# 0.786 mol carbon dioxide to grams g lithium carbonate to mol

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3 Convert: 2.54 x atoms of Cr to mol 4.32 mol NaCl to grams mol carbon dioxide to grams 2.67 g lithium carbonate to mol atom of C 12 to grams 3

4 Convert: 2.54 x atoms of Cr to mol 4.32 mol NaCl to grams mol carbon dioxide to grams 2.67 g lithium carbonate to mol 1 atom of C 12 to grams 4

5 How many carbonate ions are there in 2.23 g of iron (III) carbonate? How many oxygen atoms are there in the same sample? 5

6 How many carbonate ions are there in 2.23 g of iron (III) carbonate? How many oxygen atoms are there in the same sample? 6

7 % Composition and empirical formulas To find the % composition of an element in a compound, do the following: Find the % composition of ammonium sulfate. 7

8 We can find empirical formulas given % composition or the mass of each element in a sample of the compound. % to mass mass to moles / by smallest x 'till whole Vitamin C is composed of % C, 4.58 % H, and % O. Find the empirical formula. The molar mass of vitamin C is g/mol. What is the molecular formula? molar mass compound empirical formula mass 8

9 3.50 a. What is the empirical formula of the compound with the following composition? 40.1 % C 6.6 % H 53.3 %O 9

10 Formula of a hydrate lab: Some ionic salts are hydrates. This means that there are water molecules in the ionic lattice. If we heat a hydrate, we can thermally decompose it (all of the water will driven out of the lattice) into the anhydrous salt. Your goal is to find what is the mole ratio between the ionic compound and the water. 10

11 Q: How do you find the theoretical % H2O? A: Mass H2O/Mass hydrated salt Experimental: 11

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14 Allicin is the compound responsible for the characteristic smell of garlic. An analysis of the compound gives the following percent composition by mass: C: 44.4%; H: 6.21%; S: 39.5%; O: 9.86%. Calculate its empirical formula. (Type your answer using the format CH2 for CH 2.) What is its molecular formula given that its molar mass is about 162 g? 14

15 Allicin is the compound responsible for the characteristic smell of garlic. An analysis of the compound gives the following percent composition by mass: C: 44.4%; H: 6.21%; S: 39.5%; O: 9.86%. Calculate its empirical formula. (Type your answer using the format CH2 for CH 2.) 15

16 C: 44.4%; H: 6.21%; S: 39.5%; O: 9.86%. What is its molecular formula given that its molar mass is about 162 g? 16

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18 Lysine, an essential amino acid in the human body, contains C, H, O, and N. In one experiment, the complete combustion of g of lysine gave 3.94 g CO 2 and 1.89 g H 2 O. In a separate experiment, g of lysine gave g NH 3. (Type your answer using the format CO2 for CO 2.) (a) Calculate the empirical formula of lysine. (b) The approximate molar mass of lysine is 150 g. What is the molecular formula of the compound? 18

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21 Calculate the number of cations and anions in each of the following compounds. (b) 5.30 g of Na 2 SO 4 21

22 The natural abundances of the two stable isotopes of hydrogen (hydrogen and deuterium) are 1 1H: % and 2 1H: 0.015%. Assume that water exists as either H 2 O or D 2 O. Calculate the number of D 2 O molecules in exactly 500. ml of water. (Density = 1.00 g/ml.) 22

23 How many grams of sulfur (S) are needed to react completely with 464 g of mercury (Hg) to form HgS? 23

24 Balancing Equations Word equation magnesium + hydrochloric magnesium hydrogen acid chloride copper (II) nitrate + iron iron (III) nitrate + copper propene (C 3 H 6 ) combusts in oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water iron (III) oxide is reduced by carbon monoxide to make iron and carbon dioxide 24

25 Balancing Equations Word equation magnesium + hydrochloric magnesium hydrogen acid chloride copper (II) nitrate + iron iron (III) nitrate + copper propene (C 3 H 6 ) combusts in oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water iron (III) oxide is reduced by carbon monoxide to make iron and carbon dioxide 25

26 Stoichiometry Allows you to predict the amounts of products that will form or reactants that are needed in a chemical reaction. In order to do stoichiometry, YOU NEED A BALANCED CHEMICAL EQUATION. 26

27 How many grams of silver will form in the reaction if 10.0 g of copper react completely? How many grams of silver nitrate are required to react with the 10.0 g Cu? 27

28 How many grams of hydrogen gas will be produced if mol of sodium metal reacts with excess water? (The other product is sodium hydroxide) 28

29 Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is also called "laughing gas." It can be prepared by the thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate (NH 4 NO 3 ). The other product is H 2 O. The balanced equation for this reaction is given below. NH 4 NO 3 N 2 O + 2 H 2 O How many grams of N 2 O are formed if 0.46 mole of NH 4 NO 3 is used in the reaction? 29

30 A common laboratory preparation of oxygen gas is the thermal decomposition of potassium chlorate (KClO 3 ). Assuming complete decomposition, calculate the number of grams of O 2 gas that can be obtained from 46.0 g of KClO 3. (The products are KCl and O 2.) 30

