Repetition and Loops. Additional Python constructs that allow us to effect the (1) order and (2) number of times that program statements are executed.

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1 New Topic Repetition and Loops Additional Python constructs that allow us to effect the (1) order and (2) number of times that program statements are executed. These constructs are the 1. while loop and 2. for loop. Recall: 1. Input 2. Output 3. Memory 4. Arithmetic symbolic manipulation and evaluation 5. Control we have already seen straight line execution, and if statement. We have seen a simple example of control. Python simply executes one statement after another from the first statement of the program to the last i.e. straight line execution. In we have seen how Python lets us execute statements conditionally. So if a Boolean condition is met, a given block of statements is executed once, otherwise it is not. But what about the case that we want to execute the block multiple times, as long as the Boolean condition is True? We can do this by using a Example: while loop. Write a program that prints the numbers 1 10, one per line. 55

2 Solution: Use a while loop. The syntax (form) of the while statement is: while <Boolean expression> : one or more statements (called a code block) The semantics (meaning or interpretation) is: Upon encountering the while statement: 1. Evaluate the Boolean expression 2. Repeat the associated block as long as the Boolean expression is True 3. Exit the while loop as soon as the Boolean expression evaluates to False. Definition: This process of repeating one or more statements is called iteration. Write a program that asks the user for a positive integer n. It then prints the numbers 1 through n, one per line. 56

3 Write a program that asks the user for a positive integer n. It then prints the numbers n down to 1, one per line. Write a program that asks the user for a positive integer n (>= 2). It then prints the even numbers in the range 1 to n, one per line. 57

4 Write a program that asks the user for a positive integer n. Print a triangle of stars ( = * ) like in the example below. Now do this one. 58

5 Write a program that asks the user for a positive integer n. Calculate and print the sum of the integers 1 through n. Write a program that asks the user for a positive integer n. Calculate and print the product of the integers 1 through n. Write a program that asks the user for a positive integer n. Calculate and print the sum of the odd integers in the range 1 through n. 59

6 Write a program to request and validate a password from your user. A valid password will be any two digit integer, both digits of which are even. Give the user three chances to enter a correct password. At each incorrect attempt, print Invalid password. Try again If the password entered is correct print Correct! You may access the system. Exit the program. If the password entered is incorrect print Too many invalid attempts. Please try again later. 60

7 Write a program that asks the user for a positive integer n where the right-most digit is not a zero. Print out the digits of n from right to left one next to the other. Write a program that asks the user for a positive integer n where the right-most digit is not a zero. Construct and output the integer whose digits are the reverse of those in n. For example, if n has the value 123, then you need to construct the integer 321. Note you are not just printing the digits of n in reverse order; you are actually constructing the new integer. 1. What is the algorithm (method)? 61

8 2. Write the code. Recall the definition of a prime number: An integer greater than one is called a prime number if its only positive divisors (factors) are one and itself. Write a program that inputs a positive integer n and determines if n is prime or composite (i.e. not a prime). 62

9 We now look at the second loop structure in Python, the for loop Example: Write a program that prints the numbers 0 10, one per line. This is the simplest usage of the for statement. It lets you iterate over a sequence of numbers. In the example above, the sequence starts implicitly at 0 and goes up to, but not including 11. The syntax (form) of this form of the for statement is: for <some variable> in range( ) : one or more statements (called a code block) The semantics (meaning or interpretation) is: The variable after the for takes on each value in the range successively. That value may be used in the block that is the body of the for statement. 63

10 Question: What about the range function? Here are some examples: and range( ) has the following syntax: and the following semantics: range([start value,] end value [,step]) 1. if start value > end value: Generate a sequence of values starting with the start value generate each subsequent value by adding step to the previous one the last value in the sequence is the largest number less than end value. Note: The default value of step is 1. 64

11 2. if start value < end value: Generate a sequence of values starting with the start value generate each subsequent value by adding step to the previous one the last value in the sequence is the smallest number greater than end value. Note: In this case the value of step should be negative. Example: The following code: prints: Use a for loop to solve the next set of problems. Write a program that asks the user for a positive integer n. It then prints the numbers 1 through n, one per line. 65

12 Write a program that asks the user for a positive integer n. Calculate and print the sum of the integers 1 through n. Write a program that asks the user for a positive integer n. Calculate and print the product of the integers 1 through n. Write a program that asks the user for a positive integer n. Calculate and print the sum of the odd integers in the range 1 through n. 66

13 Generate and print all numbers between 1 and 1000 such that the sum of the digits equals 20. Generate and print all prime numbers between 1 and

14 Write a program using for loops to print the following: 68

15 Write a program, using for loops, to generate the following output. 69

16 How do we control statement execution inside a loop (either while or for)? Two new ways. Until now: while loop: We keep executing the body of the loop as long as the Boolean expression in the loop head is true. We exit only when it becomes false. for loop: We keep executing the body of the loop as long as the sequence of values in the range() function has not been exhausted. We exit only when there are no more values generated in conjunction with the argument list. However. Python has two other statements that allow us to control what happens inside a loop: 1. continue 2. break 1. continue: When Python encounters a continue statement inside a loop, the interpreter proceeds directly to the top of the loop, skipping all the statements in the after the continue. For example this code produces this output: Question: What would be printed if the if and continue are left out? 70

17 2. break: When Python encounters a break statement inside a loop, the interpreter causes the loop to terminate and execution of the program continues with the first statement after the loop. For example this code For example this code produces this output: Question: explain this output in detail, including the blank line between the tuples printed. 71

18 Here is an attempt to re-write the continue example with the for loop except using a while loop: example Question: What will be printed? Why? If instead of a continue statement in the code above, we put a break, like this: we get Why? 72

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