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1 BALI IN GLOBAL ASIA: BETWEEN MODERNIZATION AND HERITAGE FORMATION Goenawan Mohamad Bali and another 'idea of Indonesia' DENPASAR, BALI, INDONESIA JULY 2012 KEYNOTE SPEECH 18 JULY, Recently there has been a persistent report on the rise of intolerance towards non Muslims in Indonesia and the non existence State interference to curb it. The increasing conservatism, especially among educated Muslims, has not always been an indication of a rift in the society, but rather a much larger presence of religion in Indonesia's politics of identity. Both developments have put 'the idea of Indonesia' conceived and celebrated since the 1920s in crisis. My talk will be an invitation to examine the position of Bali in all this: will Bali, either as a constructed 'Other', or as a continuing 'event' related to the rest of Indonesia, contribute to another 'idea of Indonesia'. PANELS IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER AGRICULTURE/ENVIRONMENT Lene Pedersen, Central Washington University, United States Wiwik Darmiasi, Udyana University, Indonesia The Invention of Tradition? The State and Irrigation In Bali This paper explores the (re)invention of tradition in the context of Balinese models of irrigation in response to anthropological debates and state intervention. There has been much focus on the role of the state in relation to Balinese subaks, especially surrounding the issue of subak autonomy during the development and management of irrigation in pre colonial Bali as well as the massive guidance of Green Revolution state intervention. This paper explores a new development in the recent period of Indonesian decentralization, whereby regional and provincial governments now dispense annual funds to subaks. A study of 26 associations in east Bali reveals that these funds are used primarily to render subaks more complete in the image of the very irrigation model featured in the literature based on a socio ecological analysis of subak features prior to the development efforts of colonial and nation state governments. Building on the perspectives of both state policy and subak actors, we examine the recent state supported (re)invention of tradition and its emphasis on completing the ritual technology of local subaks. On the one hand it represents a state promoted (re)enchantment of society in the Weberian sense and support of local governance; but by promoting the replication of one regional system the decentralized state nevertheless joins others in erasing local difference. Agung Wardana, Undiknas University, Indonesia Law as Kurusetra*: The Politics of the Provincial Regulation on Spatial Planning for Bali 1

2 Bali, a province consisting of a small island, is unique both environmentally and culturally. It is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Indonesia with an estimated 3 million tourists visiting Bali annually. However, the rapid development of the tourism industry raises concerns about environmental sustainability, social vulnerability and even the commodification of culture. With regard to environmental sustainability, the Provincial Government of Bali has issued a provincial regulation (perda) on spatial planning, the 2009 Provincial Regulation on Spatial Planning for Bali Province. Since space plays an important role in maintaining culture and social relationship among Balinese, it is clear that the regulation would determine the picture of Bali in the next 20 years. In fact, the regulation is still the subject of ongoing debate among a wide range of interests, from conservation to commodification paradigm, or from sacred and profane viewpoints. However, it seems that both arguments are for the sake of tourism development since the arguments put maintaining the paradise image of Bali (for tourists) as the main objective. Therefore, the paper will examine how law plays a role in conducting debates between conservation and commodification viewpoints with regard to the provincial spatial plan of Bali and the extent to which justice is being accommodated in the regulation. Books, journal articles, regulations, reports, and other sources will be assessed critically for answering the purpose statements above. Keywords: Spatial Plan, Politics of Law, Bali, Environmental Justice * A battlefield among family of Pandawa and Korawa in reaching to be the king of Astina Pura Empire Carol Warren, Murdoch University, Australia Is Nothing Sacred? The Cultural and Environmental Politics of Development Regulation in Bali This exploration of controversies over the regulation of development in Bali concerns the intimate ways in which Balinese identity particularly the religious dimensions of that identity has become bound up with environmental and heritage protection. These issues cannot be separated either from local perceptions of the threats and possibilities of globalizing modernity and a pervasive populist critique of capitalist development on the island. Among the highly charged issues connected with ongoing debates over the impacts of modernization, globalization and development on Bali's culture and environment has been the question of commercial development at sacred sites. Interpretations of religious principles prescribing balance in relationships between humans and the natural and supernatural worlds (Tri Hita Karana) and the religious decree (Bhisama) defining the sacred space surrounding temples have been a battleground in the legal and discursive struggles dominating Bali's cultural and environmental politics over the past two decades. In this period, they have surfaced most vehemently in what might otherwise seem the relatively mundane and technical domain of spatial planning and environmental impact assessment. This presentation considers the pervasive dichotomies sacred and profane, tradition and modernity, cultural value and economic interest, identity and alienation, environmental preservation and use (exploitation), certainty and uncertainty (risk) that thread through debates surrounding impact assessment and zoning laws, which purport to protect the island's heritage. The politicisation of these binaries confounds regulatory and evaluation practices in profound and often perverse ways. The presentation focuses on impact assessment (AMDAL) of the megadevelopments in the Suharto period and the struggles over spatial planning laws (RTRW) in the present era of decentralization and reform, while exploring some of the paradoxes of politicizing and technologizing the sacred in the cultural and environmental politics that have characterized Bali's engagement with modernity. 2

3 Dik Roth, Wageningen University, the Netherlands Reframing Balinese Water Scarcity: From Culture to the Politics of Water? Under the influence of rapid societal transformations, primarily associated with the continuous expansion of tourism, water scarcity has become a major social environmental problem in Bali. Growing pressures on land and water resources, transformations of the Balinese economy especially the changing role of agriculture, and the important interests in accommodating and expanding investments related to tourism, have turned water into a major object of societal debate, social conflict, and policy making. However, Balinese water problems are often framed in a specifically cultural way, involving the use of narratives and discourses of a unique Balinese culture invaded and threatened by the forces of globalization. Such framings, narratives and discourses are not neutral: in combination with specific accounts of water history that also stress the cultural, they influence the world of policy making in very specific ways, foregrounding certain dimensions while side lining others. One example is the process towards recognition of part of the Balinese irrigated landscape as a UNESCO heritage site. In this paper I intend to critically analyse some key aspects of this cultural framing as part of what might be called a cultural politics of water. What images of globalization does it create, and how does it mobilize culture, tradition, and identity? What issues and problems are side lined by this cultural heritage focus? What new tensions, contradictions and problems might it create for those depending on key resources like land and water? Are there alternative ways of theorizing and framing these social environmental processes, especially transformations of water rights and the role of water transfers? What questions arise for future research of land and water resources? AJEG BALI AND BEYOND Chair: Henk Schulte Nordholt, Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (KITLV), the Netherlands This panel aims to investigate the impact of the so called Ajeg Bali discourse that has dominated Balinese politics during the last decade. This raises in particular questions about the position of Bali within the Indonesian nation state and the nature of citizenship. Jean Couteau, Institut Seni Indonesia, Denpasar, Indonesia Identity in Balinese Visual Arts The issue of identity is an old horse of Balinese studies. Some writings focus on the role of political engineering. Other, more recent ones, try to size up the impact of today's revivalist movement, in particular that sponsored, under the name of Ajeg Bali by the Bali Post media group. The paper I am herewith submitting, Identity in Balinese visual arts, has a narrower scope. It simply proposes to read the way Balinese artists, from the post colonial generation down to contemporary artists, imagine and present their identity through their artworks. Even though the study is still under way and no final conclusion has been reached, several points can already be underlined: most artworks are purposely iconic of Bali and can therefore be construed as an affirmation of identity; yet, at the same time, most clearly show an attempt to adapt thematically and stylistically, to modernity. 3

