Processor Scheduling. Background. Scheduling. Scheduling

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1 Background Processor Scheduling The previous lecture introduced the basics of concurrency Processes and threads Definition, representation, management We now understand how a programmer can spawn concurrent computations The OS now needs to partition one of the central resources, the CPU, between these concurrent tasks 2 Scheduling The scheduler is the manager of the CPU resource It makes allocation decisions it chooses to run certain processes over others from the ready queue Zero threads: just loop in the idle loop One thread: just execute that thread More than one thread: now the scheduler has to make a resource allocation decision The scheduling algorithm determines how jobs are scheduled 3 Scheduling Threads alternate between performing I/O and performing computation In general, the scheduler runs: when a process switches from running to waiting when a process is created or terminated when an interrupt occurs In a non-preemptive system, the scheduler waits for a running process to explicitly block, terminate or yield In a preemptive system, the scheduler can interrupt a process that is running. New Ready Running Waiting Terminated 4

2 Process States New Ready Running Waiting Terminated Processes are I/O-bound when they spend most of their time in the waiting state Processes are CPU-bound when they spend their time in the ready and running states Scheduling Evaluation Metrics There are many possible quantitative criteria for evaluating a scheduling algorithm: CPU utilization: percentage of time the CPU is not idle Throughput: completed processes per time unit Turnaround time: submission to completion Waiting time: time spent on the ready queue Response time: response latency Predictability: variance in any of these measures The right metric depends on the context Time spent in each entry into the running state is called a CPU burst 5 6 Scheduling Algorithms FCFS First-come First-served (FCFS) (FIFO) Jobs are scheduled in order of arrival Non-preemptive Average waiting time can be large if small jobs wait behind long ones Scheduling Algorithms LIFO Last-In First-out (LIFO) Newly arrived jobs are placed at the head of the ready queue Improves response time for newly created threads May lead to starvation early processes may never get the CPU P 1 P 2 P 3 time P 2 P May lead to poor overlap of I/O and CPU and convoy effects P 1 7 8

3 Problem You work as a short-order cook A short order cook has to cook food for customers as they come in and specify which dish they want Each dish takes a different amount of time to prepare You want to minimize the average amount of time the customers wait for their food What strategy would you use? Note: most restaurants use FCFS. Scheduling Algorithms SJF Shortest Job First (SJF) Choose the job with the shortest next CPU burst Provably optimal for minimizing average waiting time P 1 P 3 P P 3 2 P Impossible to know the length of the next CPU burst P Shortest Job First Prediction Approximate the duration of the next CPU-burst from the durations of the previous bursts The past can be a good predictor of the future No need to remember entire past history Use exponential average: t n duration of the n th CPU burst? n+1 predicted duration of the (n+1) st CPU burst? n+1 =? t n + (1-? )? n where 0??? 1? determines the weight placed on past behavior Scheduling Algorithms SRTF SJF can be either preemptive or non-preemptive The distinction occurs when a new, short job arrives while the currently process has a long time left to execute Preemptive SJF is called shortest remaining time first 11 12

4 Priority Scheduling Round Robin Priority Scheduling Choose next job based on priority For SJF, priority = expected CPU burst Can be either preemptive or non-preemptive Starvation: jobs can wait indefinitely Solution to starvation Age processes: increase priority as a function of waiting time Round Robin (RR) Often used for timesharing Ready queue is treated as a circular queue (FIFO) Each process is given a time slice called a quantum It is run for the quantum or until it blocks RR allocates the CPU uniformly (fairly) across all participants. If average queue length is n, each participant gets 1/n As the time quantum grows, RR becomes FCFS Smaller quanta are generally desireable, because they improve response time Context switch overhead of frequent context switch RR with Time Quantum = 20 Process Burst Time P 1 53 P 2 17 P 3 68 P 4 24 The Gantt chart is: P 1 P 2 P 3 P 4 P 1 P 3 P 4 P 1 P 3 P Typically, higher average turnaround than SJF, but better response time. Scheduling Algorithms Multi-level Queue Scheduling Implement multiple ready queues based on job type interactive processes CPU-bound processes batch jobs system processes student programs Different queues may be scheduled using different algorithms Intra-queue CPU allocation can be either strict or proportional Classifying jobs into queues is difficult A process may have CPU-bound phases as well as interactive ones 15 16

5 Multilevel Queue Scheduling Highest priority System Processes Interactive Processes Batch Processes Student Processes Lowest priority Scheduling Algorithms Multi-level Feedback Queues Implement multiple ready queues Different queues may be scheduled using different algorithms Just like multilevel queue scheduling, but assignments are not static Jobs move from queue to queue based on feedback Feedback = The behavior of the job, e.g. does it require the full quantum for computation, or does it perform frequent I/O? Very general algorithm Need to select parameters for: Number of queues Scheduling algorithm within each queue When to upgrade and downgrade a job Multilevel Feedback Queue Scheduling Real-time Scheduling Highest priority Lowest priority Quantum = 2 Quantum = 4 Quantum = 8 FCFS 19 Real-time processes have timing constraints Expressed as deadlines or rate requirements Common RT scheduling policies Rate monotonic Simple, just one scalar priority related to the periodicity of the job Priority = 1/rate Static Earliest deadline first (EDF) Dynamic but more complex Priority = deadline Both schemes require admission control to provide guarantees 20

6 Scheduling on a Multiprocessor Turnaround Time Varies With The Time Quantum Two alternatives based on the total number of queues: Each processor has its own separate queue All processors share a common ready-queue, and autonomously pick threads to execute from this common queue whenever they are idle (work stealing) Scheduling locally on any single processor is mostly the same as scheduling on a uniprocessor Issues: Want to keep threads local to a processor (processor affinity) Want to keep related threads together (gang-scheduling) 21 22

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