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1 Atom- - smallest particle of matter that has all its chemical properties -Atoms are made up of 3 smaller particles. These smaller particles are: protons particle with a positive charge located in the nucleus neutrons particle with NO charge located in the nucleus electrons particle with a negative charge located outside the nucleus

2 ATOMS protons neutrons electrons Positive charge (+) No charge (0) Negative charge (-) Inside the nucleus Inside the nucleus Outside the nucleus

3 Element substance that is made up of only 1 type of atom. there are over 100 different elements each element has its own symbol usually 1 or 2 letters

4

5 Write down the symbol for the following elements: Lithium: Sulfur: Neon: Krypton: Lead: Gold: Write down the NAME of the following elements: Mg: C: Cl: Na:

6 Here s a picture of a Carbon Atom: -Protons & Neutrons are bigger in size and are found in the nucleus (center) of the atom. -Electrons are smaller in size and are found in orbitals around the nucleus. -Atoms have NO charge because the number of protons equals the number of electrons

7 Atomic Number- -tells you the number of protons & electrons -this number is located above the symbol of the element Write down the ATOMIC NUMBER of the following elements: S: Silver: Pt: Boron: How many protons does S have? electrons? How many protons does Boron have? electrons?

8 Atomic Mass- -tells you the number of protons PLUS neutrons -this number is located below the symbol of the element -this number usually in decimal form because not all atoms are identical; some have extra neutrons. These atoms are called isotopes Write down the ATOMIC MASS of the following elements: S: Silver: Pt: Boron: To find the number of neutrons you must do the following: Practice: Atomic Mass minus Atomic Number How many neutrons does Fluorine have? How many neutrons does Sodium have?

9 HOW TO DRAW AN ATOM: First you must figure out how many protons, neutrons & electrons the atom has. *Remember* - the Atomic Number tells you the number of protons and electrons - the Atomic Mass tells you the number of protons PLUS neutrons - -To find the number of neutrons: atomic mass MINUS atomic number EXAMPLE: draw an atom of Beryllium Atomic Number = Atomic Mass = figure out the number of: Protons = Electrons = Neutrons = YOU RE HALF WAY THERE!!

10 ORBITAL RULES: -The 1 st orbital holds 2 electrons. Once it has 2 electrons it is FULL -The 2 nd orbital holds 8 electrons. Once it has 8 electrons it is FULL -The 3 rd orbital holds 8 electrons. Once it has 8 electrons it is FULL -Now that you know the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons Beryllium has, use the orbital rules to draw the atom below:

11 DRAW THE FOLLOWING ATOMS: Chlorine: Lithium:

12 WATER: The chemical formula for water is: H 2 O -There are 2 Hydrogen atoms & 1 Oxygen atom -What a water molecule looks like this: - The hydrogen atoms are attached to the oxygen atom by a covalent bond - Each water molecule is attached to each other by a hydrogen bond

13 -Water has a slight positive charge and a slight negative charge. This makes water a polar molecule. -The Oxygen atom holds on to the electrons a lot longer, so this side is slightly negative. -The Hydrogen atoms rarely see the electrons, so this side is slightly positive. PROPERTIES OF WATER: -The ability of water to stick to other things is called adhesion -The ability of water to stick to itself is called cohesion

14 6 Most Important Elements in Biology: 1. CARBON 2. HYDROGEN 3. OXYGEN 4. NITROGEN 5. PHOSPHORUS 6. SULFUR **THE MOST IMPORTANT ELEMENT OF THESE IS: CARBON CARBON: -Carbon can make 4 (#) bonds, which is the most out of the 6 elements. - It allows you to make really large/ long molecules. - Any molecule that contains Carbon is said to be organic.

15 Organic Molecules (Biological Molecules) -There are 4 (#) different types of organic molecules: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Proteins 3. Lipids 4. Nucleic Acids Carbohydrates: Proteins: Lipids: Nucleic Acids:

16 1. Carbohydrates: (Sugars) - JOB: to provide living organisms with energy - Elements: C, H, O -Subunit: monosaccharide - means 1 sugar disaccharide - means 2 sugars polysaccharide - means many sugars - Shape: Carbohydrates look like rings hooked together to form a chain.

17 Examples of Carbohydrates: There are 2 major types of carbohydrates: 1 type- STORAGE CARBOHYDRATE- stores extra sugar examples: starch is found in plant cells glycogen is found in animal cells 2 nd type- STRUCTURAL CARBOHYDRATE- helps with shape examples: cellulose is found in plant cells chitin is found in animal cells

18 2. Proteins: - JOB: many different jobs; depends on the protein -Elements: C, H, O, N, S -Subunit: Proteins are made out of Amino Acids - Shape: Proteins start off as a chain, but then their final shapes vary - Examples: Proteins are found all over your body! Here are some examples: - Keratin- found in your hair & nails (makes them strong & shiny) - Collagen- found in your skin (makes it smooth & wrinkle-free) - Hemoglobin- found in your blood (carries oxygen) - Enzymes- speed up chemical reactions - When a protein loses its shape and can t work anymore it s said to be denatured. (like if your key got ran over by a car..it loses it s shape and can t work anymore)

19 3. Lipids: - JOB: to store energy; (long term energy source) -Elements: C, H, O, P -Subunit: made out of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids -There is a special lipid called a phospholipid, which is found in the cell membrane of all cells. -Shape: lipids with 3 fatty acids look like this: -Shape: lipids with 2 fatty acids (phospholipids) look like this:

20 Examples of Lipids: 2 types of fats: 1. Saturated Fats- are BAD for you & come from ANIMALS 2. Unsaturated Fats- are GOOD for you & come from PLANTS

21 4. Nucleic Acids: - JOB: store & transmit genetic information -Elements: C, H, O, P, N -Subunit: nucleic acids are made out of nucleotide - a nucleotide is made up of 3 things: -Shape & Examples: 1.sugar 2. phosphate 3. base -RNA- stands for Ribonucleic Acid -DNA- stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid RNA looks like this DNA looks like this

22 ORGANIC MOLECULES Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids Made of Made of Made of Made of C, H, O C, H, O, N, S C, H, O, P C, H, O, P, N examples examples examples examples Sugars Keratin, hemoglobin, enzymes Fats (saturated/ unsaturated) DNA / RNA

23 How are Organic Molecules made and broken down? How Organic Molecules are made: - Dehydration Synthesis- -process of building organic molecules by removing a molecule of water How Organic Molecules are broken down: -Hydrolysis- process of breaking down organic molecules by adding a molecule of water

24 ENZYMES: -A.k.a.: catalyst -Made out of protein -Typically end in ase -Job: to speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy needed -Enzymes work on a substance called a substrate (they fit together like 2 puzzle pieces) -The enzyme and the substrate join at the active site -This is where a chemical reaction takes place -Then the product is released -The enzyme is now free to find another substrate

25 Factors that can affect how an enzyme works: 2 Major factors that affect how enzymes work are: 1. Temperature- Enzymes work at specific temperatures If that temperature changes, it can denature an enzyme, which means it can t work anymore! 2. ph- this measures acidity levels the scale is: 0 to = acid 7 = neutral 8-14 = base enzymes work at specific ph levels If that ph level changes, it can denature an enzyme, which means it can t work anymore!

26 ENZYMES (aka- catalysts) Made out of protein Speed up chemical reactions Act on molecules called substrates

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