World War II. American History II

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1 World War II American History II

2 Adolph Hitler & Nazi Germany Adolph Hitler & Nazis given emergency dictatorial powers in March 1933 Used resentment of treaty & Jews as scapegoats Nuremburg Laws (1935) excluded Jews from citizenship & banned intermarriage Kristallnacht (Nov. 9-10, 1938) began organized violence Began secretly rebuilding military in 1935 Reoccupied Rhineland in 1936 SS Blood Flag Ritual Aftermath of Kristallnacht

3 Axis Aggression & Appeasement Benito Mussolini & Adolph Hitler Nov. 1937: Italy joined Germany & Japan s Anti-Comintern Pact March 1938: Germany annexed Austria (Anschluss) Sept. 1938: British & French accepted German annexation of Sudetenland at Munich Conference Aug. 1939: Germany & USSR agreed to divide eastern Europe in Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact Sept. 1, 1939: Germany invaded Poland 2000 Wadsworth / Thomson Learning Sept. 3, 1939: Britain & France declared war on Germany

4 The European Theater, Blitzkrieg revolutionized warfare Planes Tanks April 1940: Germany conquered Denmark & Norway May 1940: Germany overran Low Countries June 1940: France surrendered to Germany

5 American Isolationism Nye Committee ( ) investigated whether the U.S. had been duped into entering World War I 1937 Gallup Poll showed 2/3 of Americans thought U.S. involvement in WWI had been a mistake 1937 Neutrality Act: Americans couldn t travel on belligerent ships Belligerents could only purchase non-military goods, on cash and carry basis Copyright 1997 Prentice-Hall

6 The Arsenal of Democracy Nov Neutrality Act amended to allow arms sales to belligerents July 1940 Republicans Henry Stimson & Frank Knox brought into cabinet as War & Navy Secretaries Sept Destroyer-Base Deal traded 50 old destroyers for 8 military bases Selective Service Act 1 st peacetime draft March 1941 Lend-Lease Act allowed Britain (and later USSR) to borrow $50 billion worth of supplies U.S. got into undeclared naval war in Atlantic escorted British convoys several shooting incidents in fall Marines took over Greenland & Iceland to secure route

7 Declaring War Aims Aug FDR & Churchill meet & issue Atlantic Charter: Collective security Disarmament Self-determination Economic cooperation Freedom of the seas The Four Freedoms: Freedom of Speech Freedom of Worship Freedom From Want Freedom From Fear Norman Rockwell, Freedom of Worship Churchill & Roosevelt, Aug. 1941

8 Pearl Harbor Dec. 7, 1941 Copyright 2000, Bedford/St. Martins

9 U.S.-Japanese Conflict Japanese had long resented U.S. immigration policy & coveted Philippines U.S. condemned Japanese invasion of China in 1937 After Japan signed Tripartite Pact (Sept. 1940) & joined Axis, U.S. embargoed aviation fuel & scrap metal U.S. froze all Japanese assets in U.S., July 1941 MAGIC intercepts revealed attack was coming, but not where it would come Hideki Tojo, Japanese Prime Minister

10 The Attack on Pearl Harbor USS Shaw USS Arizona Japanese fleet crossed Pacific in radio silence 60 ships 6 carriers with 360 planes U.S. lost: 19 ships sunk or disabled 160 aircraft destroyed 2,403 killed & 1,178 wounded U.S. aircraft carriers spared because out at sea on exercises

11 Aerial Photo of Pearl Harbor

12 The War in Europe Stalin wanted second front immediately British preferred to attack soft underbelly (N. Africa & Italy) Russians deserve most of the credit for winning the war in Europe Battle of Stalingrad (Sept Jan. 1943)= turning point in Europe

13 The War in Europe Nov. 1942: U.S. & British land at Casablanca July 1943: U.S. & British invade Sicily, then Italy June 1944: Normandy invasion (Operation Overlord) May 7, 1945 = V-E Day

14 Race War in the Pacific

15 The Bataan Death March

16 The War in the Pacific U.S. dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima (Aug. 6) & Nagasaki (Aug. 9) Aug. 14/15, 1945 = V-J Day Turning point = Battles of Coral Sea (May 1942) & Midway (June 1942) Naval & air superiority allows island-hopping Victory at Leyte Gulf (Oct. 1944) began reconquest of Philippines Bloodbaths at Iwo Jima (Feb.-March 1945) & Okinawa (April-June 1945), coupled with kamikaze attacks, made invasion of Japan unappealing

17 The Pacific Theater Gen. Macarthur Returns to the Philippines Marines Raising the Flag on Mt. Suribachi, Iwo Jima, Feb. 1945

18 WWII Deaths USSR = 25 million China = 15 million Poland = 6 million Germany = 4 million Japan = 2 million Yugoslavia million USA = 400,000 U.S. Military Cemetery, Normandy

19 The Home Front War Production Board oversaw plant conversion & production Chairman = Donald Nelson Cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts Big business benefitted the most Received 2/3 of gov t contracts Corporate profits doubled, Union membership rose from 8.5 million to million, Wages rose 135%, million women entered workforce 2.5 million in industry 75% married

20 WWII Propaganda Posters

21 Internment of Japanese Americans 300,000 aliens (1/2 Japanese) rounded up in week after Pearl Harbor FDR issued Executive Order 9066 Feb. 19, ,000 (2/3 U.S. citizens) West coast, but not Hawaii War Relocation Authority ran internment camps Upheld by Supreme Court in Korematsu v. U.S. (1944) Nisei 442 nd Regiment one of the most highly decorated units in WW II

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