31 Limiting Reactant When the amounts of two or more reactants are provided in the problem it is a limiting reactant problem. How many peanut butter and jelly sandwiches can you make if you have 13 slices of bread in the cupboard, 5 tbsp of Pb in the jar and 20 tbsp. of jelly in the jar? 31

32 10.0 grams of silver nitrate are added to 10.0 grams of copper. How many grams silver is produced? (Copper II nitrate is the other product) What is the limiting reactant? How much of the excess reactant remains? AgNO 3 + Cu Cu(NO 3 ) 2 + Ag 32

33 The compound cisplatin, Pt(NH 3 ) 2 Cl 2, has been studied extensively as an antitumor agent [see Journal of Chemical Education: 54(1977):739]. Cisplatin is synthesized as follows. K 2 PtCl 4 (aq) + 2 NH 3 (aq) Pt(NH 3 ) 2 Cl 2 (s) + 2 KCl (aq) What mass of cisplatin can be made from 114 g of K 2 PtCl 4 and sufficient NH 3? 33

34 Mercury and bromine will react with each other to produce mercury(ii) bromide. Hg(l) + Br 2 (l) HgBr 2 (s) (a) What mass of HgBr 2 is produced from the reaction o 9.93 g Hg and 10.9 g Br 2? What mass of which reactant is left unreacted? (b) What mass of HgBr 2 is produced from the reaction 6.14 ml of mercury (density = 13.6 g/ml) and 6.14 m bromine (density = 3.10 g/ml 34

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36 Hydrogen fluoride is used in the manufacture of Freons (which destroy ozone in the stratosphere) and in the production of aluminum metal. It is prepared by the following reaction. CaF 2 + H 2 SO 4 CaSO HF In one process 6.00 kg of CaF 2 are treated with an excess of H 2 SO 4 and yield 2.86 kg of HF. Calculate the percent yield of HF. 36

37 The yield in the Haber process is 71.2 %. How many grams of nitrogen are needed to produce 1.00 kg of ammonia? 37

38 Ethylene (C 2 H 4 ), an important industrial organic chemical, can be prepared by heating hexane (C 6 H 14 ) at 800 C. C 6 H 14 C 2 H 4 + other products If the yield of ethylene production is 42.5 percent, what mass of hexane must be reacted to produce 481 g of ethylene? 38

39 Mercury and bromine will react with each other to produce mercury(ii) bromide. Hg(l) + Br 2 (l) HgBr 2 (s) (a) What mass of HgBr 2 is produced from the reaction of 9.93 g Hg and 10.9 g Br 2? What mass of which reactant is left unreacted? (b) What mass of HgBr 2 is produced from the reaction of 6.14 ml of mercury (density = 13.6 g/ml) and 6.14 ml bromine (density = 3.10 g/ml)? 39

40 The aspirin substitute, acetaminophen (C 8 H 9 O 2 N), is produced by the following three step syntheses. I. C 6 H 5 O 3 N(s) + 3 H 2 (g) + HCl(aq) C 6 H 8 ONCl(s) + 2 H 2 O(l) II. C 6 H 8 ONCl(s) + NaOH(aq) III. C 6 H 7 ON(s) + C 4 H 6 O 3 (l) C 6 H 7 ON(s) + H 2 O(l) + NaCl(aq) C 8 H 9 O 2 N(s) + HC 2 H 3 O 2 (l) The first two reactions have percent yields of 87% and 98% by mass, respectively. The overall reaction yields 3 mol of acetaminophen product for every 4 mol of C 6 H 5 O 3 N reacted. (a) What is the percent yield by mass for the overall process? (b) What is the percent yield by mass of step III? 40

41 The production capacity for acrylonitrile (C 3 H 3 N) in the United States is over 2 million pounds per year. Acrylonitrile, the building block for polyacrylonitrile fibers and a variety of plastics, is produced from gaseous propylene, ammonia, and oxygen. 2 C 3 H 6 (g) + 2 NH 3 (g) + 3 O 2 (g) 2 C 3 H 3 N(g) + 6 H 2 O(g) (a) What mass of acrylonitrile can be produced from a mixture of 1.04 kg propylene, 1.55 kg of ammonia, and 2.21 kg of oxygen? (b) What mass of water is produced, and what masses of which starting materials are left in excess? mass of water starting materials in excess oxygen ammonia propylene mass of propylene in excess mass of ammonia in excess mass of oxygen in excess 41

42 Industrially, nitric acid is produced by the Ostwald proces represented by the following equations. 4 NH 3 (g) + 5 O 2 (g) 4 NO(g) + 6 H 2 O(l) 2 NO(g) + O 2 (g) 2 NO 2 (g) 2 NO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) HNO 3 (aq) + HNO 2 (aq) What mass of NH 3 (in g) must be used to produce 1.00 ton of HNO 3 by the above procedure, assuming an 80 percent yield in each step? (1 ton = 2000 lb; 1 lb = g.) 42

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