4 I Nyoman Wijaya, Department of History, Udayana University, Indonesia Seabad Praktek Hegemoni Ajeg Bali Studi ini berbicara mengenai Ajeg Bali yang muncul sejak Persoalan itu dilacak ke masa lampau dengan permasalahan utama hubungan antara suatu wacana besar dengan kepentingan mengajegkan Bali. Persoalan yang dibahas dalam studi ini adalah hubungan Ajeg Bali dengan perubahan struktur politik, meluasnya pengaruh agama agama non Hindu, persinggungan Bali dengan berbagai ideologi politik, munculnya industri pariwisata. Jawaban pertanyaan itu dicari mulai dari tahun Suatu hal yang ingin ditunjukkan dalam studi, yakni sebagai sebuah peristiwa budaya, semangat maupun gerakan Ajeg Bali tidak lebih dari sebuah artikulasi yang sangat kuat dari para intelektual organik yang diberi hak istimewa untuk berbicara. Karena itu Ajeg Bali merupakan upaya sepihak para intelektual organik untuk mengajegkan Bali. Di dalamnya Bali dijadikan kata benda kongkret milik orang orang Bali Hindu. Sebagai barang milik pribadi, Bali diartikulasikan sebagai konsep kebudayaan, lalu dipermanenkan sehingga Bali identik dengan adat dan agama leluhur yang bersifat nostalgik. Putu Ratih Kumala Dewi, International Relations Department, Airlangga University, Indonesia The existence of Desa Pakraman in Bali in an Era of Globalization Globalization affects all aspects of human life in every region, including culture and civilization in Bali. As a consequence of globalization an intense struggle between local and global cultural values has arisen in Bali. The local cultural value system that people always referred to has been undergoing many changes due to the influence of global cultural values. However, at the same time, this global culture has paradoxically led to an increased awareness of local and regional culture. Globalization, immigrants who come and go and rapid flow of capital in Bali have brought a variety of influences. The Balinese react to these influences by trying to empower themselves and strengthen the resilience of culture through a traditional institution called desa pakraman (traditional village). The existence of desa pakraman is now challenged by both internal and external factors, which has led to a complicated situation. Maria Adriani, Architecture Department, Islamic University of Indonesia, Yogyakarta, Indonesia Rumah Asal: Resilience among Globalization and Romanticism The Balinese are continuously under pressure by global problems, such as the massive influx of cheap immigrant workers, the high cost of living and the invasion of international and Jakarta investors. As a consequence the Balinese are experiencing political instability and horizontal conflicts, even at the family level which forms the basic social entity. In this chaos, the Ajeg Bali concept was seized to oppose these tremendous globalization effects. However in reality, the concept Ajeg Bali is mainly used as part of a romantic jargon to strengthen ones political position. This paper aims to observe the rumah asal, the traditional Balinese family compound outside the usual romantic context. It has two objectives. First, it will try to identify that the rumah asal is being used as a part of a strategy to face global problems: harder economy, the degrading of traditional life and ignorant individualism. Second, it will look at how tensions in the rumah asal are spatially managed. The paper is based on research conducted in June 2011 at several family compounds in Kesiman, Denpasar. Social ethnography and spatial analysis have been used as methodologies. 4

5 ARCHITECTURE/URBAN DEVELOPMENT Josef Prijotomo, Department of Architecture, Institut Teknologi Surabaya, Indonesia Becoming both Bali and Modern: The battle in Contemporary Architecture of Bali The Orde Baru era should be identified as the era where Bali experienced a struggle between architectural modernism and architectural traditionalism. Here, space and form as formulated and understood by modernism was found to be in strong contrast to the indigenous Balinese architecture, and consequently became problematic to Balinese architects. The government, professional institutions and architectural schools who were expected to provide assistance to this problem, in fact only suggested normative solutions for an architecture that would combine both modern and traditional aspects. It is interesting to find that becoming modern is, as seen by architects, somewhat easier than becoming Bali. Balinese ness, as a recognizable identity, should be experienced in today s and tomorrow s architecture but has find itself in a difficult position due to modern ness being the mindset of most Balinese architects. Popo Danes, Putu Mahendra and I Wayan Gomuda, educated at a modern architecture school during the Orde Baru era, are examples of Balinese architects dealing with modernism versus traditionalism. They exhaustively struggled with Balinese architecture as a legacy that needed to be preserved and yet should also represent the present and future of Bali on the one hand, and, on the other hand, modern architecture as a sign of present ness, contemporariness, globalization and progress and definitely non Bali. Nathalie Lancret, Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Paris Belleville school of architecture, France Production of the Contemporary City in Bali, between Legacies and Projects Analysis of the spatial changes which make up modern Asia reveals the effects of this clean sweep and the emergence of a new world with forms of indistinct origins. At the same time, we find works which, at different levels, have to cope with previous conditions of settlement, organization and use of space. Recent works have allowed us to identify three types of process: local socio spatial resistance and persistence which are often due to the inhabitants and users; distanced re readings of heritage by professional, local or foreign actors; the appropriation of these distanced re readings when they are accepted in the field. Projected on an architectural scale, or on the scale of the neighbourhood or urbanized zone, these programmes draw on different aspects of legacy. By producing original works, they create elements of differentiation between towns. These observations lead us to formulate a hypothesis of hybridisation which is to be found in situations of tension between legacies and projects marked by the internationalization of the actors, models, formal vocabulary and operational devices. This phenomenon appears particularly strong in Bali. The reasons are plural: a culture of resistance developed over time; a situation of religious enclave that causes strong identity claims; the power of local social organizations; the desire to promote a modern Balinese architecture and urban planning in the context of tourism development and the creativity of Balinese society. For these different reasons, there is something special in Bali in the relationship between heritage and projects, in the way of dealing with elements inherited from the past to create modern architectures and modern cities. 5

