1 Periodic Table Early Periodic Table NEWLANDS: Built on Dalton s Law of Octaves ( every 8 th element had similar properties) Arranged by atomic mass Two elements in same box MENDELEEV: Arranged by atomic mass Similar properties Left gaps for elements yet to be discovered
2 Periodic Table Modern Periodic Table Metals/Non-metals Arranged by proton number Groups number of electrons on outer shell Periods number of shells
3 Periodic Table Group 1 Alkali Metals Stored in oil, as reacts with oxygen in air Group 1 metals 1+ ion Li, Na, K less dense than water Reaction with water --> make H2 Alkali metals.metal hydroxide Universal indicator purple Down group lower mpt/bpt Reactivity INCREASES down the group Larger atom Outer electron further away from +ve nucleus EASIER to lose due to SHIELDING effect of other electrons Less electrostatic force
4 Periodic Table Group 7 Halogens Group 7 non-metals 1- ion Coloured vapours Diatomic molecules Down the group higher mpt/bpt Forms ionic compounds with Grp1 HALOGEN DISPLACEMENT A more reactive halogen will displace a less reactive one from a compound Reactivity DECREASES down the group Larger atom Outer shell further away from +ve nucleus HARDER to gain an electron due to SHIELDING effect of other electrons Less electrostatic force to attract electron
5 Periodic Table Transition Metals Compared with Group 1 Higher mpt Higher density Stronger/harder Much less reactive Used for catalysts Form coloured compounds Ions with different charges Similar properties because they fill an inner 3 rd shell ( 3d shell). This can hold 18 electrons, once 2 electrons fill the 4 th energy level. Usually have same number of electrons on outer shell
6 Water Water evaporates due to Sun s thermal energy. Condenses to form clouds Precipitation ( rain/snow/sleet) occurs. Water Cycle Ionic compounds are soluble, but covalent ones are not.
7 Water Hard Water Soft water easy lather Hard water less lather Contains Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions, dissolved when water passes through rocks SCUM When hard water reacts with soap. SCALE When hard water is heated. SCALE is basically limescale which is Calcium Carbonate which is a solid ppt and forms on metal appliances reducing efficiency. +ve - Ca for bones/teeth -ve - Kettles furrow up less efficient
8 Water Removing Hard Water Use washing soda Add Sodium Carbonate Precipitates out the Ca and Mg ions to form insoluble carbonates Ion Exchange (water softener) Filled with resin. Contain Sodium/Hydrogen Ions As the water is passed through the resin, the Na/H ions are EXCHANGED with the Ca/Mg ions. Needs to be topped up with Na ions so NaCl is poured in to replenish.
9 Water Water Treatment Made safe to drink by removing solids and micro-organisms Water source Filter solids Distillation = PURE WATER Sedimentation of small particles using Aluminium sulphate Filter of fine sand Carbon reduces Cl levels Ion exchange resin Silver discourage bacterial growth on filter Chlorine used to disinfect
10 Periodic Table Analysis C3 Water Energy Acids & Alkalis
11 Acids & Alkalis Strong/Weak Acids/Alkalis TESTING whether strong or weak use Universal Indicator STRONG ACIDS fully dissociate into their ions HCl H+ + Cl- WEAK ACIDS partially dissociate into their ions CH 3 COOH H+ + CH 3 COO- Same for alkalis, just OH- ions
12 Acids & Alkalis Titration NEUTRAL ph7 Used to determine accurately how much alkali is needed to react completely with a known volume of acid ( or vice-versa) Unknown volume END POINT Acid-base reaction is complete Phenolphthalein STRONG ALKALI and WEAK ACID Known volume and conc Methyl Orange STRONG ACID and WEAK Alkali
13 Acids Energy & Alkalis Bomb calorimeter Calorimeter Think HSW! Energy from fuels 4.2J raises temp of 1 g of water by 1 degree A + B C If 0.1 mole of reactants. Total mass of A and B is 100g. Temp start is 19.6, temp max is 26.1 Work out diff.6.5 Energy change = mass x 4.2 x temp change (Don t need to learn this, you would get this) So for 0.1 moles = 2730J For 1 mole 2730 x J (27.3kJ)..exothermic reaction ( as temp rise) = -27.3kJ/mol Food high in carbs and fats have lots of energy!! more than body needs obesity
14 Acids Energy & Alkalis Energy changes Reaction = bond breaking ( endo) and bond making ( exo) EXOTHERMIC Energy required to break bonds in less than energy released when new bonds are formed CATALYST. Lowers activation energy ENDOTHERMIC Energy required to break bonds in greater than energy released when new bonds are formed H = - ve H = + ve
