Ejector Refrigeration System

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1 Ejector Refrigeration System Design Team Matthew Birnie, Morgan Galaznik, Scott Jensen, Scott Marchione, Darren Murphy Design Advisor Prof. Gregory Kowalski Abstract An ejector refrigeration system utilizing water as a refrigerant is presented in this report. Waste heat from the exhaust of an 11hp air cooled internal combustion engine is supplied to a boiler to boil liquid water to a saturated vapor. This engine is connected to a generator for which a custom load bank has been created to provide a variable load on the engine. The vapor then enters a converging diverging nozzle called an ejector, accelerating the vapor to supersonic speeds. The combination of the boiler-ejector stage uses this kinetic energy to supply the necessary compression that the compressor in a typical vapor compression cycle provides. Using this technique a volume will be cooled to 13 C in an ambient temperature of 39 C without additional energy requirements, as the heat from the exhaust is typically discarded to the atmosphere. A Matlab simulation was written to determine the state in the ejector and each heat exchanger. Using this simulation the necessary dimensions of each heat exchanger were determined. For additional information contact Professor Kowalski

2 The Need for Project Potential applications for this There are several benefits associated with the successful system include powering the air completion of a waste heat powered ejector refrigeration system with conditioning system in an water as the working fluid. A potential application for this system is to automobile or providing power the air conditioning system in an automobile. This system is refrigeration in a disaster area. entirely powered by waste heat and would minimize the loss in gas mileage when drivers turn on their air conditioner. Another use for this system is to provide cooling in a disaster area. In these areas where electricity is often not present, generators must be used to power equipment. There is potential for an ejector refrigeration system to run off the waste heat from the generator to cool food and medicine. This ejector refrigeration system provides a benefit that traditional refrigerators do not, a non hazardous working fluid. The Design Project Objectives and Requirements The ejector refrigeration system The ejector refrigerator must be designed using the temperature is designed to operate in an constraints of 39 C and 13 C and the heat available from the engine ambient temperature of 39 C which is measured to be 16KW. The design constraint of an ambient while providing cooling at a temperature of 39 C was determined due to the potential application of temperature at 13 C. an automobile air-conditioning system. To ensure condensation in the condenser, it is important to pick a boiler operating point and entrainment ratio that results in a temperature at the exit of the diffuser that is higher than 39 C. Design Concepts Considered The need for a load bank and Load Bank and Measurement System exhaust measurement system The group was provided with an 11hp air cooled internal was identified. For each heat combustion engine attached to a 5500W generator. The engine was exchanger several design provided without a gas tank, a battery, or a stand. A load system was concepts have been considered. needed to dissipate the energy created by the generator. The exhaust gas temperature and flow rate are essential variables in the design of the boiler and needed to be measured directly. Ejector All ejectors are made up of three main components, a convergingdiverging supersonic nozzle, the mixing section where the boiler and evaporator fluids are combined, and a diffuser, shown in Figure A. A A Matlab simulation was created to establish the design points in each of the three heat exchangers, which fixes the dimensions of these components in the ejector.

3 B C Boiler The necessary length needed to achieve the desired heat transfer from the engine exhaust pipe to the water in the boiler is calculated from the boiler state. The boiler will be a parallel flow heat exchanger. Various inner tube fin geometries were analyzed to determine the length; cross sections of these configurations are shown in Figures B- D. Figure B has no fins, Figure C has one straight fin, and Figure D D has a "V" shaped fin. Each of these designs will affect the necessary length of the boiler and the optimal design will be determined. Evaporator A design constraint of achieving cooling at 13 C with an ambient temperature of 39 C was given. Three designs were considered to achieve this operating condition: a simple cube, a simple cylinder, and a finned cylindrical tube. Each of these design concepts will yield a different necessary length and wall thickness. The optimal design will be decided upon through a heat transfer analysis. Condenser The ambient operating temperature is 39 C. The necessary heat transfer and the size of the condenser can be calculated. For the condenser design, a finned tube design will be used. Recommended Design Concept A cart was designed to hold five Load Bank and Measurement System 1000W heaters to provide a The load bank created consists of five 1000W heaters wired in variable load on the engine. For parallel through individual switches shown in Figure _. This allows each of the three heat exchangers each heater to be switched on independently, providing a variable load fins were used to decrease the on the engine. necessary length. A pitot tube was used to measure the static and total pressure of the exhaust flow. J-type thermocouples were used to measure the temperature immediately out of the engine and at the location of the pitot tube. The mass flow rate of the exhaust gas was consistent with theoretical calculations. Ejector The ejector was analyzed using a Matlab simulation. It is important to confirm that a Mach of 1.0 is reached in the throat of the supersonic nozzle. Due to the properties of supersonic flow, if this is E achieved the flow will continue to accelerate through the diverging section of the nozzle to a speed greater than Mach 1. A shock wave

4 F will occur in the mixing section; this phenomenon will result in a drastic increase in pressure and a decrease in flow velocity to subsonic speeds. This Matlab simulation also varies the entrainment ratio, which has been defined as the ratio of the mass flow from the evaporator over the mass flow from the boiler. Using this methodology, a boiler pressure and temperature of 3.7bars and 140 C was established. This yields a condenser operating pressure and temperature of 0.34 bars and 72.4 C. The ejector was provided in three separate components: the supersonic nozzle, the mixing and diffuser and a tee fitting to connect the two pieces with the evaporator. Boiler The image in Figure D proved to be the most feasible and resulted in the shortest necessary boiler length. This heat transfer analysis was carried out using the log mean temperature method. The resistive circuit used assumed that heat would travel from the exhaust gas into one of the angled fins. From here the heat is conducted through the fins and through the exhaust pipe. Next, due to free convection, the heat on the outer wall of the exhaust pipe will heat the water in the boiler to the desired temperature and pressure of 140 C and bars. The boiler is outfitted with temperature and pressure gauges to confirm that we are reaching our desired operating conditions. Safety was also considered and two pressure relief valves have been installed to go off if the pressure in the boiler exceeds 3.8 bars. Evaporator The design concept for the evaporator is the cylindrical tube with fins on the outside, shown in Figure F. This design proved to drastically decrease the necessary length when compared to the simple cylinder. Finned tubing from baseboard heater manufacturers was ordered. To determine the length, the overall heat transfer coefficient of the finned tube was calculated using the table of specifications provided by the manufacturer. The evaporator is two finned pipes in parallel connected by elbow joints.

5 Condenser The condenser has been analyzed with two separate purposes first to bring the temperature of C down to the condensing temperature of 72.4 C, and second to conduct the condensing process. The condenser will be manufactured from finned tubing purchased from a baseboard heater manufacturer. Financial Issues The total cost to create the prototype ejector refrigeration system is $2000. In an ejector refrigeration system, the ejector converging - diverging nozzle is the most expensive component and its design is unique to changing operating conditions. The group is extremely thankful to Mr. Peter Bisi of Thermo Systems Inc. for donating this piece of our system and assisting in the design. Another consideration associated with the ejector is that it could take multiple iterations to achieve the desired operating conditions. This would require buying a new ejector, as you cannot easily adjust the geometry of this converging-diverging nozzle after it has been manufactured. Recommended Improvements Additional testing needs to be Moving forward, more testing needs to be conducted to determine conducted to ensure the desired whether or not the desired operating conditions have been achieved. operating conditions are achieved. Keeping in mind that these systems often need iteration, it is likely that adjustments will need to be made to the ejector and heat exchangers. The group also needs to investigate how to bring the system past the transient start up phase and into the steady state phase. To achieve a lower cooling temperature, a multiple stage ejector would need to be investigated.

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