6 My purpose is to examine this situation from an architectural point of view. My research on Bali began in the late 1980s. For this seminar, I propose to study urban planning documents that have been prepared for major cities and Denpasar in Bali. Pawda Tjoa, Department of Architecture, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom Bali: Indonesia s Feral Child? The early years of post colonial Indonesia were marked by the efforts of the central government to recreate a unified Indonesian identity through monumental national projects commissioned by the state. These projects were intended to define this new national identity for the rest of the population. Given that President Suharto went as far as encouraging the replication of structures such as the Demak Mosque, which was considered the only remaining item of Indonesian heritage from the pre colonial period, these efforts quickly became associated with the process of Indonesianization. They became widespread and triggered certain urban trends that have subsequently become a model for the rest of the nation to follow. While much of Indonesia quickly embraced and adopted the urban trends visible in the capital city, Bali has largely retained its unique identity, with seemingly little consequence to the rest of Indonesia. Yet interestingly, despite having very distinct characteristics both religiously and culturally, it is Bali which plays the part of Indonesia s public face to the rest of the world. Recently, structures in Bali have provided architectural inspiration for the increasingly prevalent vernacular buildings in other Indonesian cities. It has thus had the same effect which the former First Lady Siti Hartinah had originally intended for the Miniature Project in 1970, a project which she hoped would help Indonesia to help rediscover its pre colonial heritage. This paper will therefore examine the extent to which Bali has been left outside the formal process of Indonesianization, yet at the same time has influenced the process of urbanization in many cities that follow the model set by the capital city Jakarta. ART WORLDS Wanda Listiani, Jurusan Seni Rupa Sekolah Tinggi Seni Indonesia (STSI) Bandung, Indonesia Bahasa Rupa Kritik Seni Lukis Bali Kontemporer Peningkatan jumlah seniman kontemporer Bali dan kurangnya ruang pameran yang representatif membuat galeri komersial di Bali fokus pada seni rupa kontemporer. Hal ini terlihat pada galeri komersial yang dulu lebih memberi prioritas pada lukisan yang menggambarkan tema tema tradisional kehidupan desa orang orang Bali, tarian, upacara pembakaran mayat (ngaben), atau keindahan sawah kini didominasi karya lukis kontemporer. Bahkan seniman Bali yang berkarya gaya tradisional mengalami kesulitan dalam menemukan tempat untuk menggelar pameran di Bali (Michelle Chin, Garuda Inflight Magazine, April 2004). Berdasar fenomena diatas, bahasa rupa kritik seni lukis Bali kontemporer menjadi penting untuk dibahas. Karena aspek muatan kritik menjadi sifat dasar selain aspek estetika pada seni lukis kontemporer yang membedakan dengan seni lukis dan seniman pada zamannya. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan metode kepustakaan (library research). Metode riset kepustakaan (Zed, 2004:3) ialah serangkaian kegiatan yang berkenaan dengan metode pengumpulan data pustaka membaca dan mencatat serta mengolah bahan penelitian (karya seni rupa termasuk lukisan Bali kontemporer). Metode yang menggunakan sumber perpustakaan untuk memperoleh data penelitian. Penelitian pustaka membatasi kegiatannya hanya pada bahan bahan koleksi perpustakaan dan sumber sekunder yang ada. 6

7 Hasil penelitian ini memaparkan bahasa rupa kritik yang ada pada lukisan yang telah dipamerkan di galeri galeri Bali yang mempunyai jadwal program pameran karya seni rupa secara reguler tiap tahun seperti Seniwati Galleri of Art, Ganesha Gallery, Sika Gallery Contemporary, Sembilan Gallery, Paros Gallery, Jezz Gallery, Gaya Fusion of Sense, Darga Gallery, Komaneka Gallery dan galeri lainnya. Wayan Kun Adnyana, Institut Seni Indonesia (ISI) Denpasar, Indonesia Nilai Ketradisian dalam Seni Lukis Kontemporer Perupa Bali Seni lukis kontemporer perupa Bali bertema ketradisian hadir dalam dua lingkup medan eksistensi; eksis wacana dan eksis karya. Begitu banyak even seni rupa tingkat nasional dan internasional mengakomodasi seni lukis bertema ketradisian sebagai bagian khasanah ekspresi seni rupa kontemporer global. Pameran seni rupa Asia di Asian Society Galleries, New York, tahun 1996, mengetengahkan salah satunya karya Wayan Bendi (asal Batuan) berdampingan dengan karya perupa perupa Asia. Pameran dalam bingkai Contemporary Art in Asia: Tradition/tensions ini, disampaikan salah satu kuratornya Apinan Posyananda sebagai upaya membawa asap contemporaneity yang hidup di Asia. Di penghujung 2010 di Galeri Nasional Jakarta digelar pameran nasional Ethnicity Now mewadahi kekontemporeran yang lahir dari khasanah tradisi lokal, perupa Bali yang dipilih Wayan Bendi dan Made Djirna. Melissa Chiu dan Genecchio dalam bukunya Contemporary Asian Art, 2010, secara tegas mewadahi ekspresi dengan basis lokalitas ini sebagai term Rethinking Tradition. Artinya, begitu luas apresiasi wacana yang dikumandangkan baik oleh kritikus maupun kurator terhadap keberadaan seni lukis kontemporer bertema ketradisian. Dalam praksis seni perupa kontemporer Bali, dalam dua dekade terakhir, nilai ketradisian dielaborasi ke dalam beragam ekspresi baru. Nama nama seperti Dewa Putu Mokoh, Made Wianta, Wayan Bendi, Nyoman Erawan, Made Djirna, sampai generasi terbaru Putu Wirantawan, dan Ketut Teja Astawa secara intensif mengeksplorasi tema ketradisian. Nilai ketradisian merupakan upaya elaborasi kreatif seorang perupa atas unsur tradisi lama, baik itu tentang gejala gejala nilai, praksis(teknik), dan juga pencermatan atas artefak tradisi lama. Nilai, praksis, atau pun artefak tradisi lama, diekspresikan dalam berbagai pola pola kreatif personal. Konsep pembacaan kembali, pembertanyaan, dan dekonstruksi menjadi kesadaran kreatif perupa kontemporer Bali dalam membaca lingkup tradisi moyangnya itu. Tradisi bukan lagi dipahami sebagai entitas pejal, kaku, dan aksiomatik. Posisi seni lukis kontemporer perupa Bali bertema ketradisian menjadi medan bacaan yang menarik di tengah kecenderungan kegaguan dalam memetakan karakter Asia dalam peta seni rupa kontemporer global. Nilai ketradisian oleh perupa perupa kontemporer Bali telah begitu jauh dieksplorasi sehingga memunculkan ragam seni lukis kontemporer dengan karakter yang kuat. Kata kunci: nilai ketradisian, seni lukis kontemporer Bali, seni rupa kontemporer Global A.A. Gede Rai Remawa, Faculty of Visual Art and Design, Graduate School Institut Technologi of Bandung, Indonesia Warnabali, Intensities and Character: The Concept of Colour and Meaning The revitalization of local traditional knowledge has become a strategic issue in Bali in the last five years. Local Balinese wealth of knowledge in the field of art and design such as: painting, sculpturing, architecture, interior design and wood craft have been brought to the fore to emphasize the importance of preserving it and to experience that this knowledge is, according to a modern theory based on various pragmatic studies, useful throughout society. Design regulation has enabled the past treasures to re exist under new circumstances and this leads to the discovery of various new things that at the same time still relate to the past cultural wealth. 7

