak of staphylococcal food 37. Guang-Hua. W. and Q. Xiao-Ling, The poisoning due to low-fat milk in Japan: estimation of Incidence of C. perfringens, S. aureus, Salmonella enterotoxin A in e incriminated milk and powdered and L. monocytogenes in retail meat and meat skim milk. Epidemiol. Infect., 130: product in Beijing. Fleischwirtschaft, 74: Apaydin, G., Z. Ceylan, M. Atasever and M. Kaya, 008. A survey on microbiological and chemical quality of vacuum-packaged hot smoked sausage. Atatürk Üniv. Ziraat Fak. Derg., 39:

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