Evolution of Computer-based Systems

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1 Evolution of Computer-based Systems Massimo Felici LFCS, School of Informatics The University of Edinburgh UK

2 DIRC o Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration on Dependability of Computer-based Systems (DIRC) o 6-year project funded by the UK EPSRC o 5 UK universities involved + industry o various Project Activities (e.g., Dependable Human Machine Interaction in Real-time Systems, Design for Dependability, Impact of Organizational Culture and Trust on Dependability, etc.) o Research Themes: Structure, Diversity, Timeliness, Responsibility, Risk

3 Overview o Evolution of Computer-based Systems o Taxonomy of Evolution o Dependable Evolution o Requirements Evolution o A Case Study

4 A Taxonomy of Evolution Dependability Perspectives Massimo Felici

5 Overview o Evolutionary Dependability o Evolutionary Layering o Evolutionary Modelling o Dependable Evolution o Taxonomy of Evolution o Practical issues o Practical Challenges

6 Evolutionary Dependability? o Dependability is that property of a computer system such that reliance can justifiably be placed on the service it delivers o Issue: Static definition of Dependability o Issue: A computer system can just be to a certain extent Dependable or Undependable

7 Dependability Basis o Dependability consists of a set of attributes o Dependability means: o fault prevention, tolerance, removal and forecasting o Dependability impairments: o faults, errors and failures o others use an equivalent reshuffled model based on errors, faults and failures

8 Dependability implies Evolution but Evolution is not taken into account into Dependability

9 Evolutionary Layering

10 Software Evolution o M. Lehman defines E-type programs (software systems), which o continuously evolve in order to be satisfactory o need to accommodate environmental changes o have an increasing complexity o represent multi-level, multi-loop and multi-agent feedback systems

11 Architecture Evolution o Architecture is (should be) a stable part of a system (Anderson and Felici, Safecomp 2000) o Issue: expensive to change o Issue: imply high risk o Product-line architecture represents the extent to which a product-line will be able to evolve o Trade-off: General vs. Specific o In practice: Identified variability points o Definition: unclear definition of architecture evolution. There are in general two (three) types of evolution; o the architecture evolves or components evolve (everything evolve).

12 Requirements Evolution o It is impossible to frozen requirements. But we should (and could) identify the extent to which requirements evolve in order to identify the stable ones and the most likely to change. (Anderson and Felici, Safecomp 2000, Profes 2001, COMPSAC 2002) o Requirements evolution has been considered mainly a management problem o little emphasis on product features o Research Hypothesis: Product features enhance our ability in understanding (requirements) evolution. o Requirements evolution is unstructured o Research Hypothesis: There are structures for evolution (There are structures in Requirements, Changes and Evolution)

13 Computer-based System Evolution o Did I speak just about software? o Holistic viewpont Software Liveware Environment Hardware SHEL Model

14 Computer-based System Evolution o Social Learning: o Domestication and Innofusion o Emergent behaviour o Distributed Cognition: o Human Cognition as result of interactions (knowledge distribution) between (among) individuals and artefacts o Disappearing Computer (D. Norman): o The system (design) becomes less intrusive and evolves according to human needs

15 Organization Evolution o (System) Evolution and (Organization) Co-evolution or vice versa o System-Organization reflection (Conway s Law) o Evolution as Corporate Knowledge

16 Evolutionary Modelling 1/2 o Software Evolution o E-type systems o code modification o Architecture Evolution o product-line variability o Requirements Evolution o Goal-structures framework based on first-order logic with Prolog resolution (Proteus Project) o First-order logic model of Requirements Evolution (Zowghi) o Traceability o Management process o Quantitative approaches: o (few) Metrics; (little) Probabilistic Distribution

17 Evolutionary Modelling 2/2 o Computer-based System Evolution o Human Evolution o Social Learning o Emergent Behaviour o Organization Evolution o Business models??? ;-( o Software Engineering Economics (e.g., COCOMO II Boehm)