8 The traditional architecture and interior design of Bali used a lot of natural material such as soft stone and red brick for the foundation and half way up the wall and wood, bamboo, coconut leaf, reed (grass) and palm fibre for the roof and the framework construction. As a consequence of the development of technology and design these materials are not used anymore as they have been replaced by concrete and finishing wall paint plaster which produce less dust and are more solid. The use of wall paint is seen as an improvement for the interior and exterior as it is less dusty, water proof and easier to maintain. The traditional Warnabali (cat Bali) which is made from mangsi, taum, kencu, deluge, pere, atal, and bone, consists of seven basic colours: black, blue, red, orange, brown, yellow and white is still often used in the art world. Warnabali is used for paintings, sculptures, statues and masks and also in Balinese architecture for the traditional wooden doors with their accessories and ornaments. Warnabali is based upon the concept of Tri Kono and Nawa Sanggha, which are based on the Kreb Bhuana, Dewa Tatwa manuscripts. Warnabali colours have a visual intensity between gloss and matte and are somewhat softer compared to the colours from the spectrum of Newton. Warnabali black and white are included into the colour not as a shade or a tint. Green and blue have a maximum wave length 610 nanometer, pelung 600 nanometer, yellow, brown, red, dadu and camika 520 nanometer and 560 nanometer, whereas Warnabali colours as orange, white, grey and black do not absorb the colour. Keyword: Revitalisation, character, meaning, intensity, Warnabali, and nawa sanggha Tine G. Ruiter, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands Art Worlds, Global Bali and Heritage In this paper I will describe and analyze changes in Art Worlds, by focusing on Balinese art collectors cum traders, Balinese painters and markets for paintings. The concept Art Worlds (H.S. Becker, 1982) is instructive for an understanding of the complex and large networks of people involved in creating, marketing and exhibiting of paintings. Bali as a region was opened up already in pre colonial times, but the character and the scale of its involvement in the outside world is changing over time. In this paper I will shortly deal with historical changes in the marketing of Balinese paintings on a local and international scale, which started in the 1920s, and especially with art traders and their operations. Periods of a booming Indonesian economy, like in the 1920s and later in the 1980s, show a shift in the class origin of the Balinese art traders away from the aristocracy to the ordinary Balinese. A kind of democratization, which characterizes also changes in other sectors of Balinese society (Ruiter, 2004). Contrary to the modernization theory of the 1960s, with its characterizing of third world people engaging in the world economy as helpless, passive and suffering men, I show in this paper how Balinese traders in art were active agents in market developments. A recent change this paper will deal with is the involvement of a new group of Jakarta based art collectors cum traders in the Art Worlds around Balinese traditional paintings and contemporary art paintings by Balinese. In the last part I will deal with the concept of Heritage as it is seen and formulated by participants in the Balinese Art Worlds. In this respect this paper will contribute to the discourse around globalization and tradition (H. Schulte Nordholt, 2007). This paper is based on participant observation as a social anthropologist, literature and interviews. 8

9 BALI GOES GLOBAL Joan Ricart Angulo, Universidad Complutense de Madrid / Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain Bali: Riding Modernization Beyond its cultural traditions, its gorgeous landscape, and its delicious gastronomy, the island of Bali is also very well known globally for its first class waves. Since the 1960s, spots like Uluwatu, Padang Padang, Impossibles or Keramas have been a must in any surfing magazine or movie that was worth its name. Therefore, Bali is nowadays a Mecca for one of the most global, and globalizing, sports in the world: surfing. The presence of thousands of wave riders on the island every year, has not only made Bali even more famous worldwide, but it has also made surfing, and the industry that accompanies it, one of the agents of modernization that has had an impact on Balinese society. Some of the modernization effects produced by surfing are the same ones of those produced by tourism in general; however, I believe that there are some specific ones that are very particular of the sport, for instance those related to labour patterns. Since the main title of the conference is Bali in Global Asia, I have tried to add an extra global factor to the analysis of surfing as a modernization agent in Bali. I have spoken to members of the Spanish surfing world (surfers of different levels and ages, photographers, etc.) that have been to the island in different periods of time or that have decided to establish themselves there, and I have asked them to recount personal experiences that can illustrate some of the processes of modernization attributable to surfing. To do so, I ve counted with the support of the two most important surfing magazines published in Spain: 3sesenta ( and Surfer Rule ( Thaneerat Jatuthasri, Department of Thai, Faculty of Arts, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand Explore the World of Women in the Panji Stories: A Shared Ideology among Balinese, Malay and Thai Heritage Literature The Panji stories, which are part of the Asian heritage literature, originated in East Java and were widely popular for a period in different parts of Southeast Asia such as Bali, Malaysia, Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia. There are a number of variations of the story, but they all have in common as main theme and a plot the heroic tale that was mostly used in the courts during the pre colonial period of the region. The questions; why the Panji stories were significant in the courts around this period and what dominant ideologies are expressed in the stories, should be answered. This paper aims to explore the ideology of women in the Panji stories in which the Balinese, Malay, and Thai versions are chosen as the exemplification. The three Panji stories are respectively that of Malat, Hikayat Panji Semirang and Inao. The paper finds that the ideology of women is one of the prominent ideologies in the Panji stories, and the three versions of the Panji stories share the same ideology. They depict the moral issues and ideas of how a princess or an elite woman should be or act in her life or when is in love, which clearly serve and support the monarchy. The study not only demonstrates the mutual conception of women among Balinese, Malay, and Thai literature in the pre colonial period, but also reveals the value and importance of the Panji stories which were once influential and popular throughout Southeast Asian courts before they became part of the Asian cultural heritage in the present time. 9

10 A.A. Gede Rai Remawa, Biranul Anas Zaman and Imam Santosa, Faculty of Visual Art and Design, Graduate School Institut Technologi of Bandung, Indonesia Aesthetics and Space Concept of the Balinese Dwelling House in the Bali Madya Period The concept of the dwelling house of the traditional Bali Madya is an acculturated concept of the Bali Age (Bali Pegunungan) that came into being in the Majapahit Era and the Dalem Waturenggong era in Sampranan Klungkung ( ). This study is based on an aesthetic and historical approach of the art en design aspects of these dwellings. BALI: REPRESENTATIONS OF CULTURE Convenor: Mark Hobart, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London, United Kingdom Culture, as Raymond Williams famously remarked, is one of the two or three most complicated words in the English language. Yet, both aficionados and scholars not to mention Balinese themselves happily treat culture and its synonyms as an unproblematic master trope that somehow captures the island s essence. Balinese culture is at turns primordial, unique, a gem of world heritage; a tourist attraction, a form of capital; the object of scholarly attention; a subject of fascination and inspiration for actors, artists, dancers, musicians, film and television crews; flourishing, under threat, in terminal decline or moribund; in need simultaneously of being preserved, organized, developed, regimented marketed and exported. Either Bali is indeed a thing apart from the rest of the world or else something is amiss. The panel s aim is to open up critical discussion about what is involved in the profligate and unthinking use of culture to sum up Bali. The papers address how, and with what implications, Bali has come to be represented as a discursive fact. We start from the idea that representation is necessarily a matter of representing something as something else. For this reason representing an object in its totality let alone as itself is an impossibility. On these grounds that we consider how specific practices have been made to stand for Balinese culture as a whole, exemplifying the island s heritage as special and different. Wakeling reviews the complex history of conflicting representations of gamelan in Bali. Theodoridou examines how theatre has been made into the key metaphor to understand Balinese character, society and the polity. Fox reflects on how the slippery notion of tradition underwrites the idea of Balinese culture. And Hobart looks at the social, economic and political conditions underlying rival representations of Balinese as having culture. Richard Fox, Institute for Ethnology, Heidelberg University, Germany The Idea of Balinese Tradition: Mediating Representations of the Past Bali is nothing if not traditional. On this there has been considerable agreement among scholars, tour guides and television pundits. But what do we mean by tradition? And why might it matter? This seemingly innocuous little term has been made to designate any number of things for as many purposes. Reviewing the literature on Balinese culture and society, we find that it often figures as a loosely conceptualized historical period ( traditional Bali ) and a cipher for the lost religion and spirituality mourned in the west. It is a badge of authenticity, and almost as frequently appears as a synecdoche for text ( according to tradition ). It is used to translate adat, but is also translated back into Indonesian as tradisi which, of course, is not necessarily coterminous with adat. For cultural historians Balinese tradition has been exposed as a discourse of identity linked to shifting articulations of economy and polity; while for government officials it is a form of cultural capital, or modal, to be judiciously deployed for social and economic development. Balinese tradition has been all these things, and many others besides. And it is of no little consequence that our approach to social change and modernization depends on it for its coherence. This paper will chart a series 10