15 Acids Energy & Alkalis Bond energies Identify the bonds..stick diagrams! CH 4(g) + 2O 2(g) 2H 2 O (l) + CO 2(g) Bond H-H 436 Cl-Cl 242 H-Cl 431 O-H 464 C-C 347 C-O 335 O=O 498 Bond energy kj/mol Add up on the bonds in the reactants. This is bond energy needed to break the bonds Add up on the bonds in the products. This is bond energy needed to make new bonds. REMEMBER making new bonds is an exothermic reaction so it is always a ve number H = bond breaking + (- bond making)
16 Acids Analysis Energy & Alkalis Positive Ions Add Sodium Hydroxide FLAME TESTS Fe 3+ metal barium flame test colour apple green Cu 2+ Fe 2+ calcium brick red potassium lilac lithium sodium bright red orange Add NaOH, gently warm. Ammonium gas turn red litmus paper blue
17 Acids Energy Analysis & Alkalis Carbonates add acid bubbles if they turn limewater cloudy Negative Ions SULPHATES ( add HCl to removes any carbonate ions) Add Barium Chloride white ppt Halides Add nitric acid and silver nitrate Cl Br I White Cream Yellow NITRATES Copper Carbonate Copper Oxide Zinc Carbonate Copper Oxide Test for ammonia first negative result Add ALUMINIUM ( this reduces the nitrate ion to Ammonium ions) Test again for ammonia gas positive result
18 Write what you know from the question. Analysis Titration Calculations 2NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2H2O V = 30cm 3 Conc =? V = 20cm 3 Conc = Convert vol into dm3 by dividing by Calculate moles of substance of known vol and conc 3. Look at the equation for the ratio. Here, it is 2:1 So we calculate moles of acid here and then multiply this by 2 Moles = Concentration Volume 4. Now rearrange the formula to allow you to work out the unknown If they want you to work out the g/mol All you do is multiply the RFM ( they give you this!) by the concentration you calculated
19 What is ammonia? Ammonia is an important compound in the manufacture of fertilizer and other chemicals such as cleaning fluids and floor waxes. It is made industrially by reacting nitrogen with hydrogen in the Haber process. It is a reversible reaction, so it never goes to completion. Why is this a problem for companies making ammonia? nitrogen + hydrogen ammonia N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g)
20 ammonia yield (%) What is yield? The amount of product made in a reaction is called the yield and is usually expressed as a percentage. The yield of ammonia produced by the Haber process depends on the temperature and pressure of the reaction. pressure (atm)
21 What is the Haber compromise? The highest yield of ammonia is theoretically produced by using a low temperature and a high pressure. In practice, though, these conditions are not used. Why? Lowering the temperature slows down the rate of reaction. This means it takes longer for ammonia to be produced. Increasing the pressure means stronger, more expensive equipment is needed. This increases the cost of producing the ammonia. A compromise is reached to make an acceptable yield in a reasonable timeframe while keeping costs down.
22 The Haber compromise To produce a high yield of ammonia, but with a fast rate of reaction and without the need for overly expensive equipment, the Haber process is carried out at 450 C and 200 atmospheres. The most important factor in deciding what conditions to use is therefore not yield, but total cost. What costs are involved in the industrial production of ammonia? raw materials equipment energy wages
23 Maximizing productivity What else can be done to maximise productivity in the manufacture of ammonia? An iron catalyst is used to increase the rate of reaction. It speeds up both the forward and backward reaction, so the position of equilibrium is not affected. The ammonia is cooled, liquefied and then removed as it is produced. This causes the equilibrium to shift to the right to produce more ammonia. Unreacted nitrogen and hydrogen are recycled and given another chance to react.
24 What is dynamic equilibrium? In some reversible reactions, the forward and backward reactions largely occur in the same conditions and at the same rate. These reactions are said to be in dynamic equilibrium there is no overall change in the amount of products and reactants, even though the reactions are ongoing. reactant A reactant B product + Dynamic equilibrium can only take place in a closed system, otherwise the products would escape.
25 Setting dynamic equilibrium The position of dynamic equilibrium is not always at a half-way point, i.e. when there are equal amounts of products and reactants. It may be at a position where there are mainly reactants with a little product, or vice versa. The position of equilibrium is influenced by two main factors: temperature concentration (or pressure for reactions involving gases) Adding a catalyst speeds up the time it takes to reach equilibrium, but does not change the position of equilibrium.