18 Dependability Related Modelling o Reliability Growth models o Bayesian (probabilistic) models o Fault Tree Analysis o Event Tree Analysis o Domino effect o Cheese model o??? ;-(

19 A Taxonomy of Evolution Dependability Perspectives

20 A Taxonomy of Evolution o Practical Issues o There are many different assumptions about evolution embedded into methodologies o Unclear definition of evolution o Little coordination giving rise to undependability in place o Evolutionary data are difficult to capture and analyse o Incomplete, distributed, unrelated, unclear,

21 A Taxonomy of Evolution o Practical Challenges o Classify environments according to evolutions in place o Model evolution o Link evolutionary layers o Link evolutionary models

22 Requirements Evolution An Avionics Case Study Massimo Felici

23 Overview o Why Requirements Evolution? o Case Study o System Requirements o Development Process o Requirements related Issues o Empirical Analysis o General Requirements Evolution o Taxonomy of Requirements Changes o Requirements Maturity Index o Ageing Requirements Maturity o Empirical evidence o Functional Requirements Evolution o Requirements Dependencies o Visualizing Requirements Evolution

24 Requirements Evolution Rationale o Requirements Evolution o affects: o cost (both in term of money and man-power) o project risk o system dependability (and quality of service, system quality, etc.) o process effectiveness o So far little investigated and supported o Current practice: reactive (passive); non-proactive (e.g., traceability) o Differently: o Requirements Evolution as system feature

25 An Avionics Safety-Critical Case Study Safety Requirements Functional and Operational Requirements Certification and Maintenance Case Study Product Line Aspects and Standards Software Development Process

26 An Avionics Safety-Critical Case Study

27 An Avionics Safety-Critical Case Study o Requirements related issues: o Requirements changes are collected just for certification o Changes are collected by a simple table o None support to analyze changes o Changes management is process oriented o None standard classification for describing changes o

28 Measuring Requirements Evolution Size so Requirements evolve over subsequent releases There is a majority of added (new) requirements among changes

29 Requirements Evolution Taxonomy of Requirements Changes Add, Delete and Rename parameters / variables Range Modification Hardware Modification Partial Compliance Requirements Evolution Add, Delete and Modify Requirements Explanation Rephrasing Traceability Non-compliance

30 Requirements Evolution Classified Requirements Evolution

31 Requirements Evolution Classified Requirements Evolution Changes having permission to change delivered code Changes not having permission to change delivered code

32 Requirements Maturity Index Maturity hence the RMI: o is too sensitive to changes introduced in a IEEE Std 982 IEEE Standard Dictionary of Measures to Produce Reliable single Software release R T R Requirements Maturity Index (RMI) C ormi does not = take into account historical RT information about changes (e.g., age)

33 Ageing Requirements Evolution Measuring Requirements Evolution Average Number of Requirements Changes AR C = CR n C Cumulative Number of Requirements Requirements Stability Index RSI = R T R CR T C Number of Software Releases Historical Requirements Maturity Index HRMI = R T R AR T C Total Number of Requirements

34 Ageing Requirements Evolution Measuring Requirements Evolution Requirements Changes RMI RSI HRMI Total Number of Requirements

35 Ageing Requirements Evolution Average Number of Requirements Changes Requirements Stability Index Historical Requirements Maturity Index

36 Measuring Requirements Evolution Functional Viewpoint

37 Measuring Requirements Evolution Functional Viewpoint o The functional requirements have different evolutions this may be due to requirements dependencies o Intuitive notion of stability based on the proportion between changes and requirements

38 Requirements Dependencies Functional Viewpoint

39 Visualizing Requirements Evolution F1 Software Architecture Inspection of: o Requirements Documents o History of Changes o Backward reconstruction of the requirements process */ 1.3.2*/ Add[n] Del[n] Mod[n]

40 Conclusions & Further Work Design for Evolution Evolve for Dependability

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