11 of tensions inherent in prevailing scholarly usage, and propose some novel ways forward through reference to Alasdair MacIntyre s later work on the idea of tradition in ethical inquiry. Mark Hobart, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London (SOAS), United Kingdom Bali is a Battlefield Culture is a poisoned chalice that Europeans bequeathed to Balinese. Although culture is a notoriously tricky word, and an empty or at best a floating signifier, Balinese and foreign scholars continue to talk as if there were an unambiguous object called Balinese culture. As the incoherencies are pretty evident, what drives this compulsion to reiterate the term uncritically? A brief review of the history of representations of Bali suggests successive interpretive frameworks have little in common beyond the determination to establish Bali as a knowable totality, articulated as culture or some synonym. By contrast, critical cultural studies start not with culture as a coherent totality, but as a site of struggle. Close inspection shows the apparent agreement over culture to arise from the hegemonic articulation of a particular class or interest group, which serves to silence alternative accounts. Furthermore what is understood by culture, the human subject and so on is itself similarly contested. So accepting any particular account fails to recognize the antagonistic articulatory practices which constitute culture as a battlefield. If culture dissolves into a myriad of contending representations, then the noble seeming aim of preserving Balinese culture emerges as fantasy, which requires us to ask in whose interests is such fantasizing. As Bali has been variously articulated as the playground for the pre war European haute bourgeoisie through to a mass consumer market, Balinese culture has transformed accordingly. Manufactured romanticism and nostalgia disguise the striking absence from discussion of the role of global capital in the commodification of almost every aspect of Bali from land to religion. As how modern capitalism works eludes most theoretical frameworks, Deleuze and Guattari conceived the process as a body without organs. I consider the implications for our understanding of contemporary Bali. Natalia Theodoridou, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London, United Kingdom Do the Balinese have theatre? Balinese performance occupies a special place in Euro American theory, not only about theatre, but about the polity and human nature itself. Theatre has been used as a metaphor to translate Balinese character and culture to the West, starting with the systematic documentation and recording of performance by Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson and followed by Clifford Geertz s description of pre colonial Bali as a theatre state. Through it is recycling in various registers, from theatre studies to the tourist industry, this metaphor has ultimately trapped Bali between psychic alterity and essential theatricality. Current approaches prove problematic upon questioning the adequacy of the Western notion of theatre in engaging with Balinese practices, and whether it might be an imposed, Eurocentric idea that Balinese have been co opted into using in the context of the international performance circuit. Since there is no unifying term in Balinese that corresponds to the English theatre, it is impossible to talk generically about Balinese theatre except by massive essentialization and overinterpretation. This in turn seems to be primarily about articulating concerns over the Western world rather than Bali. It is thus reasonable to ask whether scholarship can approach Balinese or any society without acts of cultural translation so thorough that they end up partly constituting their object of study. 11

12 I will employ the idea of audiences as an example of the problems of carrying an (already problematic) European idea to Bali, where it does not have the status of positivity, as it does in European discourse. An alternative to perpetuating the study of Balinese theatre and audiences as substances would be to examine, instead, under which conditions, on which occasions and for what purposes various Balinese practices are represented as theatre, thus hinting at the idea of culture as a site of contestation. Kate Wakeling, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London, United Kingdom Theory s Object: Representing Balinese Music Making Since Bali s colonial occupation, Balinese music making has been variously represented by Balinese and Western commentators as a series of colourful and contrary objects: from clangour and noise to proof of social order; from long lost fossil to High Art. In turn, such representations of gamelan music have been deployed to substantiate a number of grand claims as to Bali s cultural status and heritage. Music s slippery status as an object of signification has provided Balinese gamelan s enunciators with a powerful and flexible strategy to support these claims, carried out perhaps nowhere more stealthily than in the act of theorising Balinese music. Combining music s elusive status with theory s apparently privileged ability to wield an explanatory power over practice, the theorisation of gamelan music has proved a malleable tool in bolstering imaginings of Bali, however dislocated such theoretical statements are from the practices they allegedly explain. Indeed, many theories of gamelan music prove so disengaged from the practices they purport to account for that they may be deemed (after Laclau) empty signifiers. By situating such acts of representation within the complex agendas of cultural definition long at play in Bali, this paper unpicks the black box status of such musical theorising to address gamelan theory as another prop in the fantasy of an essentialised, substantive Balinese culture. In turn, the paper highlights the disjuncture between such totalising theories of cultural practice and the kinds of active musical understanding that Balinese musicians employ to learn, construct and refine music. BEING BALINESE ENGAGING IN NATIONAL AND TRANSNATIONAL NETWORKS Convenor and Chair: Brigitta Hauser Schäublin, Institute for Cultural and Social Anthropology, University of Göttingen, Germany This panel explores the many ways in which Balinese people increasingly engage in national and transnational networks within global Asia. There exists a broad variety of networks, such as Facebook or religious, political and environmentalist organizations, through which members exchange information and also receive moral, ideological or material support from others. Participating in such a network contributes to the strengthening of an individual s or a community s position within their own province or vis à vis other congregations. Being part of such networks whether religious, political, ecological, or other can therefore be understood as attempts of individuals or communities to situate themselves anew within Bali and Indonesia. Martin Slama, Institute for Social Anthropology, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austria Balinese Kisses: The Omed Omedan Ritual in an(other) Era of Guarded Morality The Omed Omedan is a unique annual ritual staged the day after Nyepi in front of the community temple of Banjar Kaja, Desa Adat Sesetan, Denpasar. It involves young, unmarried members of the 12

13 banjar who assemble on the street boys and girls standing in a row opposite to each other. They tow each other (omed omedan) until they meet and the first boy of the male row kisses the first girl of the female row. This is repeated until every boy and girl has been at least once at the front of their respective rows. In 2006, in the wake of discussions about Indonesia s anti pornography bill that outlawed kissing in public, this ritual attracted the attention of Indonesia s national media. For those who opposed the bill, it soon became an example for local Balinese culture being threatened by a law that was perceived not only as a severe intervention of the nation state but also as a manifestation of Islamist politics. Consequently, Balinese networks within Indonesia were activated, including the minister of tourism, to guarantee the ritual s continuity. Furthermore, stressing its (trans)national significance, media coverage of the ritual was reinforced as well as (a very limited number of) tourists and, in 2008, a Taiwanese soap opera starlet (filmed by her camera team) were allowed to participate; and the banjar could win energy drink companies and mobile network operators to sponsor the event. The paper aims to analyse the Omed Omedan from three angles: First, it situates the ritual in the post New Order context of growing assertions of religious and ethnic identities, intensified forms of marketization of culture, and elite driven moral panics that culminated in the anti pornography bill. Secondly, it puts the Omed Omedan in historical perspective by searching for temporal comparisons with earlier periods, colonial and post colonial alike, in which policies also targeted the erotics of Bali and aimed to guard the morality of its people. Thirdly, it approaches the ritual by juxtaposing official discourses as represented in the national media with the voices of the young Omed Omedan participants. The paper thus attempts to highlight how this ritual was situated anew within local and national realms after the controversial anti pornography issue began to haunt Indonesia and Bali in particular. Martin Ramstedt, Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology, Germany The Entanglements of National and Transnational Buddhist Networks in Bali Unbeknownst to most outsiders, some Balinese mainly from the northern part of the island opted for Buddhism when confronted with the obligation to choose one of five religious identities officially recognized by the Indonesian state between 1959 and In the course of the next two decades, the northern Balinese Buddhist community became very influential in the politics of the Indonesian Buddhist sangha, at the same time entertaining close ties with the Thai Theravada tradition. The significant degree of deregulation of religion instigated by the recent governance reform facilitated increasing ties with the transnational lay meditation movement (Vipassana), for which Bali has become a major global retreat place. In the event, ties with Myanmar, Vietnamese and Singapore Theravada Buddhists have increased. The Chinese pogroms at the beginning of Indonesia's transition from a centralist patrimonial regime to a highly decentralized form of governance prompted an influx of different groups of Sino Indonesians into Bali. They have frequently established their own transnational Mahayana Buddhist networks. Both the Theravada and the Mahayana Buddhist networks entertain close relations with international, i.e. Asian as well as Western expats in Indonesia, and Bali respectively. The paper will elaborate on some of the implications of these developments in the context of spiritual tourism and transnational religious politics. Meike Rieger, Institute for Social and Cultural Anthropology, Georg August University Göttingen, Germany Pakraman, Parisada, Pesantren and PKS Perspectives from a Hindu Muslim Balinese Village on Religious and Political Networks My presentation will explore different networks as sources of social, political and economic power positions from an inter religious perspective. I focus on religious and political organizations of 13

