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1 The Anglo-Saxons

2 First inhabitants of Britain were the Britons and the Celts. Tall blonde warriors, hunters, and farmers Highly religious people who saw spirits in every part of nature. Their main deities were an earthly goddess found in nature, known as the Great Mother and a male god, known as the Great Father, associated with hunting and the personality of each tribe.

3 They elected the leaders of each tribe and served as judges. Their teachings emphasized a balance or perfect marriage between the Great Father and the Great Mother. They studied the solar systems, composed hymns and poems, and kept records. They, of course, conducted religious ceremonies.

4 Some fun things to learn and know about the Britons and the Celts... Stonehenge is believed to be one of their sacred religious sites The name Great Britain comes from these people the Britons. The Celts and the Britons mainly used the oral tradition as many of their citizens could NOT read or write, and their written language was reserved for money and monuments.

5 In 55 BC, Julius Caesar conquered the Britons. The Romans brought roads, walls, and public baths to England. They did NOT bring any central government. The country was still an organization of smaller kingdoms and tribes.

6 The first Christian missionaries were able to enter Briton and begin converting its citizens. The Roman Catholic Church set up monasteries and convents. Monasteries and convents were not only centers of faith, but also centers of learning. Monks like Venerable Bede recorded history and the ballads of the Anglo-Saxon People. Monks wrote mostly in the official language of the Catholic Church, Latin.

7 The Romans were forced to retreat from Briton to protect Rome from the invading Persians. This left the country weak and open to invaders.

8 The Anglos and the Saxons were the next groups to invade Briton. These warriors came from the Baltic Germany and the peninsula of Denmark. This group of people gave the land its language in the form of Old English (from Angle-ish). They gave the area its name of England (from Angle-land).

9 King Arthur This Celtic King was made famous in imaginative fictional stories and embodies many Anglo- Saxon attributes. King Alfred of Wessex Also know as Alfred the Great, this real Anglo- Saxon King did much to impact the world he ruled.

10 Not luxurious, but they were not barbarians. Prized art, poetry, community discussion, close relationships between rulers and leaders, rule by consensus, and... Above all they prized LOYALTY.

11 Their lives were controlled by wyrd or fate. Their religions praised several gods much like in Scandinavian mythology. Their gods emphasized bravery, loyalty, generosity, and friendship. Much of the western democratic world today traces their political and ethical values back to these people.

12 Their tribes were made up of wooden homes set around a common hall that often served as the residence of their leader or king (like in Beowulf). This helped promote a feeling of community Some of our names of the days of the week come from the names of their gods. Thursday, from Thor s Day - Thor was a terrifying and protecting god whose sign was much like the Nazi swastika. Wednesday, from Woden s Day - Woden was the god of death, poetry, and magic.

13 He gave Briton or England its first sense of being a nation. King Alfred organized his people and those of neighboring kingdoms against the invading Danes or Vikings in 878. By uniting, organizing, and leading the kingdoms he earned himself the title of the first King of Britain.

14 He is responsible for encouraging Venerable Bede s Ecclesiastical History of the English People (731), the world s first major source of English history. He is also responsible for encouraging the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (892) He worked to promote the use of written Old English

15 His reign started the dominance of Wessex kings in South England that lasted until the Anglo-Saxons were forced out in Alfred the Great Suffered from epilepsy. Old English, the language spoken and written by Alfred the Great, was really much more like modern day German than the modern English we speak today.

16 William the Duke of Normandy was also known as William the Conqueror. In 1066, he lead an invasion of Southern England from Normandy, in Northern France. He is the last successful conqueror of England!

17 The Anglo-Saxons had a rich respect for literature, especially poetry. Many heroic ballads like Beowulf were passed down through the oral tradition. Being remembered in a scop or bard s tale was the only way they knew to conquer death. Oral story tellers like scops and bards held a position of great respect in the community, as they were the key to eternal life.

18 Featured brave and virtuous heroes, Made use of literary techniques like caesura, kenning, and alliteration. Did NOT use rhyme, because it had not yet been realized, Encouraged a respect for literature and history that was fortified by Alfred the Great and the Catholic Church.

19 The Britons and the Celts were the first people in this part of the world. They believed in many Gods, including the Great Mother and the Great Father. Their druid priests were their true leaders. They used the oral tradition.

20 Julius Caesar brought the Romans to England. They brought physical improvements but no unifying central government. The Catholic Church came with the Romans brining religion, education, and literary monks. The Romans had to leave England to protect Rome from the Persians.

21 The Anglo-Saxons invaded Briton from Baltic Germany and Demark They prized community, loyalty, and poetry. They also used the oral tradition. Believed the only way to survive death was through poetry.

22 King Alfred of Wessex, was the first King of Briton known as Alfred the Great. He united tribes and kingdoms in Southern England against invading Vikings. He promoted education and the respectable use of Old English. His reign of Wessex kings lasted until 1066 and William the Duke of Normandy.

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