Grinding, lapping, polishing, EDM, laser cut, water jest, etc.

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1 Grinding, lapping, polishing, EDM, laser cut, water jest, etc.

2 Grinding is an abrasive machining process that uses a grinding wheel as the cutting tool. Aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, diamond, and cubic boron nitride (CBN) are four commonly used abrasive materials for the surface of the grinding wheels.

3 A basic overview of Outside Diameter Cylindrical Grinding. The Curved Arrows refer to direction of rotation

4 A basic overview of Internal Diameter Cylindrical Grinding. The Curved Arrows refer to direction of rotation

5 Surface grinding is used to produce a smooth finish on flat surfaces. It is a widely used abrasive machining process in which a spinning wheel covered in rough particles (grinding wheel) cuts chips of metallic or nonmetallic substance from a workpiece, making a face of it flat or smooth. The typical precision of a surface grinder depends on the type and usage, however ±0.002 mm (± in) should be achievable on most surface grinders.

6 The machine consists of a table that traverses both longitudinally and across the face of the wheel. The longitudinal feed is usually powered by hydraulics, as may the cross feed, however any mixture of hand, electrical or hydraulic may be used depending on the ultimate usage of the machine (i.e., production, workshop, cost). The grinding wheel rotates in the spindle head and is also adjustable for height, by any of the methods described previously. Modern surface grinders are semiautomated, depth of cut and spark-out may be preset as to the number of passes and, once set up, the machining process requires very little operator intervention. Depending on the workpiece material, the work is generally held by the use of a magnetic chuck. This may be either an electromagnetic chuck, or a manually operated, permanent magnet type chuck; both types are shown in the first image.

7 Types of surface grinders: Horizontal-spindle (peripheral) surface grinders The periphery (flat edge) of the wheel is in contact with the workpiece, producing the flat surface. Peripheral grinding is used in high-precision work on simple flat surfaces; tapers or angled surfaces; slots and profiles. Vertical-spindle (wheel-face) grinders The face of a wheel (cup, cylinder, disc, or segmental wheel) is used on the flat surface. Wheel-face grinding is often used for fast material removal, but some machines can accomplish high-precision work. The workpiece is held on a reciprocating table, which can be varied according to the task, or a rotary-table machine, with continuous or indexed rotation. Indexing allows loading or unloading one station while grinding operations are being performed on another.

8 Outside Diameter Cylindrical Grinding

9 Internal Diameter Cylindrical Grinding

10 A schematic of the centerless grinding process.

11 Centerless grinding process

12 Honing or to "Hone"is an abrasive machining process that produces a precision surface on a metal workpiece by scrubbing an abrasive stone against it along a controlled path. Honing is primarily used to improve the geometric form of a surface, but may also improve the surface texture. Typical applications are the finishing of cylinders for internal combustion engines, air bearing spindle and gears. There are many types of hones but all consist of one or more abrasive stones that are held under pressure against the surface they are working on. In terms of sharpening knives, a honing steel does not actually hone knives, but simply realigns the metal along the edge.

13 Superabrasives and hone head for cylinders.

14 Lapping is a machinng process, in which two surfaces are rubbed together with an abrasive between them, by hand movement or by way of a machine. Polishing is the process of creating a smooth and shiny surface by rubbing it or using a chemical action, leaving a surface with a significant specular reflection.

15 Electrical discharge machining (EDM), sometimes colloquially also referred to as spark machining, spark eroding, burning, die sinking, wire burning or wire erosion, is a manufacturing process whereby a desired shape is obtained using electrical discharges (sparks). Material is removed from the workpiece by a series of rapidly recurring current discharges between two electrodes, separated by a dielectric liquide and subject to an electric voltage. One of the electrodes is called the tool-electrode, or simply the "tool" or "electrode", while the other is called the workpieceelectrode, or "workpiece".

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19 Wire-cut EDM The wire-cut type of machine arose in the 1960s for the purpose of making tools (dies) from hardened steel. The tool electrode in wire EDM is simply a wire. To avoid the erosion of material from the wire causing it to break, the wire is wound between two spools so that the active part of the wire is constantly changing. The earliest (NC) machines were conversions of punched-tape vertical milling machines. The first commercially available NC machine built as a wire-cut EDM machine was manufactured in the USSR in Machines that could optically follow lines on a master drawing were developed in the 1960s at Andrew Engineering Company for milling and grinding machines. Master drawings were later produced by (CNC) plotters for greater accuracy. A wire-cut EDM machine using the CNC drawing plotter and optical line follower techniques was produced in Dulebohn later used the same plotter CNC program to directly control the EDM machine, and the first CNC EDM machine was produced in 1976[

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21 A water jet cutter, also known as a water jet or waterjet, is an industrial tool capable of cutting a wide variety of materials using a very high-pressure jet of water, or a mixture of water and an abrasive substance. The term abrasivejet refers specifically to the use of a mixture of water and abrasive to cut hard materials such as metal or granite, while the terms pure waterjet and water-only cutting refer to waterjet cutting without the use of added abrasives, often used for softer materials such as wood or rubber

22 A diagram of a water jet cutter. #1: high-pressure water inlet. #2: jewel (ruby or diamond). #3: abrasive (garnet). #4: mixing tube. #5: guard. #6: cutting water jet. #7: cut material

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24 A 5-Axis Waterjet Cutting Head

25 Laser cutting is a technology that uses a laser to cut materials, and is typically used for industrial manufacturing applications, but is also starting to be used by schools, small businesses, and hobbyists. Laser cutting works by directing the output of a highpower laser most commonly through optics. The laser optics and CNC (computer numerical control) are used to direct the material or the laser beam generated. A typical commercial laser for cutting materials would involve a motion control system to follow a CNC or G-code of the pattern to be cut onto the material. The focused laser beam directed at the material, which then either melts, burns, vaporizes away, or is blown away by a jet of gas, leaving an edge with a high-quality surface finish. Industrial laser cutters are used to cut flat-sheet material as well as structural and piping materials.

26 Diagram of a laser cutter

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29 There are two main types of lasers used in laser cutting. The CO2 laser is suited for cutting, boring, and engraving. The neodymium (Nd) and neodymium yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd-YAG lasers are identical in style and differ only in application. Nd is used for boring and where high energy but low repetition are required. The Nd-YAG laser is used where very high power is needed and for boring and engraving. Both CO2 and Nd/ Nd-YAG lasers can be used for welding.

30 Plasma cutting is a process that is used to cut steel and other metals of different thicknesses (or sometimes other materials) using a plasma torch. In this process, a gas (oxygen, air, inert and others dependant on material) is blown at high speed out of a nozzle; at the same time an electrical arc is formed through that gas from the nozzle to the surface being cut, turning some of that gas to plasma. The plasma is hot enough to melt the metal being cut and moves fast enough to blow molten metal away from the cut.

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32 Thank You for Your Attention

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