14 Balinese Hindus and Muslims. While Hindus are the religious majority on Bali but a minority on national level, Islam is the dominant religion in Indonesia but Muslims are only a minority in the Balinese province. Therefore, Hindus are rather engaged in regional networks that underline Balinese culture and identity as inseparably connected to the island and as a source for economic capital (from the tourism industry). However, Hindu Balinese also operate via national organizations, for example the Parisada Hindu Dharma Indonesia, the Indonesian Hindu Council, in order to represent their interests within the Republic of Indonesia and to cooperate with Hindus living in other provinces. In opposition to that, Muslims are mainly active in networks that go beyond Balinese borders, for example social foundations (yayasan), civil organizations (such as Muhammadiyah or Nadhlatul Wathan) or missionary movements (as Jamaah Tabligh) that address Muslims as members of a national or even global Islamic community (ummah). An identification of Muslim networks as explicitly Balinese is rather an exception. Political networks partly transcend religious demarcation lines and involve Hindu as well as Muslim actors (for example political parties such as the PDI P or PKS). In other cases, networks' political and religious intentions overlap and strengthen distinct power positions according to religious affiliations. The discussion of these networks aims at deconstructing the idea of a coherent Balinese culture and identity via revealing its various connections to national and global levels and will contribute to understanding shifting power positions and inter religious relationships under the conditions of democratization and decentralization. My presentation will be based on one year's fieldwork in Candikuning/Tabanan, a historical Hindu Muslim community. Sophie Strauß, Graduate School Society and Culture in Motion, Martin Luther University Halle Wittenberg, Germany Networking in a Dispute over Tourism Development in Northern Bali In my talk I will examine how local actors involved in a dispute over tourism development in the region of Buyan Tamblingan, Northern Bali, make use of networks with national and transnational NGOs and other organizations engaged in environmental, political, religious, adat or tourism issues to foster their respective positions by the exchange of information and various other forms of support. DANCES AND TEXTILES Ayami Nakatani, Okayama University, Japan Kainku, kain siapa? : Contemporary Traditional Textiles as Cultural Heritage in the Globalising Bali and Beyond An Indonesian women s magazine once published a feature article with the title, kainku, kain siapa (my cloth, whose cloth)? [her world, November 2003]. In this article, the author expressed her concern about the precarious position of traditional hand crafted textiles throughout Indonesia; while some famous foreign designers were willing to adopt the motifs and textures of these textiles into their latest designs, Indonesians themselves were breaking away from the daily or ritual use of their own regional products. This phenomenon could lead, she alerted, to the loss of Indonesia s heritage. During the past decade, we note an increasingly popular discourse in Indonesian fashion industry that emphasises the cultural and historical significance of acknowledging traditional textiles as the common property of Indonesian citizens. In this vein, some of the well known Jakarta based 14

15 designers have consciously incorporated Javanese batik or hand woven textiles from different parts of Indonesia to create authentic yet modern clothes for the urban, upper middle consumers. More recently, the similar endeavours can also be seen among Balinese designers, who try to make use of songket cloths, which are traditionally worn only in the ritual or ceremonial settings. There is even an attempt of turning sacral poleng motifs into fashion. On the other hand, two organisations based in Bali have been involved with the projects of maintaining and reviving cloth making according to the standard of local tradition. Their efforts are partly directed at preventing further outflow of heirloom textiles from the communities due to the external desire for authentic, antique textiles. Drawing upon the above examples, this paper will discuss the dynamics of the creation and consumption of contemporary, traditional textiles in Bali and the negotiated meanings of tradition and heritage in the global as well as local contexts. Yulun Huang, Taiwan National Museum of Prehistory, Taiwan Fashion Industry of Traditional Textile in Bali Endek, one of the traditional textile genres in Bali, is more and more frequently seen and worn in different occasions in Balinese society. While the endek consumption is shifting due to the largely changed clothing culture, the endek production is altering in order to match up the market need, which is nowadays much like a fashion market. I assert that both capitalist entrepreneurs and the government have been stimulating the endek fashion industry. For the former, this new fashion leads to a consumption system with a high velocity turnover; for the latter, it supports a unique and contemporary Balinese identity within the nation. In this paper, I focus on the exhibition and displaying of this endek fashion in different occasions, such as fashion shows, bazaar and daily occasions, to explore the initiation of this newly formed fashion of traditional textile, to see how cultural heritage transforms and adapts itself in the process of modernization. Dustin Wiebe, Wesleyan University, United States Sendratari Kristen: Music and Meaning in a Balinese Christian Context Over the course of the last ninety years, tourism has come to form an integral part of the Balinese economy. Central to this economy is what Michel Picard has termed, cultural tourism, which has been built upon Bali s appeal as an exotic oriental paradise, artistically rich and founded upon a unique Hindu social structure. Since 1931, however, small groups of Balinese Christians have begun to form across the island, adding a religious plurality and complexity not often recognized in Balinese socio religious discourse. This paper examines the vital role music and tourism has played in establishing an artistic language that challenges the fundamental link between Balinese identity (kebalian) and Agama Hindu, thereby creating a space for Christians in Bali to be both Christian and Balinese. Central to my analysis is the development of sendratari, a dance drama genre first developed in Java in the early 1960s but soon imported to Bali. Early Balinese sendratari productions embodied significant artistic innovation, perhaps most notably the movement away from linguistically complex dramatic episodes toward a more linear narrative model. This new way of conveying cultural knowledge often with a clear beginning, middle, and end led to the creation of artistic productions that were often aesthetically pleasing (and intelligible) to Balinese and tourist audiences alike. In 1972, a synod council of Gereja Kristen Protestan di Bali (GKPB) passed a bill to officially promote contextualized (kontektualisasi) church practices, including the use of traditional Balinese music and dance styles. Soon thereafter, artist members of GKPB began producing sendratari Kristen a subgenre of sendratari borrowing extensively from Christian narratives. By exploring modern socio religious categories germane to Balinese studies (adat/agama, sacral/provan, and wali/bebali/balih balihan), I will demonstrate how sendratari 15