26 Opposing change Whenever a change is made to a reversible reaction in dynamic equilibrium, the equilibrium will shift to try and oppose the change. Condition Temperature Concentration Pressure Effect Increasing the temperature shifts the equilibrium in the direction that takes in heat. Increasing the concentration of a substance shifts the equilibrium in the direction that produces less of that substance. Increasing the pressure shifts the equilibrium in the direction that produces less gas.
27 Exothermic and endothermic reactions All reactions are exothermic (give out heat) in one direction and endothermic (take in heat) in the other. If the temperature is increased: equilibrium shifts to decrease the temperature equilibrium shifts in the endothermic direction If the temperature is decreased: equilibrium shifts to increase the temperature equilibrium shifts in the exothermic direction
28 Concentration and equilibrium Changing the concentration of a substance affects the equilibrium of reversible reactions involving solutions. increasing the concentration of substance A = equilibrium shifts to decrease the amount of substance A decreasing the concentration of substance A = equilibrium shifts to increase the amount of substance A
29 Pressure and equilibrium Changing the pressure has an effect on the equilibrium of reversible reactions involving gases. If the pressure is increased: equilibrium shifts to decrease the pressure equilibrium shifts in the direction of fewest molecules If the pressure is decreased: equilibrium shifts to increase the pressure equilibrium shifts in the direction of most molecules
30 Alcohols What Are Alcohols? Alcohols are organic chemical compounds which form a homologous series. They are compounds in which one or more hydrogen atoms in an alkane (saturated hydrocarbon) are replaced by hydroxyl (OH) groups. The hydroxyl group (OH) is the part of the molecule that is responsible for the characteristic reactions and chemical properties of the alcohol. This is otherwise known as the 'functional group'
31 Ethanol Ethanol is an alcohol. Ethanol can be represented in a number of different forms: C 2 H 5 OH CH 3 CH 2 OH
32 Facts about Ethanol Ethanol can: Dissolve in water to form a neutral solution. React with sodium to from hydrogen. Burn in air. Be used as fuels and solvents, and is the main alcohol in alcoholic drinks. Ethanol can be oxidised to ethanoic acid (by chemical oxidising agents or microbial action).
33 So what does Ethanol look like? The molecular structure of ethanol looks like this: The OH part of Ethanol is sometimes referred to as the functional group
34 Methanol Methanol is another alcohol, which as we know, is also a member of the homologous series. Methanol can be represented as a formula: CH 3 OH
35 Methanol The molecular structure of methanol look like this: The OH part of methanol is sometimes referred to as the functional group!
36 Facts about Methanol Methanol can: Dissolve in water to form a neutral solution. React with sodium to from hydrogen. Burn in air. Be used as fuels and solvents, and is the main alcohol in alcoholic drinks.
37 Carboxylic acid A carboxylic acid is an organic acid that contains one or more carboxyl groups. They usually have higher boiling points than water and are usually quite weak acids. These longer chain acids tend to be rather soluble in lesspolar solvents such as ethers and alcohols.
38 Ethanoic Acid Ethanoic acid can be found in your kitchen, any ideas? Yes, its vinegar! Ethanoic acid is one of the simplest carboxylic acids. The COOH part of ethanoic acid is sometimes referred to as the functional group
39 Facts about Carboxylic acids Carboxylic acids: Dissolve in water to produce acidic solutions. React with carbonates to produce carbon dioxide. React with alcohols in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce esters. Do not ionise completely when dissolved in water and so are weak acids. Aqueous solutions of weak acids have a higher ph value than aqueous solutions of stronger acids with the same concentration.
40 Esters Esters are chemical compounds made by condensing acids with alcohols. Esters with low molecular weight are commonly used as fragrances and found in essential oils and pheromones.
41 Making an Ester Ethyl ethanoate is synthesized in industry mainly via the classic Fischer esterification reaction of an ethanol (alcohol) and a ethanoic acid (carboxylic acid). This mixture converts to the ester in about 65% yield at room temperature: CH 3 CH 2 OH + CH 3 COOH CH 3 COOCH 2 CH 3 + H 2 O The reaction can be accelerated by acid catalysis and the equilibrium can be shifted to the right by removal of water.
42 What do esters look like? -Ethyl ethanoate- Ethyl ethanoate is the organic compound with the formula CH3COOCH2CH3. This colourless liquid has a characteristic sweet smell and is used in glues, nail polish removers, decaffeinating tea and coffee, and cigarettes. The COO part of ethyl ethanoate is sometimes referred to as the functional group!
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