16 Kristen is simultaneously challenging these categorical distinctions and creating a platform for a Balinese Christian identity, both in Bali and abroad. Tiffany Strawson, School of Humanities and Performing Arts, Plymouth University, United Kingdom Latihan Menari: The Changing Experience of Training and Teaching Topeng Pajegan in Bali and Beyond This paper addresses the differing training experiences of topeng pajegan in Bali and the various styles of teaching that I have experienced and witnessed, ranging from the traditional gurukala village style system, study programmes at ISI and fast track intensive courses for those on a three week cultural holiday. Due to the symbiotic relationship between teacher and student, the economy that passes between them, and the opportunities to teach and travel abroad, I will also comment on the changes emerging in teaching styles, due to the influx and large number of Western students and their differing needs. I will discuss what impact this has in relation to teaching Balinese students and how these teaching styles become a part of a new vocabulary. Likewise I will reflect on being a teacher and ambassador of topeng in my home country England and the intercultural challenges of imparting knowledge in that teaching/learning experience. Issues of authenticity, translation and re construction feature as I negotiate this traditional dance form and discuss the gap of embodied and enculturated knowledge between Balinese and Western students of topeng within this process of modernization. ENCOUNTERS WITH BALI Douglas Sanders, Centre for Human Rights and Development Studies, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Bali in the Global Gay Imagination From early in the 20th century, Bali has been a tropical refuge for disaffected Caucasian artists seeking escape from their homophobic homelands (a more distant alternative to Morocco). The best known figure was Walter Spies who lived in Bali in the 1920s and 1930s, becoming a major force in the artistic life of the island. Among the many visitors to his home was the bisexual American anthropologist Margaret Mead, who spoke in his defence when he was charged in an anti homosexual crackdown in He was subsequently deported as a German national in the early part of World War II. In the 1960s and 1970s, Donald Friend, a highly regarded Australian painter lived in Bali, and we have his extensive diaries. A contemporary is the American artist Symon, who has lived in Bali since the 1980s. Within Indonesia, Bali is seen as more relaxed on sexuality issues. Playboy Indonesia, after attacks on its office in Jakarta, moved it to Bali. ILGA Asia realized, when its Surabaya conference was blocked by the Islamic Defenders Front, that Bali should have been the site. Bali led in the protests against the government's proposed antipornography law, subsequently enacted with some modifications. Yet there is only a very limited public gay scene in Bali, and no effective advocacy organizations (except, perhaps, on health issues). Indonesian gay men are apparently unfamiliar with the stories of the expatriate gay artists, though their works are on display in Ubud museums. Relaxed social attitudes do not produce activist gay and lesbian lobby groups. 16

17 Barbara Bicego, Southeast Asian Studies, The University of Sydney, Australia A kitten is falling off the roof in Bali. How should I/we respond? Ethical decision making by Australian women in Bali. In this paper I address the ethical dilemmas encountered by Australian women in Bali, and how they resolve them. I focus on women s concerns with animal welfare, particularly as this relates to cats and dogs, viewed as companion animals in the west, and women s experiences of cock fighting. Australian women are centrally situated as the interlocutors of their own ethical dilemmas, and the voices of the women themselves form the substance of the paper. I show how Australian women try to resolve their ethical dilemmas from the situated perspective of their own value system, and life experience, while also taking into account what they understand of Balinese perspectives, values, and heritage. By situating their ethical decision making trans culturally, Australian women are highlighting their own globalised perspectives, and Bali s globalised situation. Analysis indicates Balinese attitudes to companion animals are changing, and this raises the question of the situatedness of companion and other animals in the complex dynamic between heritage and modernization in Bali. The dynamic is manifest in the emergence of rabies in Bali, and the attendant debate about how to manage dogs and rabies. In June, 2011 the suspension of live cattle exports from Australia to Indonesia indicated a crisis with respect to mutual understandings of animal welfare, and ethical decision making between the two countries. I question how we can move from analysing personal ethical dilemmas to engaging in meaningful trans cultural ethical discussion, between Australia and Indonesia/Bali. My discussion is centred theoretically in the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau Ponty, and the embodied philosophy of science of Donna Haraway. The paper derives from interview material for a phenomenological study of Australian women s experiences in Bali from the late 1960s to the present. Pram Sounsamut, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand Simply Serenity Elegance: Consuming Baliness in the Thai Recreation Business Bali is a dream destination for many travellers over the world. It is known by its beautiful and serene beaches and rich cultural atmosphere. Bali has become an icon of a place where one can experience nature, a simple easy life without the complexities and confusions of the metropolitan life. However, not everyone can go to Bali! Therefore some places have been creating an imitation of Baliness in their environment for some reason. This research will explore and try to understand; what is the specific motif of Bali that will turn a place outside Bali into Bali; how can you tell that this motif is significant for the architecture and decoration of the place; most of all, how and why do people use this Baliness instead of aspects of their real surroundings? This research will also illustrate how and why Balinese style can be compromised in Thai culture. The result of this research will expose the myth of Bali in Thailand for the general public, the use of Baliness by the Thai travel industry and the creative economy, and how people consume Baliness with and without Baliness. This research will discuss the pseudo influences of Bali on Thailand nowadays, and also the effect of this ideology on the local economy. ENVIRONMENT/TRI HITA KARENA Didik Murwantono, Islamic Sultan Agung University / UNISSULA Semarang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia Balinese s Conservatism in Preserving the Livable Space and its Heritage toward the Existence of Geo politics in the Global Era Bali is a well known province for its tourist areas with a distinctive social and cultural background. These potential markets are in a great demand for investors that are expanding their targets of profits. Globalization and capitalism are two undeniable values in relation to the existence of big 17

18 business in this world. They are a very important agent of change. Therefore, the existence of livable space, mainly in tourist areas must be preserved in line with the life of Bali. It means that the geographical factor can determine whether an area exists. It follows the law of biology that an area or city is born, grows up and then faces death. This is called geo politics. Moreover, the competitiveness among nations is very tight in the globalization era. This paper merely highlights, with a socio cultural approach, the role of conservatives who are trying to preserve their livable things. In this case, humans are positioned as the main actors and seen in the context of the condition and situation of how they live. At least, with a socio cultural approach, people can change their internal environment by themselves without much interference from the government. They can be the agent of determinism in their home. Recently, the issue of livability is perceived as one of the indicators for judging quality of living, mainly in cities. Absolutely, the economic, social and political changes that took place created a new urban environment with several consequences. Some towns on Bali changed considerably from an agrarian urban society to a cosmopolitan one. In short, Bali s urban life is enriched by selecting new elements from other cultures even though the Balinese traditions are still dominant. Moreover Bali with its subsidiary towns has offered a unique multicultural image of urban culture dealing with livable things. Parameters of livability are the environment, the infrastructure systems, culture and health care. In this case, Bali can be a leading province for tourist areas not only in Indonesia but also in Asia. Key words: Bali, tourist areas, livable space, global era, conservatism Dharma Putra Ketut Gede, Centre for Sustainable Development, Udayana University, Bali, Indonesia Tri Hita Karana Accreditation: Lesson Learned from Bali for Sustainable Development Practises Exploration and exploitation of the Balinese nature and culture has become more and more critical compared to the first years of the independence period until the 1980s. Most of the tourism facilities in Bali were developed at the coastal area: Sanur, Nusa Dua, Kuta, Lovina, Candidasa, Tanah Lot, Tulamben, Perancak, Lebih, Pemuteran. The once charming beaches with sacral temple panoramas that seemed to be everlasting have lost the heart and soul of Bali nowadays. Tri Hita Karana (THK) Awards and Accreditation is an initiative based on the local philosophy about harmony and aims to promote sustainable development to prevent the demolishing impact of the tourism industry on the nature and culture in Bali. After 11 years, THK was established in 2000, the program has become well known as the industry, the government and other stakeholders are increasingly committed to follow the program. THK Awards and Accreditation is a national certification in Indonesia and serves as an example for other sustainability organizations. The lack of management skills and funding support is one of the difficulties in reaching the targets of the program. On the other hand, the increase of sustainable development needs in the region is one of the most successful targets of this program. Diane Butler, International Foundation for Dharma Nature Time, Indonesia Living Prayer and Sharing in the Arts & Religiosity at Samuan Tiga and Tejakula, Bali: Models for Intercultural and Interreligious Creative Dialogue At the dawn of this third millennium, growing numbers of forums worldwide have highlighted the need for concrete practical steps to enhance mutual respect among people of different cultures, traditions, and beliefs and intercultural exchanges to ensure environmental sustainability, prosperity, and social peace. Concurrently, there is increasing concern for the conservation of tangible cultural heritage ranging from historic buildings and monuments to cultural landscapes as well as intangible cultural heritage such as oral traditions, performing arts, social practices, rituals, festivals, and knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe all of which is 18

19 understood to have originated from practices of prayer, and which remains fundamentally structured on the model of living prayer. This presentation will address the contributions of living prayer and associated creative practices in these abovementioned fields through examples of the arts and dialogues offered by people from varied cultures and faiths since 1999 during Sharing Art & Religiosity in the vicinity of Pura Samuan Tiga in Bedulu, Bali and Sharing Art Ocean Mountain at the seacoast village of Tejakula, North Bali; seen in tandem with creative transformations that occurred through Sharing Art in and with other cultural environments of the world. Findings indicate that sharing in the arts, religiosity and nature fosters a common field such that traditional rural and modern urban cultures can study and engage in creative dialogue together. Moreover, interreligious innovations that have continued to develop since the seminal deliberation of creative conciliation between Bali Aga, Çiwaist, and Buddhist faith groups at Samuan Tiga circa CE 989 to 1011 and intercultural egalitarian innovations since the seventeenth century dialogue of indigenous and migrant mountain and maritime cultures in Tejakula constitute a model for furthering bhinneka tunggal ika unity in diversity in the world today. Kirk Johnson, University of Guam, Guam Dewa Ketut Harya Putra, Udayana University, Indonesia Tri Hita Karana: A Nice Catch Phrase for Tourists or the True Foundation for a Sustainable Future (A paper by: Kirk Johnson, Alison Hadley, Mehraban Farahmand and Harya Putra) The Balinese Tri Hita Karana philosophy may be the most well known element of Balinese culture and religion today. It is usually part of every tour guide s initial lesson to tourists after picking them up at their hotels to be driven around Bali to soak up as much as they can of this rich and ancient culture and natural landscapes that are awe inspiring for both their cascading rice terraces and Hindu Temples and Shrines. Over the past century and more specifically the past two generations, Bali has managed to market itself to the world in a very unique way. The process of cultural commodification is nowhere more apparent than on the island of the gods. Most visitors have an appreciation of the Balinese way of life and the relationships forged and maintained that create what seem to be a vibrant cultural life with familial relationships that are meaningful and fulfilling; a co existence with nature that most would love to see in their own communities back home; and an understanding and appreciation of the unseen worlds that harkens back to a pre modern era when magic defined one s existence. But what is the role of this ancient philosophy within the context of modern Bali with its luxury hotels and 5 star restaurants, villas and growing urban sprawls, and litter that continues to build up as consumerism takes hold as never before? This paper explores, through the lens of over a decade of fieldwork and collaboration between the University of Guam and Udayana University, the lessons about sustainability in Bali today. It uses the Tri Hita Karana as the framework for its analysis and proposes that this ancient philosophy, so much written about by academics and lay people alike, may in the end be the last best hope for a people and an environment that continues to struggle to maintain God at the centre of its existence. GENDER Sita Thamar van Bemmelen, VU University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands Mechanisms of Preserving Balinese Culture and Identity: Gender based Inclusion and Exclusion through Ritual and Customary Law 19

20 For long, Balinese and outsiders have been concerned about Bali s capacity to survive as a society with distinct cultural characteristics. In particular international tourism booming since the 1970 s has often been pointed at as the force possessing great potential for undermining Balinese culture. However, the Balinese have been able to preserve their culture, in rural as well as urban contexts. The first relevant question is therefore which social features characterizing Balinese social organization have enabled the Balinese to do so. This paper discusses the tenacious effort to preserve the main pillars of Balinese society patrilineal kinship in combination with a caste system derived from Hinduism as a strategy adopted by the Balinese to shield the open fortress against outside influence. The Balinese act out this strategy in two areas considered crucial by them: religious ritual and customary law. Ceremonies held for individual members (upacara yadnya) continuously reproduce social differences based on caste and gender. The preservation of customary law pertaining to marriage, divorce and inheritance is another powerful means serving the same purpose. The global call for eradicating all forms of gender based discrimination since the mid 1970 s has not bypassed Bali, reaching the island s population through the policies of Indonesian government. Its effects, however, have remained insignificant as far as the religious ritual and customary law are concerned for reasons explained in the paper. One might also raise the question whether upholding the pillars of society in the present way serves the interest of Balinese in preserving their inherited culture and religion best. Looking into the mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion helps to come up with an answer. Ariani Ratna Budiati, Centre of Southeast Asian Social Studies, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia Lifestyle of Payangan Women and Two Teenage Soap Operas This paper is discussing the Payangan community in Bali that is holding on to its traditional beliefs but at the same time is open for the external cultural flux through television. This paper aims to understand how Payangan women give meaning to the two teenage soap operas Janji Jaya (The promise of Jaya) and Impian Cinderella (Cinderella Dreams) on television. This paper shows how social and cultural environments have a role in understanding the meaning of soap operas. The women form an active audience as they are being in a dialogue with the soap opera. In that way they are open to social and cultural influences coming from the particular stories. This research is carried out by using qualitative methodology, participant observation and in depth interviews. Keywords: women, television, village community, teenage soap opera Wayan P. Windia, Fakultas Hukum, Udayana University, Indonesia Era Baru untuk Wanita Bali: Proses Penyusunan dan Respon Masyarakat terhadap Hukum Waris Adat Bali Dalam sepuluh tahun terakhir, wacana tentang kedudukan perempuan Bali dalam keluarga dan masyarakat semakin merefleksikan gagasan kesetaraan gender. Dulu wanita Bali tidak pernah diperhitungkan dalam pembagian warisan, namun sejak Oktober 2010 Mejelis Utama Desa Pakraman Bali memutuskan bahwa wanita Bali berhak atas warisan dalam keluarganya. Hal lain yang diputuskan Majelis adalah peluang wanita melakukan bentuk perkawinan pada gelahang, yaitu model perkawinan yang menempatkan kedudukan wanita dan laki laki setara di hadapan hukum adat Bali. Paper ini akan membahas proses dan perjuangan Majelis dalam menetapkan hukum adat baru tentang kedudukan wanita Bali dalam warisan dan perkawinan serta bagaimana respon public terhadap ketentuan adat baru ini. Hal lain yang akan dibahas adalah mengapa baru sekarang gagasan kesetaraaan gender di depan hukum adat Bali bisa ditetapkan oleh sebuah lembaga adat tertinggi. Makalah ini memberikan argumentasi bahwa selain karena faktor faktor 20

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